Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Mapping infant brain growth in first three months of life using MRI technology

Date:
August 11, 2014
Source:
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences
Summary:
A new approach to measuring early brain development of infants has been developed by scientists, resulting in more accurate whole brain growth charts and providing the first estimates for growth trajectories of subcortical areas during the first three months after birth. For the first time, researchers used MRI of the newborn brain to calculate the volume of multiple brain regions and to map out regional growth trajectories during the infant's first 90 days of life.

A recent study conducted by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the University of Hawaii demonstrates a new approach to measuring early brain development of infants, resulting in more accurate whole brain growth charts and providing the first estimates for growth trajectories of subcortical areas during the first three months after birth. Assessing the size, asymmetry and rate of growth of different brain regions could be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or perinatal brain injury.

Related Articles


The study will be published in JAMA Neurology on August 11.

For the first time, researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the newborn brain to calculate the volume of multiple brain regions and to map out regional growth trajectories during the infant's first 90 days of life. The study followed the brain growth of full term and premature babies with no neurological or major health issues.

"A better understanding of when and how neurodevelopmental disorders arise in the postnatal period may help assist in therapeutic development, while being able to quantify related changes in structure size would likely facilitate monitoring response to therapeutic intervention. Early intervention during a period of high neuroplasticity could mitigate the severity of the disorders in later years," said Dominic Holland, PhD, first author of the study and researcher in the Department of Neurosciences at UC San Diego School of Medicine.

For more than two centuries, clinicians have tracked brain growth by measuring the outside of the infant's head with a measuring tape. The results are then plotted on a percentile chart to indicate if normal growth patterns exist. While the measurement is helpful for observing growth, it does not reveal if the individual structures within the brain are developing normally.

On average, researchers found the newborn brain grows one percent each day immediately following birth but slows to 0.4 percent per day by three months. In general for both sexes, the cerebellum, which is involved in motor control, grew at the highest rate, more than doubling volume in 90 days. The hippocampus grew at the slowest rate, increasing in volume by only 47 percent in 90 days, suggesting that the development of episodic memory is not as important at this stage of life.

"We found that being born a week premature, for example, resulted in a brain four to five percent smaller than expected for a full term baby. The brains of premature babies actually grow faster than those of term-born babies, but that's because they're effectively younger -- and younger means faster growth," said Holland. "At 90 days post-delivery, however, premature brains were still two percent smaller. The brain's rapid growth rates near birth suggest that inducing early labor, if not clinically warranted, may have a negative effect on the infant's neurodevelopment."

The study also found that many asymmetries in the brain are already established in the early postnatal period, including the right hippocampus being larger than the left, which historically, has been suggested to occur in the early adolescent years. Cerebral asymmetry is associated with functions such as dexterity and language abilities.

Next steps involve continuing to make advances in the application of different MRI modalities to examine the newborn brain. MRI provides high quality images of different types of tissue and does not involve radiation, like computed tomography (CT). Future research will investigate how brain structure sizes at birth and subsequent growth rates are altered as a result of alcohol and drug consumption during pregnancy.

"Our findings give us a deeper understanding of the relationship between brain structure and function when both are developing rapidly during the most dynamic postnatal growth phase for the human brain," said Holland.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Dominic Holland, Linda Chang, Thomas M. Ernst, Megan Curran, Steven D. Buchthal, Daniel Alicata, Jon Skranes, Heather Johansen, Antonette Hernandez, Robyn Yamakawa, Joshua M. Kuperman, Anders M. Dale. Structural Growth Trajectories and Rates of Change in the First 3 Months of Infant Brain Development. JAMA Neurology, 2014; DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1638

Cite This Page:

University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. "Mapping infant brain growth in first three months of life using MRI technology." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 August 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140811165817.htm>.
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. (2014, August 11). Mapping infant brain growth in first three months of life using MRI technology. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140811165817.htm
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. "Mapping infant brain growth in first three months of life using MRI technology." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140811165817.htm (accessed December 21, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Mind & Brain News

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) In Yarumal, a village in N. Colombia, Alzheimer's has ravaged a disproportionately large number of families. A genetic "curse" that may pave the way for research on how to treat the disease that claims a new victim every four seconds. Duration: 02:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Double-Amputee Becomes First To Move Two Prosthetic Arms With His Mind

Double-Amputee Becomes First To Move Two Prosthetic Arms With His Mind

Buzz60 (Dec. 19, 2014) A double-amputee makes history by becoming the first person to wear and operate two prosthetic arms using only his mind. Jen Markham has the story. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Prenatal Exposure To Pollution Might Increase Autism Risk

Prenatal Exposure To Pollution Might Increase Autism Risk

Newsy (Dec. 18, 2014) Harvard researchers found children whose mothers were exposed to high pollution levels in the third trimester were twice as likely to develop autism. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Yoga Could Be As Beneficial For The Heart As Walking, Biking

Yoga Could Be As Beneficial For The Heart As Walking, Biking

Newsy (Dec. 17, 2014) Yoga can help your weight, blood pressure, cholesterol and heart just as much as biking and walking does, a new study suggests. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins