Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Ways of the photoelectric effect; How physicists have learned how to select them

Date:
December 19, 2013
Source:
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Summary:
Scientists have managed, for the first time in the history of photoelectric studies, to eliminate one serious obstacle that hampered these investigations for many years -- namely, the nuclear magnetic moment.

In contrast to its apparent simplicity (that brought Einstein his Nobel Prize), the photoelectric effect, when an electron is knocked out from its parent atom by a photon, is quite complicated to analyze in general, especially when the atom contains a large number of electrons. Like the many-body problem in classical mechanics, the quantum many-body problem is very difficult to conceptualize and remains a serious challenge for theory. Hence, the principal role in this field is played by experiment. The latter, however, faces its own difficulties when it comes to unraveling data associated with the atomic photoeffect itself from a variety of other effects due to essentially irrelevant phenomena.

Related Articles


Not the least among the latter phenomenon is related to the spin (and thus the magnetic moment) of the atomic nucleus. It may be thought of as the quantum generalization of the angular momentum in classical mechanics, which is calculated as the product of the linear momentum (mass times velocity) of a particle and its position vector relative to the axis of rotation. Each proton and each neutron in the nucleus possess their own magnetic moment. While these moments tend to largely compensate each other, the resultant moment does not always have to vanish. Any residual moment, even though relatively small and hence its interaction with the electronic shell is labeled as "hyperfine," may dramatically influence the process of the photoelectron emission. A non-zero nuclear spin spoils the picture, in particular when the atom is excited, which is the reason for this case being of such strong interest for physicists.

A collaboration of seven physicists from Italy, France, Germany, and Russia chose to perform their study on xenon -- the element previously used to resolve mysterious features in the atomic photoeffect. Being a noble gas, xenon is very convenient for such studies: it does not form chemical bonds and does not contaminate the apparatus with its compounds. Even more important in the choice was that, among all the noble gases, only xenon has stable isotopes with both zero and non-zero nuclear magnetic moments. Furthermore, xenon is an interesting atom on his own rights, due to the large number of electrons and the associated complicated dynamics of its electron shells.

The experimental design suggested isotope separation with the help of a mass-spectrometer. Subsequently, each of the isotopes was excited with synchrotron radiation and simultaneously irradiated with a wavelength-tunable laser beam. All ejected electrons were counted and sorted by energy and scattering angle.

All this is easy to say, but reality is much more complicated. The first targets excited by synchrotron radiation were obtained in the late 1990s, but the principal difficulty was to combine two radiation beams, laser and synchrotron. Moscow theorist A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, one of the collaborators, says that only a few people in the world are currently capable to solve this problem. One of them -- Michael Meyer from the European XFEL GmbH based in Hamburg (Germany) -- contributed to the experiment described above. The actual experiment was carried out using a unique beamline with variable polarization, maintained by the group of Laurent Nahon at the French synchrotron SOLEIL.

The role of the two theorists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics,, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo and E. V. Gryzlova (the winner of the UNESCO 2012 L'Oreal award for "Women in Science"), was like the song goes: "paint on... later on, I will explain it all" (a reference to "The Painting Artists" by B. Okudzhava).

The task was to provide a theoretical interpretation for the photoeffect on the excited xenon atom, isolated from the influence of the nuclear magnetic moment. Nobody expected a quiet and peaceful life within the collective of 54 electrons, but the gradual improvement of the existing theoretical models finally led to success in describing the pure atomic photoelectric effect. This work, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo says, is paving the way for a large class of studies with artificially disabled nuclear magnetic moments and for complicated atomic processes with isotope selection that we could previously not even think about.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Lomonosov Moscow State University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. P. O’Keeffe, E. Gryzlova, D. Cubaynes, G. Garcia, L. Nahon, A. Grum-Grzhimailo, M. Meyer. Isotopically Resolved Photoelectron Imaging Unravels Complex Atomic Autoionization Dynamics by Two-Color Resonant Ionization. Physical Review Letters, 2013; 111 (24) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.243002

Cite This Page:

Lomonosov Moscow State University. "Ways of the photoelectric effect; How physicists have learned how to select them." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 December 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131219131229.htm>.
Lomonosov Moscow State University. (2013, December 19). Ways of the photoelectric effect; How physicists have learned how to select them. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131219131229.htm
Lomonosov Moscow State University. "Ways of the photoelectric effect; How physicists have learned how to select them." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131219131229.htm (accessed October 25, 2014).

Share This



More Matter & Energy News

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

Buzz60 (Oct. 24, 2014) IKEA is out with a new convertible desk that can convert from a sitting desk to a standing one with just the push of a button. Jen Markham explains. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

AFP (Oct. 24, 2014) A factory in China is busy making Ebola protective suits for healthcare workers and others fighting the spread of the virus. Duration: 00:38 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Real-Life Transformer Robot Walks, Then Folds Into a Car

Real-Life Transformer Robot Walks, Then Folds Into a Car

Buzz60 (Oct. 24, 2014) Brave Robotics and Asratec teamed with original Transformers toy company Tomy to create a functional 5-foot-tall humanoid robot that can march and fold itself into a 3-foot-long sports car. Jen Markham has the story. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Police Testing New Gunfire Tracking Technology

Police Testing New Gunfire Tracking Technology

AP (Oct. 24, 2014) A California-based startup has designed new law enforcement technology that aims to automatically alert dispatch when an officer's gun is unholstered and fired. Two law enforcement agencies are currently testing the technology. (Oct. 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Space & Time

Matter & Energy

Computers & Math

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins