An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the likely human environmental health impact, risk to ecological health, and changes to nature's services that a project may have.
The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision-makers consider environmental impacts before deciding whether to proceed with new projects.
The US Environmental Protection Agency pioneered the use of pathway analysis to determine the likely human health impact of environmental factors.
The technology for performing such analysis is properly labelled environmental science.
The principal phenomena or pathways of impact are: soil contamination impacts, air pollution impacts, noise health effects, ecology impacts including endangered species assessment, geological hazards assessment and water pollution impacts.