Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Supersonic Transports Could Be Powered By Coal

Date:
April 12, 2000
Source:
American Chemical Society
Summary:
To allow jet planes to fly faster safely, scientists are looking to coal, rather than petroleum, as a source of fuel. Coal-derived fuel is less likely to form engine-clogging coke deposits in jet engines at higher speeds and temperatures, according to research being done at Pennsylvania State University.

Coal-Derived Jet Fuels Less Likely to Form Engine Deposits at High Speeds

SAN FRANCISCO, March 29 — To allow jet planes to fly faster safely, scientists are looking to coal, rather than petroleum, as a source of fuel. Coal-derived fuel is less likely to form engine-clogging coke deposits in jet engines at higher speeds and temperatures, according to research being done at Pennsylvania State University.

The research, which is funded by the United States Air Force, was reported here today at the 219th national meeting of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society. The weeklong meeting is expected to attract about 20,000 scientists from around the world.

Fuel now used in commercial jet aircraft comes from petroleum and is typically exposed to operating temperatures below 600 F (300 C). As speeds increase, temperatures are expected to reach up to 900 F (482 C) and higher, says John Andrésen, Ph.D., of the Energy Institute at Penn State, where the research is being done.

“Jet fuels presently used have been shown to form solid deposits that can plug the fuel system and ultimately lead to catastrophic malfunction of the jet aircraft,” says Andrésen. Coal-derived liquid jet fuels can withstand temperatures up to about 500 C for several minutes, he adds.

The reason for the superior performance of the coal-derived fuel is its ring-shaped hydrocarbon (alkane) makeup. Coal is rich in cycloalkanes, which are more thermally stable than the straight-line linear alkanes found in petroleum. Linear alkanes “are highly susceptible to thermal degradation at temperatures above 400 C, resulting in solid particle formation (coke),” says Andrésen.

Underway since 1991, the research project so far has been confined to laboratory measurement and analysis of how petroleum-derived and coal-derived jet fuels behave at different temperatures. The next step is laboratory testing of the fuels in actual engines. This phase is expected to take about five years, Andrésen estimates.

Although jet speed can be increased using current petroleum-derived fuels, how long you safely operate at higher speeds is the crux of the matter, Andrésen points out. Using coal-derived jet fuels, “you can operate at a high max speed for a longer time without running into any problems with solid particle formation,” he says.

Speed isn’t the only benefit of using coal as the source for jet fuels. Coal is much more plentiful in the United States than oil, which could reduce reliance on imports. Bituminous coal, the most abundant type of coal in the United States, is being used in the research project.

While more processing is needed to produce jet fuel from coal than from petroleum, it is still economically viable and competitive, Andrésen believes.

The investigation into coal-derived jet fuels is part of a large Penn State research project on jet fuels being conducted at the school’s Energy Institute under the direction of Harold Schobert, Ph.D. Co-authors of the research report on jet fuel from coal are Chunshan Song, Ph.D., and undergraduate student James Strohm.

Dr. Andrésen is Associate Director and Research Associate, Applied Catalysis in Energy Laboratory, The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

Dr. Chunshan Song is Associate Professor, Energy & Geo-Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

James Strohm is an undergraduate student studying science and engineering at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

Dr. Harold Schobert is Professor and Director of The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Chemical Society. "Supersonic Transports Could Be Powered By Coal." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 April 2000. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000410084650.htm>.
American Chemical Society. (2000, April 12). Supersonic Transports Could Be Powered By Coal. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000410084650.htm
American Chemical Society. "Supersonic Transports Could Be Powered By Coal." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000410084650.htm (accessed July 25, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Friday, July 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

AP (July 24, 2014) — TSA administrator, John Pistole's took part in the Aspen Security Forum 2014, where he answered questions on lifting of the ban on flights into Israel's Tel Aviv airport and whether politics played a role in lifting the ban. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Creative Makeovers for Ugly Cellphone Towers

Creative Makeovers for Ugly Cellphone Towers

AP (July 24, 2014) — Mobile phone companies and communities across the country are going to new lengths to disguise those unsightly cellphone towers. From a church bell tower to a flagpole, even a pencil, some towers are trying to make a point. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Algonquin Power Goes Activist on Its Target Gas Natural

Algonquin Power Goes Activist on Its Target Gas Natural

TheStreet (July 23, 2014) — When The Deal's Amanda Levin exclusively reported that Gas Natural had been talking to potential suitors, the Ohio company responded with a flat denial, claiming its board had not talked to anyone about a possible sale. Lo and behold, Canadian utility Algonquin Power and Utilities not only had approached the company, but it did it three times. Its last offer was for $13 per share as Gas Natural's was trading at a 60-day moving average of about $12.50 per share. Now Algonquin, which has a 4.9% stake in Gas Natural, has taken its case to shareholders, calling on them to back its proposals or, possibly, a change in the target's board. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com
Robot Parking Valet Creates Stress-Free Travel

Robot Parking Valet Creates Stress-Free Travel

AP (July 23, 2014) — 'Ray' the robotic parking valet at Dusseldorf Airport in Germany lets travelers to avoid the hassle of finding a parking spot before heading to the check-in desk. (July 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:  

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile iPhone Android Web
          Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins