Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Unique greenhouse gas meter developed

Date:
June 17, 2014
Source:
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Summary:
Scientists have come up with a high-resolution meter to gauge the concentration of gases in the atmosphere with unparalleled precision. Tracking down carbon dioxide, methane and other gases with simultaneous determination of their concentrations at different altitudes is necessary, in particular, for research into global warming.

Scientists have come up with a high-resolution meter to gauge the concentration of gases in the atmosphere with unparalleled precision.
Credit: Image courtesy of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

MIPT's Laboratory for the Spectroscopy of Planetary Atmospheres has come up with a high-resolution meter to gauge the concentration of gases in the atmosphere with unparalleled precision. The infrared spectrum radiometer is described in an article recently published in the journal Optics Express.

The paper, authored by Alexander Rodin, Artem Klimchuk, Alexander Nadezhdinsky, Dmitry Churbanov and Maxim Spiridonov, says that the new spectrum radiometer is 100 times more precise than the best available near-infrared spectrometers, and 10 times more accurate than a meter created on a similar principle recently described by NASA's Goddard Center.

Tracking down carbon dioxide, methane and other gases with simultaneous determination of their concentrations at different altitudes is necessary, in particular, for research into global warming. The vast majority of scientists do not doubt the correlation between growing temperatures on the planet and the greenhouse effect, but so far it has been impossible to positively predict future changes in global warming. A current lack of data on the distribution of greenhouse gases also compromises the forecasting and, consequently, the development of appropriate response measures. This is because in order to create a dense network of monitoring stations, many large, sophisticated and expensive spectrometers are needed.

The meter created by the Russian scientists is distinctive not only for its very high resolution, but also for its easy maintenance. The authors of the paper stress that their meter is far less susceptible to external disturbances compared with existing analogues. Its performance depends to a lesser extent on vibration, humidity and exposure to both low and high temperatures.

Alexander Rodin explained that the meter uses the heterodyne principle, known for over 100 years. The essence of the method could be best described as follows: a received signal is added to a reference signal to form an intermediate frequency signal. Generally, it does not matter whether it's a radio wave or sunlight passing through the atmosphere, as is the case in the new meter.

The converted signal is much easier to process, namely to amplify and to filter. Moreover, when the frequency of the reference signal is sufficiently stable, extremely high sensitivity can be achieved. The only problem is that a signal of very high frequency, whether it is infrared or optical, is not so easy to add to the reference source -- it must be very stable and at the same time emit radiation of high intensity.

The first heterodyne radios, operating at megahertz frequencies, were created in the early 20th century, becoming mass-produced toward the end of the Second World War; while in the terahertz sphere heterodyne devices appeared only recently. For near-infrared radiation, whose frequency is a few hundred times greater, the task of combining the signals appeared to be compounded by a number of technical difficulties.

Calculations showed that a more "touchy" device is needed for a heterodyne signal in the near infrared radiation spectrum. Even a shift of a few hundredths of a wavelength (i.e. a couple of dozen nanometers) could be critical, but eventually the researchers from MIPT and their colleagues from the Moscow-based General Physics Institute managed to create a heterodyne near-infrared detector, in which a key role was played by laser stabilization.

They used an optical system that directs a laser beam to two different points, one of them a special module for mixing it with sunlight passed through the atmosphere (i.e. the analyzed signal) and the other a cell with a pure sample of the gas to be identified. Since the gas absorbs electromagnetic waves at a specific frequency, the brightness of the radiation going through the cell indicates how far the laser has deviated from the reference frequency. And this, in turn, makes it possible to adjust the frequency of the optical oscillator, i.e. laser (the word laser is an acronym of "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation").

New spectrum radiometers may be used at both stationary and mobile stations monitoring the atmosphere, according to the official site of the IVOLGA project, which is another abbreviation translated from Russian as "infrared heterodyne fiber analyzer."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alexander Rodin, Artem Klimchuk, Alexander Nadezhdinskiy, Dmitry Churbanov, Maxim Spiridonov. High resolution heterodyne spectroscopy of the atmospheric methane NIR absorption. Optics Express, 2014; 22 (11): 13825 DOI: 10.1364/OE.22.013825

Cite This Page:

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. "Unique greenhouse gas meter developed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140617112014.htm>.
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. (2014, June 17). Unique greenhouse gas meter developed. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140617112014.htm
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. "Unique greenhouse gas meter developed." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140617112014.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

Share This



More Matter & Energy News

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Graphene Paint Offers Rust-Free Future

Graphene Paint Offers Rust-Free Future

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 21, 2014) British scientists have developed a prototype graphene paint that can make coatings which are resistant to liquids, gases, and chemicals. The team says the paint could have a variety of uses, from stopping ships rusting to keeping food fresher for longer. Jim Drury reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Gulfstream G500, G600 Unveiling

Gulfstream G500, G600 Unveiling

Flying (Oct. 20, 2014) Watch Gulfstream's public launch of the G500 and G600 at their headquarters in Savannah, Ga., along with a surprise unveiling of the G500, which taxied up under its own power. Video provided by Flying
Powered by NewsLook.com
Japanese Scientists Unveil Floating 3D Projection

Japanese Scientists Unveil Floating 3D Projection

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 20, 2014) Scientists in Tokyo have demonstrated what they say is the world's first 3D projection that floats in mid air. A laser that fires a pulse up to a thousand times a second superheats molecules in the air, creating a spark which can be guided to certain points in the air to shape what the human eye perceives as an image. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-Fuel Impala

Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-Fuel Impala

3BL Media (Oct. 20, 2014) Hey, Doc! Sewage, Beer and Food Scraps Can Power Chevrolet’s Bi-fuel Impala Video provided by 3BL
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Space & Time

Matter & Energy

Computers & Math

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins