Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Antidepressant drug induces a juvenile-like state in neurons of the prefrontal cortex

Date:
November 4, 2013
Source:
Fujita Health University, ICMS
Summary:
Fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed anti-depressive drug, induces a juvenile-like state in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Brain development and maturation has been thought to be a one-way process until now, in which plasticity diminishes with age. The possibility that the adult brain can revert to a younger state and regain plasticity has not generally been considered until now.

For long, brain development and maturation has been thought to be a one-way process, in which plasticity diminishes with age. The possibility that the adult brain can revert to a younger state and regain plasticity has not been considered often.

In a paper appearing on November 4 in the online open-access journal Molecular Brain, Dr. Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and his colleagues from Fujita Health University show that chronic administration of one of the most widely used antidepressants fluoxetine (FLX, which is also known by trade names like Prozac, Sarafem, and Fontex and is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) can induce a juvenile-like state in specific types of neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult mice.

In their study, FLX-treated adult mice showed reduced expression of parvalbumin and perineuronal nets, which are molecular markers for maturation and are expressed in a certain group of mature neurons in adults, and increased expression of an immature marker, which typically appears in developing juvenile brains, in the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest the possibility that certain types of adult neurons in the prefrontal cortex can partially regain a youth-like state; the authors termed this as induced-youth or iYouth. These researchers as well as other groups had previously reported similar effects of FLX in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala, and visual cortex, which were associated with increased neural plasticity in certain types of neurons. This study is the first to report on "iYouth" in the prefrontal cortex, which is the brain region critically involved in functions such as working memory, decision-making, personality expression, and social behavior, as well as in psychiatric disorders related to deficits in these functions.

Network dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Reversion to a youth-like state may mediate some of the therapeutic effects of FLX by restoring neural plasticity in these regions. On the other hand, some non-preferable aspects of FLX-induced pseudo-youth may play a role in certain behavioral effects associated with FLX treatment, such as aggression, violence, and psychosis, which have recently received attention as adverse effects of FLX.

Interestingly, expression of the same molecular markers of maturation, as discussed in this study, has been reported to be decreased in the prefrontal cortex of postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. This raises the possibility that some of FLX's adverse effects may be attributable to iYouth in the same type of neurons in this region.

Currently, basic knowledge on this is lacking, and there are several unanswered questions like: What are the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying iYouth? What are the differences between actual youth and iYouth? Is iYouth good or bad? Future studies to answer these questions could potentially revolutionize the prevention and/or treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders and aid in improving the quality of life for an aging population.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Fujita Health University, ICMS. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Koji Ohira, Rika Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Iwanaga, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa. Chronic fluoxetine treatment reduces parvalbumin expression and perineuronal nets in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons of the frontal cortex in adult mice. Molecular Brain, 2013; 6 (1): 43 DOI: 10.1186/1756-6606-6-43

Cite This Page:

Fujita Health University, ICMS. "Antidepressant drug induces a juvenile-like state in neurons of the prefrontal cortex." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 November 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131104112633.htm>.
Fujita Health University, ICMS. (2013, November 4). Antidepressant drug induces a juvenile-like state in neurons of the prefrontal cortex. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131104112633.htm
Fujita Health University, ICMS. "Antidepressant drug induces a juvenile-like state in neurons of the prefrontal cortex." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131104112633.htm (accessed April 23, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Big Pharma Braces for M&A Wave

Big Pharma Braces for M&A Wave

Reuters - Business Video Online (Apr. 22, 2014) Big pharma on the move as Novartis boss, Joe Jimenez, tells Reuters about plans to transform his company via an asset exchange with GSK, and Astra Zeneca shares surge on speculation that Pfizer is looking for a takeover. Joanna Partridge reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Study Says Most Crime Not Linked To Mental Illness

Study Says Most Crime Not Linked To Mental Illness

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) A new study finds most crimes committed by people with mental illness are not caused by symptoms of their illness or disorder. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Hagel Gets Preview of New High-Tech Projects

Hagel Gets Preview of New High-Tech Projects

AP (Apr. 22, 2014) Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel is given hands-on demonstrations Tuesday of some of the newest research from DARPA _ the military's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program. (April 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Smaller Plates And Cutlery Could Make You Feel Fuller

How Smaller Plates And Cutlery Could Make You Feel Fuller

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) NBC's "Today" conducted an experiment to see if changing the size of plates and utensils affects the amount individuals eat. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins