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Learning a new language alters brain development

Date:
August 29, 2013
Source:
McGill University
Summary:
The age at which children learn a second language can have a significant bearing on the structure of their adult brain, according to a new study.

Dictionaries for several languages. The age at which children learn a second language can have a significant bearing on the structure of their adult brain.
Credit: alfrag / Fotolia

The age at which children learn a second language can have a significant bearing on the structure of their adult brain, according to a new joint study by the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital -- The Neuro at McGill University and Oxford University. The majority of people in the world learn to speak more than one language during their lifetime. Many do so with great proficiency particularly if the languages are learned simultaneously or from early in development.

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The study concludes that the pattern of brain development is similar if you learn one or two language from birth. However, learning a second language later on in childhood after gaining proficiency in the first (native) language does in fact modify the brain's structure, specifically the brain's inferior frontal cortex. The left inferior frontal cortex became thicker and the right inferior frontal cortex became thinner. The cortex is a multi-layered mass of neurons that plays a major role in cognitive functions such as thought, language, consciousness and memory.

The study suggests that the task of acquiring a second language after infancy stimulates new neural growth and connections among neurons in ways seen in acquiring complex motor skills such as juggling. The study's authors speculate that the difficulty that some people have in learning a second language later in life could be explained at the structural level.

"The later in childhood that the second language is acquired, the greater are the changes in the inferior frontal cortex," said Dr. Denise Klein, researcher in The Neuro's Cognitive Neuroscience Unit and a lead author on the paper published in the journal Brain and Language. "Our results provide structural evidence that age of acquisition is crucial in laying down the structure for language learning."

Using a software program developed at The Neuro, the study examined MRI scans of 66 bilingual and 22 monolingual men and women living in Montreal. The work was supported by a grant from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and from an Oxford McGill Neuroscience Collaboration Pilot project.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by McGill University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Denise Klein, Kelvin Mok, Jen-Kai Chen, Kate E. Watkins. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: A cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals. Brain and Language, 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2013.05.014

Cite This Page:

McGill University. "Learning a new language alters brain development." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 August 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130829124351.htm>.
McGill University. (2013, August 29). Learning a new language alters brain development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130829124351.htm
McGill University. "Learning a new language alters brain development." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130829124351.htm (accessed October 31, 2014).

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