Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Evolutionary history of what mammals eat: Some groups of mammals have changed their feeding strategies over time

Date:
April 16, 2012
Source:
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)
Summary:
The feeding habits of mammals haven't always been what they are today, particularly for omnivores, finds a new study. Some groups of mammals almost exclusively eat meat -- take lions and tigers and other big cats. Other mammals such as deer, cows and antelope are predominantly plant-eaters, living on a diet of leaves, shoots and bark. But particularly for omnivores, the situation wasn't always that way, finds a new study.

This is an elk cow browsing. Elk are herbivores.
Credit: Photo by Win McLaughlin

The feeding habits of mammals haven't always been what they are today, particularly for omnivores, finds a new study. Some groups of mammals almost exclusively eat meat -- take lions and tigers and other big cats, for example. Other mammals such as deer, cows and antelope are predominantly plant-eaters, living on a diet of leaves, shoots, fruits and bark. But particularly for omnivores that live on plant foods in addition to meat, the situation wasn't always that way, finds a new study by researchers working at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center in Durham, North Carolina.

Past studies have shown that animals with similar diets tend to share certain characteristics. But this study is the first of its kind to look across all mammal groups, including omnivores, to reconstruct how mammal diets have changed over evolutionary time.

To do that, the researchers compiled previously published diet data for more than 1500 species representing more than one third of mammals alive today, including primates, ungulates, bats, rabbits and rodents.

By mapping that data onto the mammal family tree, the researchers were able to trace backwards in time and infer what the ancestors of each species most likely ate.

They found that while some groups of mammals maintained steady diets, others changed their feeding strategies over time.

Today's omnivores in particular -- a group that includes primates, bears, dogs and foxes -- came from ancestors that primarily ate plants, or animals, but not both, said co-author Samantha Price of the University of California Davis.

While omnivorous mammals weren't always that way, plant-eaters and meat-eaters have diversified within a more well-worn path. Radical shifts were unlikely for these animals. Mammals that eat meat for a living, for example, never gave up their taste for flesh without transitioning through an omnivorous stage first.

"Direct transitions from carnivory to herbivory were essentially nonexistent," said co-author Louise Roth of Duke University. "It's an intuitive result because it takes very different kinds of equipment to have those kinds of diets," she added.

"Plant- and animal-based foods require different digestive chemistries and different processing mechanisms in the mouth and stomach," explained co-author Samantha Hopkins of the University of Oregon. The kinds of teeth adapted for tearing and slicing meat, for example, are remarkably different from the large, flat-topped molars adapted for grinding nuts and roots.

"[Given these differences] it makes sense that you couldn't easily transition from one to the other in one step," Price added.

The researchers found that diet is also linked to how fast mammals spawn new species. As new species arise and others go extinct, on balance the plant-eaters proliferate faster than their meat-eating counterparts, with omnivores lagging behind both groups.

"If there was an evolutionary race to evolve 100 species, it would take three times longer for omnivores compared to herbivores, and carnivores would be in the middle," Price said.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Samantha A. Price, Samantha S. B. Hopkins, Kathleen K. Smith, and V. Louise Roth. Tempo of trophic evolution and its impact on mammalian diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 16, 2012 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1117133109

Cite This Page:

National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent). "Evolutionary history of what mammals eat: Some groups of mammals have changed their feeding strategies over time." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 April 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120416154417.htm>.
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent). (2012, April 16). Evolutionary history of what mammals eat: Some groups of mammals have changed their feeding strategies over time. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120416154417.htm
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent). "Evolutionary history of what mammals eat: Some groups of mammals have changed their feeding strategies over time." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120416154417.htm (accessed July 30, 2014).

Share This




More Fossils & Ruins News

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Rodents Rampant in Gardens Around Louvre

Rodents Rampant in Gardens Around Louvre

AP (July 29, 2014) Food scraps and other items left on the grounds by picnickers brings unwelcome visitors to the grounds of the world famous and popular Louvre Museum in Paris. (July 29) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
London's Famed 'Gherkin' Goes on Sale for 650 Mln

London's Famed 'Gherkin' Goes on Sale for 650 Mln

AFP (July 29, 2014) London's "Gherkin" office tower, one of the landmarks on the British capital's skyline, went on sale for about 650 million ($1.1 billion, 820 million euros) on Tuesday after being placed into receivership. Duration: 00:36 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Asteroid's Timing Was 'Colossal Bad Luck' For The Dinosaurs

Asteroid's Timing Was 'Colossal Bad Luck' For The Dinosaurs

Newsy (July 28, 2014) The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs struck at the worst time for them. A new study says that if it hit earlier or later, they might've survived. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Tourists Disappointed to Find Rome Attractions Under Restoration

Tourists Disappointed to Find Rome Attractions Under Restoration

AFP (July 26, 2014) Tourists visiting Italy at the peak of the summer season are disappointed to find some of Rome's most famous attractions being restored and offering limited access. Duration: 01:01 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins