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Anxiety is a stronger harbinger of alcohol problems than stress

Date:
March 10, 2017
Source:
Research Society on Alcoholism
Summary:
Stress and anxiety are widely believed to contribute to drinking. Alcohol is thought to reduce tension caused by stress (the "flight or fight" response) as well as alleviate the unpleasant symptoms of anxiety (anticipation of the unpredictable, impending threats). Prior research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings as to the unique relations between stress and anxiety, on the one hand, and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders, on the other hand. This study was designed to examine how differences in self-reported levels of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived stress impact the frequency and intensity of drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, and alcohol craving and stress reactivity.
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Stress and anxiety are widely believed to contribute to drinking. Alcohol is thought to reduce tension caused by stress (the "flight or fight" response) as well as alleviate the unpleasant symptoms of anxiety (anticipation of the unpredictable, impending threats). Prior research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings as to the unique relations between stress and anxiety, on the one hand, and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders, on the other hand. This study was designed to examine how differences in self-reported levels of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived stress impact the frequency and intensity of drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, and alcohol craving and stress reactivity.

Recent drinking was assessed in 87 individuals (70 men, 17 women) with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Three distinct measures were used to evaluate anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived stress. A subset of 30 subjects was admitted to a medical center to ensure alcohol abstinence for one week: measures of alcohol craving were collected twice daily. On day 4, subjects participated in a public speaking/math challenge, before and after which measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected.

In these heavy drinkers, measures of anxiety as compared with perceived stress were more strongly associated with a variety of alcohol-related measures. While alcohol studies often use the terms anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress interchangeably, this study showed the importance of differentiating among the three terms given their unique relationships with drinking, craving, and stress reactivity among individuals with AUDs.


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Journal Reference:

  1. Mary E. McCaul, Heidi E. Hutton, Mary Ann C. Stephens, Xiaoqiang Xu, Gary S. Wand. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2017; DOI: 10.1111/acer.13350

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Research Society on Alcoholism. "Anxiety is a stronger harbinger of alcohol problems than stress." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170310092337.htm>.
Research Society on Alcoholism. (2017, March 10). Anxiety is a stronger harbinger of alcohol problems than stress. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 25, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170310092337.htm
Research Society on Alcoholism. "Anxiety is a stronger harbinger of alcohol problems than stress." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170310092337.htm (accessed March 25, 2017).