Reference Article

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Automobile emissions control

Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles.

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the motor vehicle emissions -- emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

Emissions of many air pollutants have been shown to have variety of negative effects on public health and the natural environment.

Emissions that are principal pollutants of concern include: Hydrocarbons -- A class of burned or partially burned fuel, hydrocarbons are toxins.

Hydrocarbons are a major contributor to smog, which can be a major problem in urban areas.

Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbons contributes to asthma, liver disease, lung disease, and cancer.

Regulations governing hydrocarbons vary according to type of engine and jurisdiction; in some cases, "non-methane hydrocarbons" are regulated, while in other cases, "total hydrocarbons" are regulated.

Technology for one application (to meet a non-methane hydrocarbon standard) may not be suitable for use in an application that has to meet a total hydrocarbon standard.

Methane is not directly toxic, but is more difficult to break down in a catalytic converter, so in effect a "non-methane hydrocarbon" regulation can be considered easier to meet.

Since methane is a greenhouse gas, interest is rising in how to eliminate emissions of it.

Carbon monoxide (CO) -- A product of incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen; overexposure (carbon monoxide poisoning) may be fatal.

Carbon Monoxide poisoning is a killer in high concentrations.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) -- Generated when nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen at the high temperature and pressure inside the engine.

NOx is a precursor to smog and acid rain.

NOx is a mixture of NO, N2O, and NO2.

NO2 is extremely reactive.

It destroys resistance to respiratory infection.

NOx production is increased when an engine runs at its most efficient (i.e. hottest) part of the cycle.

Particulate matter -- Soot or smoke made up of particles in the micrometre size range: Particulate matter causes negative health effects, including but not limited to respiratory disease and cancer.

Sulfur oxide (SOx) -- A general term for oxides of sulfur, which are emitted from motor vehicles burning fuel containing sulfur.

Reducing the level of fuel sulfur reduces the level of Sulfur oxide emitted from the tailpipe.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) -- Organic compounds which typically have a boiling point less than or equal to 250 °C; for example chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and formaldehyde.

Volatile organic compounds are a subsection of Hydrocarbons that are mentioned separately because of their dangers to public health.

Note: This article excerpts material from the Wikipedia article "Automobile emissions control", which is released under the GNU Free Documentation License.

See the following related content on ScienceDaily:


Related Videos

last updated on 2014-04-23 at 9:27 am EDT

Dinosaur Farts May Have Caused Global Warming

Dinosaur Farts May Have Caused Global Warming

Buzz60 (May 8, 2012) — Dinosaurs could have released enough methane gas to warm the prehistoric Earth, researchers in the United Kingdom say. According to scientists, the gassy emissions from Sauropods, which are large plant-eating dinosaurs, would have been equal to the greenhouse gases currently produced by natural and man-made sources. Patrick Jones has more on the study. 
Powered by NewsLook.com
Qatar: How Much Harm Will the Climate Change Conference Do to the Environment?

Qatar: How Much Harm Will the Climate Change Conference Do to the Environment?

Deutsche Welle (Nov. 26, 2012) — How can the world curb climate change? The first step is to cut carbon emissions by at least 25 percent. In order to make this target official, politicians and environmental activists are coming together for another UN Climate Change Conference - this time in Doha, Qatar. Getting them all there, however, will leave a serious carbon footprint.
Powered by NewsLook.com
Climate Talks: Little More Than Hot Air?

Climate Talks: Little More Than Hot Air?

Reuters (Nov. 26, 2012) — Despite mounting alarm about climate change, almost 200 nations meeting in Doha are likely to pay little more than lip service to the need to rein in rising greenhouse gas emissions.
Powered by NewsLook.com
Agriculture and Climate Change What Can Farmers Do to Protect the Environment?

Agriculture and Climate Change What Can Farmers Do to Protect the Environment?

Deutsche Welle (Sep. 24, 2012) — The impact of climate change on international food production has long been underestimated. New studies looking at the effects of extreme weather scenarios on global food prices in 2030 project that the consumer price of corn and other grains could increase by as much as 140 percent. Moreover, scant attention is paid to the fact that the agricultural industry itself contributes to climate change. Experts maintain that the sector could theoretically reduce its CO2 emissions by some 6 billion tonnes a year. But how?
Powered by NewsLook.com

Related Stories


Share This



Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins