Today's Science News

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

NASA Goddard Instrument Makes First Detection of Organic Matter on Mars

Dec. 16, 2014 — Scientists have made the first definitive detection of organic molecules at Mars. The surface of Mars is currently inhospitable to life as we know it, but there is evidence that the Red Planet once ... full story

When You Lose Weight, Where Does the Fat Go? Most of the Mass Is Breathed out as Carbon Dioxide, Study Shows

Dec. 16, 2014 — Despite a worldwide obsession with diets and fitness regimes, many health professionals cannot correctly answer the question of where body fat goes when people lose weight, a new study shows. The ... full story

Biologist Reveals How Whales May 'Sing' for Their Supper

Dec. 16, 2014 — Humpback whales have a trick or two, when it comes to finding a quick snack at the bottom of the ocean. Even in the dark. Biologists have been studying these unique feeding behaviors. Her research ... full story

NASA Voyager: 'Tsunami Wave' Still Flies Through Interstellar Space

Dec. 15, 2014 — The Voyager 1 spacecraft has experienced three shock waves. The most recent shock wave, first observed in February 2014, still appears to be going on. One wave, previously reported, helped ... full story

Reshaping the Horse Through Millennia: Sequencing Reveals Genes Selected by Humans in Domestication

Dec. 15, 2014 — Whole genome sequencing of modern and ancient horses unveils the genes that have been selected by humans in the process of domestication through the last 5,500 years, but also reveals the cost of ... full story

Unraveling the Light of Fireflies

Dec. 17, 2014 — How do fireflies produce those mesmerizing light flashes? Using cutting-edge imaging techniques, scientists have unraveled the firefly's intricate light-producing system for the first ... full story

Abundance of Microplastics in the World's Deep Seas

Dec. 16, 2014 — Around four billion minute fibers could be littering each square kilometer of some of the world's deep seas, according to a new ... full story

Thumbs-Up for Mind-Controlled Robotic Arm

Dec. 16, 2014 — A paralyzed woman who controlled a robotic arm using just her thoughts has taken another step towards restoring her natural movements by controlling the arm with a range of complex hand ... full story

Big-Data Analysis Reveals Gene Sharing in Mice

Dec. 16, 2014 — Scientists have detected at least three potential hybridization events that likely shaped the evolutionary paths of 'old world' mice, two in recent times and one in the ancient past. The ... full story

NASA Data Underscore Severity of California Drought

Dec. 16, 2014 — It will take about 11 trillion gallons of water (42 cubic kilometers) -- around 1.5 times the maximum volume of the largest U.S. reservoir -- to recover from California's continuing drought, ... full story

MESSENGER Data Suggest Recurring Meteor Shower on Mercury

Dec. 16, 2014 — The closest planet to the sun appears to get hit by a periodic meteor shower, possibly associated with a comet that produces multiple events annually on Earth. The clues pointing to Mercury's ... full story

DNA Sheds Light on Why Largest Lemurs Disappeared: Giant Lemurs' Demise Linked to Size, Low Numbers

Dec. 16, 2014 — DNA from giant lemurs that lived thousands of years ago in Madagascar may help explain why the animals went extinct, and what makes some lemurs more at risk today. Scientists have little doubt that ... full story

How Brain Can Distinguish Good from Bad Smells

Dec. 16, 2014 — In fruit flies, the quality and intensity of odors can be mapped in the so-called lateral horn, scientists have found. They have created a spatial map of this part of the olfactory processing system ... full story

Feeling Younger Than Actual Age Meant Lower Early Death Rate for Older People, Study Finds

Dec. 15, 2014 — Turns out, feeling younger than your actual age might be good for you. Older people who felt three or more years younger than their chronological age had a lower death rate compared with those who ... full story

A Lot or a Little? Wolves Discriminate Quantities Better Than Dogs

Dec. 16, 2014 — Being able to mentally consider quantities makes sense for any social species. Scientists studied how well dogs can discriminate between different quantities and discovered that wolves perform better ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Rover Finds More Clues About Possible Life On Mars

Rover Finds More Clues About Possible Life On Mars

Newsy (Dec. 17, 2014) — NASA's Curiosity rover detected methane on Mars and organic compounds on the surface, but it doesn't quite prove there was life ... yet. Video provided by Newsy
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Evidence of Life on Mars? NASA Rover Finds Methane, Organic Chemicals

Evidence of Life on Mars? NASA Rover Finds Methane, Organic Chemicals

Reuters - US Online Video (Dec. 16, 2014) — NASA's Mars Curiosity rover finds methane in the Martian atmosphere and organic chemicals in the planet's soil, the latest hint that Mars was once suitable for microbial life. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Scientists Discover Oldest Horned Dinosaur Of North America

Scientists Discover Oldest Horned Dinosaur Of North America

Newsy (Dec. 11, 2014) — Scientists in southern Montana have found a fossil of one of the oldest ancestors of the famous triceratops, and it would've fit in your lap. Video provided by Newsy
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Drug Resistant Bugs Could Lead To 10M Deaths By 2050

Drug Resistant Bugs Could Lead To 10M Deaths By 2050

Newsy (Dec. 11, 2014) — The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance says overprescription is factoring into some bugs being resistant to drugs. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-12-17 at 9:23 pm EST

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Life Expectancy Increases Globally as Death Toll Falls from Major Diseases

Dec. 17, 2014 — People are living much longer worldwide than they were two decades ago, as death rates from infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease have fallen, according to a new, first-ever journal ... full story

49 Percent of Patients Withhold Clinically Sensitive Information

Dec. 17, 2014 — In the first real-world trial of the impact of patient-controlled access to electronic medical records, almost half of the patients who participated withheld clinically sensitive information in their ... full story

Lens-Free Microscope Can Detect Cancer at Cellular Level

Dec. 17, 2014 — A lens-free microscope that can be used to detect the presence of cancer or other cell-level abnormalities with the same accuracy as larger and more expensive optical microscopes, has been developed ... full story

Multiple Allergic Reactions Traced to Single Protein

Dec. 17, 2014 — A single protein has been identified as the root of painful and dangerous allergic reactions to a range of medications and other substances. If a new drug can be found that targets the problematic ... full story

Scientists Open New Frontier of Vast Chemical 'Space': As Proof-of-Principle, the Team Makes Dozens of New Chemical Entities

Dec. 17, 2014 — Chemists have invented a powerful method for joining complex organic molecules that is extraordinarily robust and can be used to make pharmaceuticals, fabrics, dyes, plastics and other materials ... full story

Rx Drugs, 'Bath Salts,' Fake Pot and Laundry Pods Lead Millions to Call Poison Centers

Dec. 17, 2014 — National Poison Control Center data from 2012 show that poisonings from prescription drugs are the leading cause of injury death in the United States, and that poisonings from 'bath salts,' synthetic ... full story

How Breast Cancer Cells Break Free to Spread in Body

Dec. 17, 2014 — More than 90 percent of cancer-related deaths are caused by the spread of cancer cells from their primary tumor site to other areas of the body. A new study has identified how one important gene ... full story

Unpacking Brain Damage in ALS

Dec. 17, 2014 — Researchers gain new insight into how motor neurons in the brain die during ALS. About 5 percent of ALS patients carry an altered version of a gene called C9orf72, which in ALS patients contains ... full story

Orphan Receptor Proteins Deliver Two Knock-out Punches to Glioblastoma Cells

Dec. 17, 2014 — Two related proteins exert a lethal double whammy effect against glioblastoma cells when activated with a small molecule. Scientists say when activated, one protein, called the short form, stops ... full story

New Class of Synthetic Molecules Mimics Antibodies

Dec. 17, 2014 — The first synthetic molecules that have both the targeting and response functions of antibodies have been crafted by scientists. The new molecules -- synthetic antibody mimics -- attach themselves ... full story

Certainty in Our Choices Often a Matter of Time, Researchers Find

Dec. 17, 2014 — When faced with making choices, but lack sufficient evidence to guarantee success, our brain uses elapsed time as a proxy for task difficulty to calculate how confident we should be, a team of ... full story

Hugs Help Protect Against Stress, Infection, Say Researchers

Dec. 17, 2014 — Researchers tested whether hugs act as a form of social support, protecting stressed people from getting sick. They found that greater social support and more frequent hugs protected people from the ... full story

Women Are More Empathetic Toward Their Partner Than Men

Dec. 17, 2014 — Women may long have suspected it to be the case, but large-scale research has found women are more empathetic toward their partners than ... full story

Personality Outsmarts Intelligence at School: Conscientiousness and Openness Key to Learning

Dec. 17, 2014 — Recent research has found that personality is more important than intelligence when it comes to success in education and this needs to take this into account when guiding students and teachers. ... full story

Firearm Violence Trends in the 21st Century

Dec. 17, 2014 — While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a study on the epidemiology of gun ... full story

Bugs Life: The Nerve Cells That Make Locusts ‘gang Up’

Dec. 17, 2014 — A team of biologists has identified a set of nerve cells in desert locusts that bring about 'gang-like' gregarious behavior when they are forced into a crowd. The findings demonstrate the importance ... full story

Electronic Cigarettes Facilitate Smoking Cessation, New Evidence Shows

Dec. 17, 2014 — Do electronic cigarettes help smokers to quit? Yes, but… Researchers found that while nicotine containing electronic cigarettes were more effective than electronic cigarettes without nicotine ... full story

Growing Shortage of Stroke Specialists Seen in U.S.

Dec. 17, 2014 — Although stroke is the number four cause of death and a leading cause of disability in the United States, there’s an increasing shortage of neurologists who specialize in stroke care, researchers ... full story

Herd Mentality: Are We Programmed to Make Bad Decisions?

Dec. 16, 2014 — A natural desire to be part of the 'in crowd' could damage our ability to make the right decisions, a new study has shown. Research has shown that individuals have evolved to be overly influenced by ... full story

Kids' Cartoon Characters Twice as Likely to Die as Counterparts in Films for Adults: Content on a Par With 'Rampant Horrors' of Popular Films

Dec. 16, 2014 — Principal cartoon characters are more than twice as likely to be killed off as their counterparts in films for adults released in the same year, reveals new research. On-screen death and violence can ... full story

Heat Boosts Phthalate Emissions from Vinyl Crib Mattress Covers

Dec. 17, 2014 — The US continues to look at the use and regulation of phthalates, which have been associated with health problems. Of particular concern is the safety of these plastic additives to children. A new ... full story

Many Children, Adolescents Get Too Much Caffeine from Energy Drinks

Dec. 17, 2014 — When children aged 10-14 consume energy drinks, one in five consumes too much caffeine. When their caffeine intake from other sources such as cola and chocolate is included, every second child and ... full story

How Information Moves Between Cultures

Dec. 16, 2014 — Networks that map strength of connections between languages predict global influence of their speakers. By analyzing data on multilingual Twitter users and Wikipedia editors and on 30 years' worth of ... full story

Certain Parenting Tactics Could Lead to Materialistic Attitudes in Adulthood

Dec. 16, 2014 — A new study found that parents who use material goods as part of their parenting techniques may be setting children up for difficulties later in ... full story

When Pursuing Goals, People Give More Weight to Progress Than Setbacks

Dec. 16, 2014 — New Year's resolution-makers should beware of skewed perceptions. People tend to believe good behaviors are more beneficial in reaching goals than bad behaviors are in obstructing goals, according to ... full story

People Trust Typical-Looking Faces Most

Dec. 16, 2014 — Being 'average' is often considered a bad thing, but new research suggests that averageness wins when people assess the trustworthiness of a face. The research indicates that, while typical-looking ... full story

Use of Alcohol, Cigarettes, Number of Illicit Drugs Declines Among U.S. Teens

Dec. 16, 2014 — A national survey of students in U.S. middle schools and high schools shows some important improvements in levels of substance use. Both alcohol and cigarette use in 2014 are at their lowest points ... full story

E-Cigarettes Surpass Tobacco Cigarettes Among Teens

Dec. 16, 2014 — In 2014, more teens use e-cigarettes than traditional, tobacco cigarettes or any other tobacco product—the first time a U.S. national study shows that teen use of e-cigarettes surpasses use of ... full story

Most Patients Don't Get Counseling About Sex After Heart Attack

Dec. 15, 2014 — Most patients don't receive counseling about resuming sexual activity after having a heart attack. Often when healthcare providers did counsel about sexual activity, they recommended restrictions ... full story

Women's Age at First Menstrual Cycle Linked to Heart Disease Risk

Dec. 15, 2014 — The risk of heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure was significantly higher when menstruation began at age 10 or younger, or age 17 or older. First menstrual cycle at the age of 13 posed the ... full story

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Ultrafast Imaging of Complex Systems in 3-D at Near Atomic Resolution Nears

Dec. 17, 2014 — It is becoming possible to image complex systems in 3-D with near-atomic resolution on ultrafast timescales using extremely intense X-ray free-electron laser pulses. One important step toward ... full story

Switching to Spintronics: Electric Field Switching of Ferromagnetism at Room Temperature

Dec. 17, 2014 — Researchers have used an electric field to reverse the magnetization direction in a multiferroic spintronic device at room temperature, a demonstration that points a new way towards spintronics and ... full story

New Conversion Process Turns Biomass 'Waste' Into Lucrative Chemical Products

Dec. 17, 2014 — A new catalytic process is able to convert what was once considered biomass waste into lucrative chemical products that can be used in fragrances, flavorings or to create high-octane fuel for ... full story

Microscopy Pencils Patterns in Polymers at the Nanoscale

Dec. 17, 2014 — Scientists have used advanced microscopy to carve out nanoscale designs on the surface of a new class of ionic polymer materials for the first ... full story

Researchers' Recipe: Cook Farm Waste Into Energy

Dec. 17, 2014 — Researchers are studying how to make biofuels from farm waste, especially 'wet' waste, such as corn husks, tomato vines and manure, that is typically difficult to use. They have developed a fairly ... full story

Amputee Makes History Controlling Two Modular Prosthetic Limbs

Dec. 17, 2014 — A Colorado man made history this summer when he became the first bilateral shoulder-level amputee to wear and simultaneously control two modular prosthetic limbs. Most importantly, the patient, who ... full story

Better Focus at the Micro World: A Low-Budget Focus Stacking System for Mass Digitization

Dec. 17, 2014 — Researchers constructed a focus stacking set-up made of consumer grade products with better end results than high-end solutions and this at only a tenth of the price of current existing systems. ... full story

Gothic Cathedrals Blend Iron and Stone

Dec. 17, 2014 — Using radiocarbon dating on metal found in Gothic cathedrals, an interdisciplinary team has shown, for the first time through absolute dating, that iron was used to reinforce stone from the ... full story

Smart Window That Tints and Powers Itself Invented

Dec. 17, 2014 — Scientists have developed a smart window which can darken or brighten without the need for an external power ... full story

Are Video Gaming Systems a Safe Christmas Present?

Dec. 16, 2014 — Nintendo video gaming systems are common Christmas presents, but how safe are they? Early reports included seizures (dubbed "Nintendo epilepsy") and two cases of Nintendo related incontinence in ... full story

Satellite Sees Holiday Lights Brighten Cities

Dec. 17, 2014 — Even from space, holidays shine bright. With a new look at daily data scientists have identified how patterns in nighttime light intensity change during major holiday seasons -- Christmas and New ... full story

Surprising Theorists, Stars Within Middle-Aged Clusters Are of Similar Age

Dec. 17, 2014 — An examination of middle-aged star clusters reveals an unexpectedly narrow age range among their stars, suggesting that large groups of stars evolve differently than previously ... full story

'Perfect Storm' Quenching Star Formation Around a Supermassive Black Hole

Dec. 17, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that modest black holes can shut down star formation by producing turbulence. High-energy jets powered by supermassive black holes can blast away a galaxy's star-forming ... full story

The Hot Blue Stars of Messier 47

Dec. 17, 2014 — Messier 47 is located approximately 1600 light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Puppis (the poop deck of the mythological ship Argo). It was first noticed some time before 1654 by Italian ... full story

Exact Solution to Model Big Bang and Quark Gluon Plasma

Dec. 16, 2014 — Scientists have published an exact solution that applies to a wide array of physics contexts and will help researchers to better model galactic structure, supernova explosions and high-energy ... full story

Is the Higgs Boson a Piece of the Matter-Antimatter Puzzle?

Dec. 16, 2014 — Several experiments, including the BaBar experiment have helped explain some – but not all – of the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the universe. Now theorists have laid out a possible ... full story

NASA's MAVEN Mars Orbiter Mission Identifies Links in Chain Leading to Atmospheric Loss

Dec. 15, 2014 — Early discoveries by NASA's newest Mars orbiter are starting to reveal key features about the loss of the planet's atmosphere to space over time. The findings are among the first returns from NASA's ... full story

Stretched-out Solid Exoplanets

Dec. 15, 2014 — Astronomers could soon be able to find rocky planets stretched out by the gravity of the stars they orbit. Since the first discovery in 1993, more than 1800 planets have been found in orbit around ... full story

Is an Understanding of Dark Matter Around the Corner? Experimentalists Unsure

Dec. 12, 2014 — Scientists working on the three newest dark matter experiments are hopeful that we’ll soon understand a quarter of the universe -- but they’re making no ... full story

Real Data Rather Than Theory Used to Measure the Cosmos

Dec. 12, 2014 — For the first time researchers have measured large distances in the Universe using data, rather than calculations related to general ... full story

Spider's Web Weaves Way to Advanced Networks and Displays

Dec. 17, 2014 — Searching for new ways to develop efficient, flexible networks, physicists discovered the designs of spider webs and leaf venation, refined across thousands of years of evolution, are worthy models ... full story

Novel Insights Into Pathogen Behavior

Dec. 17, 2014 — New insights into the behavior of an important bacterial pathogen have been provided by researchers. The researchers investigated, using combination of experiments and computational modeling, how ... full story

Combining Social Media, Behavioral Psychology Could Lead to More HIV Testing

Dec. 17, 2014 — Social media such as Twitter and Facebook, combined with behavioral psychology, could be a valuable tool in the fight against AIDS by prompting high-risk individuals to be tested, research shows. ... full story

Evolution: Complexity Key Propagating Future Generations.

Dec. 16, 2014 — The KISS concept -- keep it simple, stupid -- may work for many situations. However, when it comes to evolution, complexity appears to be key for prosperity and propagating future ... full story

First Steps for Hector the Robot Stick Insect

Dec. 16, 2014 — A research team has succeeded in teaching the only robot of its kind in the world how to walk.The robot is called Hector, and its construction is modeled on a stick insect. Inspired by the insect, ... full story

Researchers Generate Tunable Photon-Pair Spectrum Using Room-Temperature Quantum Optics Silicon Chip

Dec. 16, 2014 — A team of researchers have demonstrated a way to emit and control quantum light generated using a chip made from silicon -- one of the most widely used materials for modern ... full story

New Algorithm a Christmas Gift to 3-D Printing, and the Environment

Dec. 15, 2014 — A computer science professor reveals how to print a 3-D Christmas tree efficiently and with zero material waste, using the world's first algorithm for automatically decomposing a 3-D object into what ... full story

Virtual Bodyswapping Diminishes People's Negative Biases About Others

Dec. 15, 2014 — Researchers explain how they have used the brain's ability to bring together information from different senses to make white people feel that they were inhabiting black bodies and adults feel like ... full story

Lead Islands in a Sea of Graphene Magnetize the Material of the Future

Dec. 15, 2014 — Researchers have discovered that if lead atoms are intercalated on a graphene sheet, a powerful magnetic field is generated by the interaction of the electrons' spin with their orbital movement. This ... full story

Mathematicians Prove the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture

Dec. 15, 2014 — Monstrous moonshine, a quirky pattern of the monster group in theoretical math, has a shadow -- umbral moonshine. Mathematicians have now proved this insight, known as the Umbral Moonshine ... full story

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Short-Necked Triassic Marine Reptile Discovered in China

Dec. 17, 2014 — A new species of short-necked marine reptile from the Triassic period has been discovered in ... full story

Ancient, Hydrogen-Rich Waters Deep Underground Around the World: Waters Could Support Isolated Life

Dec. 17, 2014 — A team of scientists has mapped the location of hydrogen-rich waters found trapped kilometers beneath Earth's surface in rock fractures in Canada, South Africa and Scandinavia. Common in Precambrian ... full story

National Model of Restoration: Nine Mile Run

Dec. 17, 2014 — A study by a hydrologist shows that one of the largest urban-stream restorations in the United States has led to the recovery of fish and, more importantly, a groundswell of local support. Nine Mile ... full story

Not Just for the Holidays, Mistletoe Could Fight Obesity-Related Liver Disease

Dec. 17, 2014 — Mistletoe hanging in doorways announces that the holidays are just around the corner. For some people, however, the symbolic plant might one day represent more than a kiss at Christmas time: It may ... full story

Asteroid That Wiped out Dinosaurs May Have Nearly Knocked Off Mammals, Too

Dec. 17, 2014 — The classic story is that mammals rose to dominance after the dinosaurs went extinct, but a new study shows that some of the most common mammals living alongside dinosaurs, the metatherians, extinct ... full story

Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome: Substance from Broccoli Can Moderate Defects

Dec. 17, 2014 — Children who suffer from Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome age prematurely due to a defective protein in their cells. Scientists have now identified another important pathological factor: the ... full story

Predicting Antibiotic Resistance

Dec. 17, 2014 — Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics is becoming increasingly difficult as bacteria develop resistance not only to the antibiotics being used against them, but also to ones they have never ... full story

Research Shows Jaws Didn't Kill His Cousin

Dec. 16, 2014 — Our jawed ancestors weren't responsible for the demise of their jawless cousins as had been assumed. Instead, researchers believe that rising sea levels are more likely to blame. "When our jawed ... full story

Probing Bacterial Resistance to a Class of Natural Antibiotics

Dec. 16, 2014 — Researchers explore the clever techniques used by bacteria to survive destruction from antimicrobial peptides -- potent defense factors produced by all living forms, including ... full story

The Sense of Smell Uses Fast Dynamics to Encode Odors

Dec. 16, 2014 — Neuroscientists have discovered that mice can detect minute differences in the temporal dynamics of the olfactory system. The research team used light in genetically-engineered mice to precisely ... full story

Satellites Measure Increase of Sun's Energy Absorbed in the Arctic

Dec. 17, 2014 — NASA satellite instruments have observed a marked increase in solar radiation absorbed in the Arctic since the year 2000 -- a trend that aligns with the steady decrease in Arctic sea ice during the ... full story

Colorado River Delta Greener After Engineered Pulse of Water

Dec. 17, 2014 — The engineered spring flood that brought water to previously dry reaches of the lower Colorado River and its delta resulted in greener vegetation, the germination of new vegetation along the river ... full story

Even in Restored Forests, Extreme Weather Strongly Influences Wildfire's Impacts

Dec. 17, 2014 — A new study examined how the Rim Fire burned through forests with restored fire regimes in Yosemite National Park to determine whether they were as resistant to high-severity fire as many scientists ... full story

Great Lakes Pollution No Longer Driven by Airborne Sources; Land, Rivers Now Bigger Factors

Dec. 17, 2014 — A researcher who measured organic pollutants in the air and water around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario has found that airborne emissions are no longer the primary cause of the lakes’ contamination. ... full story

Ancient Earth May Have Made Its Own Water: Rock Circulating in Mantle Feeds World's Oceans Even Today, Evidence Suggests

Dec. 17, 2014 — In a finding that meshes well with recent discoveries from the Rosetta mission, researchers have discovered a geochemical pathway by which Earth makes it own water through plate tectonics. This ... full story

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Increase to New All-Time Record, but Growth Is Slowing Down

Dec. 17, 2014 — 2013 saw global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and cement production reach a new all-time high. This was mainly due to the continuing steady increase in energy use in emerging economies over the ... full story

North Atlantic Signaled Ice Age Thaw 1,000 Years Before It Happened, Reveals New Research

Dec. 17, 2014 — The Atlantic Ocean at mid-depths may have given out early warning signals – 1,000 years in advance - that the last Ice Age was going to end, scientists ... full story

Glacier Beds Can Get Slipperier at Higher Sliding Speeds

Dec. 16, 2014 — Scientists have found that as a glacier's sliding speed increases, the bed beneath the glacier can grow slipperier. That laboratory finding could help researchers make better predictions of glacier ... full story

Carbon-Trapping 'Sponges' Can Cut Greenhouse Gases

Dec. 16, 2014 — In the fight against global warming, carbon capture -- chemically trapping carbon dioxide before it releases into the atmosphere -- is gaining momentum, but standard methods are plagued by toxicity, ... full story

Composite Plane Life Cycle Assessment Shows Lighter Planes Are the Future

Dec. 16, 2014 — A global fleet of composite planes could reduce carbon emissions by up to 15 percent, but the lighter planes alone will not enable the aviation industry to meet its emissions targets, according to ... full story

Commensal Bacteria Were Critical Shapers of Early Human Populations

Dec. 16, 2014 — Using mathematical modeling, researchers have shown that commensal bacteria that cause problems later in life most likely played a key role in stabilizing early human populations. The finding offers ... full story

Discovery of Official Clay Seals Support Existence of Biblical Kings David and Solomon, Archaeologists Say

Dec. 16, 2014 — Six official clay seals found by an archaeological team at a small site in Israel offer evidence that supports the existence of biblical kings David and Solomon. Many modern scholars dismiss David ... full story

Dental Plaque Reveals Key Plant in Prehistoric Easter Island Diet

Dec. 15, 2014 — A student analyzing dental calculus from ancient teeth is helping resolve the question of what plant foods Easter Islanders relied on before European ... full story

Back to Future With Roman Architectural Concrete: Advanced Light Source Reveals Key to Longevity of Imperial Roman Monuments

Dec. 15, 2014 — A key discovery to understanding Roman architectural concrete that has stood the test of time and the elements for nearly two thousand years has been made by researchers using beams of ... full story

Evidence of Viking/Norse Metalworking in Arctic Canada

Dec. 15, 2014 — A small stone container found by archaeologists a half-century ago has now been recognized as further evidence of a Viking or Medieval Norse presence in Arctic Canada during the centuries around 1000 ... full story

Past Global Warming Similar to Today's: Size, Duration Were Like Modern Climate Shift, but in Two Pulses

Dec. 15, 2014 — The rate at which carbon emissions warmed Earth’s climate almost 56 million years ago resembles modern, human-caused global warming much more than previously believed, but involved two pulses of ... full story

The History of King David

Dec. 15, 2014 — Important information about the period of David’s reign, based on new archaeological and epigraphic data unearthed in northwestern Syria and southern Turkey, has been uncovered by ... full story

Hox Cluster Found in Crown of Thorns Starfish a Surprise

Dec. 15, 2014 — New research reports an intact Hox cluster in the Crown of Thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. This surprising result contrasts with the relatively disorganized Hox cluster found in sea urchins, ... full story

New Insights Into Origins of Agriculture Could Help Shape Future of Food

Dec. 11, 2014 — Agricultural decisions made by our ancestors more than 10,000 years ago could hold the key to food security in the future, according to new research. Scientists, looking at why the first arable ... full story

Chickens and Turkeys 'Closer to Dinosaur Ancestors' Than Other Birds

Dec. 11, 2014 — New research suggests that chickens and turkeys have experienced fewer gross genomic changes than other birds as they evolved from their dinosaur ... full story

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Ebola Virus Spreads in Social Clusters

Dec. 16, 2014 — An analysis of the ongoing Ebola outbreak reveals that transmission of the virus occurs in social clusters, a finding that has ramifications for case reporting and the public health. Prior studies of ... full story

Can Returning Crops to Their Wild States Help Feed the World?

Dec. 16, 2014 — To feed the world's growing population -- expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050 -- we will have to find ways to produce more food on less farmland, without causing additional harm to the ... full story

Political Extremists May Be Less Susceptible to Common Cognitive Bias

Dec. 16, 2014 — People who occupy the extreme ends of the political spectrum, whether liberal or conservative, may be less influenced by outside information on a simple estimation task than political moderates, ... full story

Why Lifespans Are More Variable Among Blacks Than Whites in the U.S.

Dec. 16, 2014 — Eliminating health disparities between races is a goal of many groups and organizations, but a team of sociologists suggests that finding the reasons for the differences in the timing of black and ... full story

Cost of Cloud Brightening for Cooler Planet Revealed

Dec. 15, 2014 — Scientists have identified the most energy-efficient way to make clouds more reflective to the sun in a bid to combat climate change. Marine Cloud Brightening is a reversible geoengineering method ... full story

Climate Policy Pledges Are an Important Step Forward but Fall Short of 2°C

Dec. 15, 2014 — Pledges to reduce emissions in China, Europe and the US provide an important step forward for climate change action, but a more comprehensive effort is needed to stabilize the climate below critical ... full story

Attitudes to Climate Change Depend on People's Sense of Belonging to the Planet

Dec. 15, 2014 — People who have a stronger sense of place at the global than the national level are more likely to accept that climate change is caused by human activities. research has ... full story

Want to Distract Someone? An Emotional Face Might Work

Dec. 15, 2014 — The sudden appearance of a face within our visual field can affect the motor action accompanying a gesture even if the face is totally unrelated to what we are doing and even if we try to ignore it. ... full story

Neighborhood Designs Can Cut Carbon Emissions, Electric Costs

Dec. 15, 2014 — Researchers find that by clustering trees and homes on smaller lots, homeowners and developers can save money and improvement the ... full story

A Matter of Birth and Death: Unsafe Conditions Still Killing New Mothers and Newborns

Dec. 12, 2014 — A lack of safe water, sanitation and hygiene in birth settings is killing mothers and newborns in the developing world, a new report says. A call has been made by nine leading health organizations ... full story

Introverts Could Shape Extroverted Co-Workers' Career Success, Study Shows

Dec. 16, 2014 — Introverted employees are more likely to give low evaluations of job performance to extroverted co-workers, giving introverts a powerful role in workplaces, new research shows. Introverts ... full story

Fraud-Proof Credit Cards Possible With Quantum Physics

Dec. 15, 2014 — Though corporations and individuals work to improve safeguards, it has become increasingly difficult to protect financial data and personal information from criminal activity. Fortunately, new ... full story

Many U.S. Workers Are Sacrificing Sleep for Work

Dec. 11, 2014 — An analysis of 124,000 responses to a survey shows that paid work time is the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. The study also suggests that chronic sleep loss potentially could be ... full story

Limiting Internet Congestion a Key Factor in Net Neutrality Debate

Dec. 10, 2014 — If Internet Service Providers known as ISPs initiate price discrimination in their pricing, a “recongestion effect” will occur. In other words, online delivery channels that are less congested at ... full story

Wealth, Power or Lack Thereof at Heart of Many Mental Disorders

Dec. 9, 2014 — Donald Trump's ego may be the size of his financial empire, but that doesn't mean he's the picture of mental health. The same can be said about the self-esteem of people who are living from paycheck ... full story

Maintaining a Reliable Value of the Cost of Climate Change

Dec. 4, 2014 — The Social Cost of Carbon puts a dollar value on the climate damages per ton of CO2 released, and is used by -- among others -- policymakers to help determine the costs and benefits of climate ... full story

Occupational Sitting Among Women Linked to Obesity

Dec. 1, 2014 — You might want to stand up for this. Occupational sitting is associated with an increased likelihood of obesity, especially among black women, independent of occupational and leisure time physical ... full story

Bitcoin, Virtual Money: User's Identity Can Be Revealed Much Easier Than Thought

Nov. 25, 2014 — Bitcoin is the new money: minted and exchanged on the Internet. Faster and cheaper than a bank, the service is attracting attention from all over the world. But a big question remains: are the ... full story

Entrepreneurs Are Not Corporate Rebels: High Performers More Likely to Set Off on Own Without Path

Nov. 24, 2014 — Considering leaving the 9-to-5 world of corporate life behind to strike out on your own? When we think of entrepreneurship, we typically imagine a life of untold riches and the satisfaction of being ... full story

Job Authority Increases Depression Symptoms in Women, Decreases Them in Men

Nov. 20, 2014 — Having job authority increases symptoms of depression among women, but decreases them among men, a new study has ... full story

Current Practices in Reporting on Behavioural Genetics Can Mislead the Public

Dec. 12, 2014 — “Media reports about behavioural genetics unintentionally induce unfounded beliefs, therefore going against the educational purpose of scientific reporting,” writes a researcher following his ... full story

Cognitive Training Can Improve Brain Performance of Students in Poverty

Dec. 10, 2014 — The cognitive effects of poverty can be mitigated during middle school with a targeted intervention, according to researchers who, for the first time, examined the efficacy of cognitive training in a ... full story

Distraction, If Consistent, Does Not Hinder Learning

Dec. 9, 2014 — A new study challenges the idea that distraction is necessarily a problem for learning. Researchers found that if attention was as divided during recall of a motor task as it was during learning the ... full story

Ideals May Play Role in Knowledge Formation, Professor's Research Says

Dec. 2, 2014 — Research by a professor of philosophy indicates that having an ideal can play a role in acquiring new information that makes our beliefs ... full story

Heavier Newborns Show Academic Edge in School

Dec. 2, 2014 — Birth weight makes a difference to a child's future academic performance, according to new research that found heavier newborns do better in elementary and middle school than infants with lower birth ... full story

It's Mean Boys, Not Mean Girls, Who Rule at School, Study Shows

Dec. 1, 2014 — Debunking the myth of the 'mean girl,' new research has found that boys use relational aggression -- malicious rumors, social exclusion and rejection -- to harm or manipulate others more often than ... full story

Education Is Key to Climate Adaptation

Nov. 27, 2014 — According to new research, education makes people less vulnerable to natural disasters such as floods, landslides, and storms that are expected to intensify with climate ... full story

Elderly Brains Learn, but Maybe Too Much

Nov. 26, 2014 — Learning requires both mental flexibility, or 'plasticity,' and stability. A new study finds that in learning a visual task, older people exhibited a surprising degree of plasticity, but had trouble ... full story

Two Studies, 2 Editorials Put Focus on School Breakfasts, Lunches

Nov. 24, 2014 — Schools offering Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) had higher participation in the national school breakfast program and attendance, but math and reading achievement did not differ between schools ... full story

Education Empowers Canadians, but Raises Risks of Overwork, Work-Family Stress

Nov. 20, 2014 — The higher your level of education, the greater your earnings and your sense of “personal mastery” or being in control of your fate, researchers say. But wait: there’s a downside. A new study ... full story

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