Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Improving the reliability of ice friction assessment

Date:
April 2, 2014
Source:
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)
Summary:
Sliding speed and ice temperature affect the surface friction of ice more than had previously been thought. A new thermodynamic model shows that under certain conditions ice warms and melts when an item of material slides across its surface. The ice then becomes more slippery. Conversely, the friction coefficient can rise a hundredfold when sliding speed reduces and the temperature drops.

Sliding speed and ice temperature affect the surface friction of ice more than had previously been thought. The thermodynamic model developed by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland research scientists shows that under certain conditions ice warms and melts when an item of material slides across its surface. The ice then becomes more slippery. Conversely, the friction coefficient can rise a hundredfold when sliding speed reduces and the temperature drops. Among other potential uses, the model can be employed in developing road and runway maintenance, and tyres, footwear or winter sports equipment.

Ice friction was modelled by VTT's Principal Scientist Lasse Makkonen and Research Scientist Maria Tikanmäki. They have discovered that earlier theories concerning ice friction have led in part to erroneous interpretation. Makkonen says that one of the key observations in VTT's research is that of friction melting the ice when the temperature rises to form a water film between the ice and the sliding material. They discovered that the film has multiple contact points, whereas previously it was assumed to cover the surface evenly.

"Now we can make a proper calculation of the friction coefficients," says Makkonen. "We have been able to confirm the functionality of the model through measurements. At the same time our research shows that many earlier laboratory measurements are useless for theoretical interpretation and fail to represent what is happening in practice."

Ice friction has been a subject of investigation for close to 150 years. The early explorers charting the Polar Regions were among the first to notice how extreme cold made their journey akin to dragging their sleds across sand rather than gliding over ice. Makkonen says VTT's new thermodynamic model offers a method for determining friction between ice and practically any kind of material, under any conditions. Uses for the model include applications connected with the maintenance of roads, runways and pedestrian routes, or in developing tyres, footwear and winter sports equipment.

"A novel aspect is the modelling of the reciprocal contact between blocks of ice, which promises benefits in icebreaker development, among others. We are now also able to model ice topped by melt water or rain water."

The research conducted by Lasse Makkonen and Maria Tikanmäki was recently published in the Cold Regions Science and Technology journal. The research was funded by the Academy of Finland.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Lasse Makkonen, Maria Tikanmäki. Modeling the friction of ice. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2014; 102: 84 DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2014.03.002

Cite This Page:

Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). "Improving the reliability of ice friction assessment." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 April 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140402095448.htm>.
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (2014, April 2). Improving the reliability of ice friction assessment. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140402095448.htm
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). "Improving the reliability of ice friction assessment." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140402095448.htm (accessed August 21, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Flower Power! Dandelions Make Car Tires?

Flower Power! Dandelions Make Car Tires?

Reuters - Business Video Online (Aug. 20, 2014) — Forget rolling on rubber, could car drivers soon be traveling on tires made from dandelions? Teams of scientists are racing to breed a type of the yellow flower whose taproot has a milky fluid with tire-grade rubber particles in it. As Joanna Partridge reports, global tire makers are investing millions in research into a new tire source. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Newsy (Aug. 19, 2014) — Scientists have developed a new device that mimics the way octopuses blend in with their surroundings to hide from dangerous predators. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Researcher Testing on-Field Concussion Scanners

Researcher Testing on-Field Concussion Scanners

AP (Aug. 19, 2014) — Four Texas high school football programs are trying out an experimental system designed to diagnose concussions on the field. The technology is in response to growing concern over head trauma in America's most watched sport. (Aug. 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Green Power Blooms as Japan Unveils 'hydrangea Solar Cell'

Green Power Blooms as Japan Unveils 'hydrangea Solar Cell'

AFP (Aug. 19, 2014) — A solar cell that resembles a flower is offering a new take on green energy in Japan, where one scientist is searching for renewables that look good. Duration: 01:29 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins