Today's Science News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Global Temperature Reaches Record High in June Following Record Warmth in May

July 22, 2014 — According to NOAA scientists, the globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest for June since record keeping began in 1880. It also marked the 38th ... full story

Science and Art Bring Back to Life 300-Million-Year-Old Specimens of a Primitive Reptile-Like Vertebrate

July 21, 2014 — Paleontologists have recreated the cranial structure of a 308-million-year-old lizard-like vertebrate that could be the earliest example of a reptile and explain the origin of all vertebrates that ... full story

Mysterious Dance of Dwarf Galaxies May Force a Cosmic Rethink

July 21, 2014 — The discovery that many small galaxies throughout the universe do not 'swarm' around larger ones like bees do but 'dance' in orderly disc-shaped orbits is a challenge to our ... full story

Marmoset Sequence Sheds New Light on Primate Biology and Evolution

July 20, 2014 — Scientists have completed the genome sequence of the common marmoset -- the first sequence of a New World Monkey -- providing new information about the marmoset's unique rapid reproductive ... full story

Scientists Experimentally Re-Create Conditions Deep Inside Giant Planets, Such as Jupiter and Many Exo-Planets

July 17, 2014 — Using the largest laser in the world, scientists for the first time have experimentally re-created the conditions that exist deep inside giant planets, such as Jupiter, Uranus and many of the planets ... full story

Hubble Traces Halo of a Galaxy More Accurately Than Ever Before: An in-Depth Look at Giant Elliptical Galaxy Centaurus A

July 22, 2014 — Astronomers have probed the extreme outskirts of the stunning elliptical galaxy Centaurus A. The galaxy's halo of stars has been found to extend much further from the galaxy's center than ... full story

Schizophrenia's Genetic 'Skyline' Rising as Genetic Code Linked to Illness Grows

July 22, 2014 — The largest genomic dragnet of any psychiatric disorder to date has unmasked 108 chromosomal sites harboring inherited variations in the genetic code linked to schizophrenia, 83 of which had not been ... full story

HIV, Malaria, and Tuberculosis: Success of the Millennium Shown in Most Comprehensive Study to Date

July 22, 2014 — Accelerated progress against the global burden of HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB) has been made since 2000 when governments worldwide adopted Millennium Development Goal 6 to combat HIV/AIDS, ... full story

Massive Neutrinos and New Standard Cosmological Model: No Concordance Yet

July 22, 2014 — Neutrinos, also known as ‘ghost particles’ because they barely interact with other particles or their surroundings, are massless particles according to the standard model of particle physics. ... full story

Mammoth and Mastodon Behavior Was Less Roam, More Stay at Home

July 21, 2014 — Their scruffy beards weren't ironic, but there are reasons mammoths and mastodons could have been the hipsters of the Ice Age. According to new research, the famously fuzzy relatives of ... full story

Transiting Exoplanet With Longest Known Year: 704 Earth Days

July 21, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered a transiting exoplanet with the longest known year. Kepler-421b circles its star once every 704 days. In comparison, Mars orbits our Sun once every 780 days. Most of the ... full story

More Than Glitter: How Gold Nanoparticles Easily Penetrate Cells, Making Them Useful for Delivering Drugs

July 21, 2014 — A special class of tiny gold particles can easily slip through cell membranes, making them good candidates to deliver drugs directly to target cells. Scientists can now explain how gold nanoparticles ... full story

Sea Level Rising in Western Tropical Pacific Anthropogenic as Result of Human Activity, Study Concludes

July 20, 2014 — Sea levels likely will continue to rise in the tropical Pacific Ocean off the coasts of the Philippines and northeastern Australia as humans continue to alter the climate, a study concludes. The ... full story

Children as Young as Three Recognize 'Cuteness' in Faces of People, Animals

July 21, 2014 — Children as young as three are able to recognize the same ‘cute’ infantile facial features in humans and animals which encourage caregiving behavior in adults, new research has shown. A study ... full story

Genetic Risk for Autism Stems Mostly from Common Genes

July 20, 2014 — Using new statistical tools, scientists have discovered that most of the genetic risk for autism comes from versions of genes that are common in the population rather than from rare variants or ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Newsy (July 19, 2014) — Research on plaque from ancient teeth shows that our prehistoric ancestor's had a detailed understanding of plants long before developing agriculture. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Investigating Mysterious Giant Hole In Siberia

Scientists Investigating Mysterious Giant Hole In Siberia

Newsy (July 17, 2014) — Scientists have launched an investigation into a giant crater that suddenly appeared in Siberia. Internet speculation on the hole's origins abounds. Video provided by Newsy
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Japanese Androids Take Us Closer to 'Blade Runner' Future

Japanese Androids Take Us Closer to 'Blade Runner' Future

AFP (July 16, 2014) — A future in which it is difficult to tell man and machine apart is moving closer to reality after recent robotic breakthroughs in Japan. Duration 02:08 Video provided by AFP
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Largest 'Four-Winged' Dinosaur To Date Unearthed In China

Largest 'Four-Winged' Dinosaur To Date Unearthed In China

Newsy (July 16, 2014) — Scientists have discovered what they say is the largest-known feathered dinosaur, and its fossil could provide new insight into prehistoric flight. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-07-22 at 11:08 am EDT

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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus Detected in Air of Saudi Arabian Camel Barn

July 22, 2014 — Saudi Arabian researchers have detected genetic fragments of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in the air of a barn holding a camel infected with the virus. The work indicates that further ... full story

Low Strength Brain Stimulation May Be Effective for Depression

July 22, 2014 — Brain stimulation treatments, like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are often effective for the treatment of depression. Like antidepressant medications, ... full story

Rigid Connections: Molecular Basis of Age-Related Memory Loss Explained

July 22, 2014 — From telephone numbers to foreign vocabulary, our brains hold a seemingly endless supply of information. However, as we get older, our ability to learn and remember new things declines. A team of ... full story

High-Precision Software Developed for Diagnosing Eye Sensitivity

July 22, 2014 — High-precision software for diagnosing eye sensitivity has been developed by researchers. This is a new technology that allows to quantify the degree of opacity in the posterior capsule of the eye ... full story

First Total Synthesis of Madangamine D, a Molecule of Biomedical Interest

July 22, 2014 — Madangamines are a group of polycyclic alkaloids from marine sponges which have biomedical interest due to their cytotoxic activity. Chemists have now completed the first total synthesis of ... full story

Epigenetic Tie to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Found

July 21, 2014 — Dysfunction in dopamine signaling profoundly changes the activity level of about 2,000 genes in the brain's prefrontal cortex and may be an underlying cause of certain complex neuropsychiatric ... full story

Parents Rank Their Obese Children as 'Very Healthy'

July 21, 2014 — Parents of obese children often do not recognize the potentially serious health consequences of childhood weight gain or the importance of daily physical activity in helping their child reach a ... full story

Stem Cells Aid Muscle Repair, Strengthening After Resistance Exercise

July 21, 2014 — By injecting mesenchymal stem cells into mouse leg muscles prior to several bouts of eccentric exercise (similar to the lengthening contractions performed during resistance training in humans), ... full story

New Research Links Bad Diet to Loss of Smell

July 21, 2014 — Could stuffing yourself full of high-fat foods cause you to lose your sense of smell? A new study by neuroscientists says so, and it has researchers taking a closer look at how our diets could impact ... full story

Process to Purify Water Using Seed Extracts Now Simplified

July 21, 2014 — Researchers have streamlined and simplified a process that uses extracts from seeds of Moringa oleifa trees to purify water, reducing levels of harmful bacteria by 90 percent to 99 percent. The hardy ... full story

Study: 'Unhappiest' Cities in the U.S.

July 22, 2014 — New research identifies the unhappiest cities in the U.S., but finds that some young people are still willing to relocate to them for a good job opportunity or lower housing prices. The analysis ... full story

Innovative System Anticipates Driver Fatigue in the Vehicle to Prevent Accidents

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have created a devise integrated in smart materials capable of monitoring cardiac and respiratory rhythms in order to prevent drivers from falling ... full story

Children's Impulsive Behaviour Is Related to Brain Connectivity

July 22, 2014 — The changes in the brain that are associated with impulsiveness -- a personality trait that causes difficulties in inhibiting a response in the face of a stimulus and leads to unplanned actions ... full story

Try, Try Again? Study Says No: Trying Harder Makes It More Difficult to Learn Some Aspects of Language, Neuroscientists Find

July 21, 2014 — Neuroscientists find that trying harder makes it more difficult to learn some aspects of language. When it comes to learning languages, adults and children have different strengths. Adults excel at ... full story

Philosopher Uses Game Theory to Understand How Words, Actions Acquire Meaning

July 21, 2014 — Why does the word "dog" have meaning? If you say "dog" to a friend, why does your friend understand you? A philosopher aims to address these types of questions in his latest research, which focuses ... full story

Diagnostic Criteria for Christianson Syndrome

July 21, 2014 — A new study provides the most definitive characterization of the autism-like intellectual disability disorder Christianson Syndrome and provides the first diagnostic criteria to help doctors and ... full story

Missing Sleep May Hurt Your Memory

July 21, 2014 — Lack of sleep, already considered a public health epidemic, can also lead to errors in memory, finds a new study that found participants deprived of a night’s sleep were more likely to flub the ... full story

Brain Waves Show Learning to Read Does Not End in 4th Grade, Contrary to Popular Theory

July 21, 2014 — Teachers-in-training have long been taught that fourth grade is when students stop learning to read and start reading to learn. But a new study tested the theory by analyzing brain waves and found ... full story

Large Twin Study Suggests That Language Delay Due More to Nature Than Nurture

July 21, 2014 — A study of 473 sets of twins followed since birth found twins have twice the rate of language delay as do single-born children. Moreover, identical twins have greater rates of language delay than do ... full story

Enzyme Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease

July 21, 2014 — Unclogging the body’s protein disposal system may improve memory in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, according to ... full story

Computer Privacy: Share Button May Share Your Browsing History, Too

July 22, 2014 — One in 18 of the world’s top 100,000 websites track users without their consent using a previously undetected cookie-like tracking mechanism embedded in ‘share’ buttons. The researchers traced ... full story

New Trigger for Ovulation Could Make IVF Safer

July 18, 2014 — A new and potentially safer method to stimulate ovulation in women undergoing IVF treatment has been developed by researchers. Twelve babies have been born after their mothers were given an injection ... full story

Negative HPV Test May Predict Lower Cervical Cancer Risk Than a Negative Pap

July 18, 2014 — In the US, cotesting for human papilloma virus and Pap testing for cervical cancer every 5 years for women aged 30-65 years is now recommended. However, human papilloma virus testing alone may ... full story

Choosing Cheese: Research Identifies Microbial Communities in Cheese

July 17, 2014 — After studying 137 varieties of cheese collected in 10 different countries, researchers have been able to identify three general types of microbial communities that live on cheese, opening the door ... full story

Losing Sleep Over Your Divorce? Your Blood Pressure Could Suffer

July 17, 2014 — It's normal for people to experience trouble sleeping after a divorce, but if sleep problems last too long, they can lead to potentially harmful increases in blood pressure, a new study finds. The ... full story

Adolescent Alcohol Abuse Disrupts Transitions Into Early Adulthood

July 17, 2014 — Adolescent alcohol abuse is known to be associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood. It is unclear how much of this association is due to the influence of differences in familial background ... full story

Fish Oil May Benefit Alcohol Abusers

July 17, 2014 — Omega-3 fish oil might help protect against alcohol-related neurodamage and the risk of eventual dementia, according to a study. Many human studies have shown that long-term alcohol abuse causes ... full story

Obese Women May Have Learning Deficit Specific to Food

July 17, 2014 — Obese women have a deficit in reward-based learning, but only when food is involved. Importantly, say researchers, those same women have no trouble at all forming accurate associations when the ... full story

Eye Movements Reveal Difference Between Love and Lust

July 17, 2014 — A new study suggests the difference between love and lust might be in the eyes. Specifically, where your date looks at you could indicate whether love or lust is in the cards. The new study found ... full story

Preventing Foodborne Illness Naturally: With Cinnamon

July 17, 2014 — Cinnamomum cassia oil was shown to be effective as a natural antibacterial agent against several strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, known to the US Centers for Disease Control and ... full story

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Boosting the Force of Empty Space: Theorists Propose Way to Amplify Force of Vacuum Fluctuations

July 22, 2014 — Vacuum fluctuations may be among the most counter-intuitive phenomena of quantum physics. Theorists have now proposed a way to amplify their force. The researchers believe that their proposed ... full story

Scientists Use Simple, Low Cost Laser Technique to Improve Properties and Functions of Nanomaterials

July 22, 2014 — By ‘drawing’ micropatterns on nanomaterials using a focused laser beam, scientists could modify properties of nanomaterials for effective applications in photonic and optoelectric ... full story

Understanding Graphene's Electrical Properties on an Atomic Level

July 21, 2014 — For the first time, researchers have used a cutting-edge microscope to study the relationship between the atomic geometry of a ribbon of graphene and its electrical ... full story

Chemists Eye Improved Thin Films With Metal Substitution

July 21, 2014 — The yield so far is small, but chemists have developed a low-energy, solution-based mineral substitution process to make a precursor to transparent thin films that could find use in electronics and ... full story

Carbyne Morphs When Stretched: Calculations Show Carbon-Atom Chain Would Go Metal to Semiconductor

July 21, 2014 — Applying just the right amount of tension to a chain of carbon atoms can turn it from a metallic conductor to an insulator. The research has implications for mechanically activated nanoscale ... full story

Replacing Coal, Oil With Natural Gas Will Not Help Fight Global Warming, Expert Argues

July 21, 2014 — Both shale gas and conventional natural gas have a larger greenhouse gas footprint than do coal or oil, especially for the primary uses of residential and commercial heating. "While emissions of ... full story

Genes That Contribute to Radiation Resistance Identified

July 21, 2014 — Forty-six genes in Escherichia coli have been discovered that are necessary for its survival at exceptionally high levels of radiation, researchers report in a new article. "The research has revealed ... full story

Seals Forage at Offshore Wind Farms

July 21, 2014 — By using sophisticated GPS tracking to monitor seals' every movement, researchers have shown for the first time that some individual seals are repeatedly drawn to offshore wind farms and pipelines. ... full story

Human Platelets Successfully Generated Using Next-Generation Bioreactor

July 21, 2014 — A scalable, next-generation platelet bioreactor has been created to generate fully functional human platelets in vitro. The work is a major biomedical advancement that will help address blood ... full story

Tiny Laser Sensor Heightens Bomb Detection Sensitivity

July 20, 2014 — Researchers have created a plasmon laser detector that can sniff out tiny traces of airborne molecules of explosives. The sensor detected both DNT and ammonium nitrate at concentrations below one ... full story

Oceans Vital for Possibility for Alien Life

July 20, 2014 — Researchers have made an important step in the race to discover whether other planets could develop and sustain life. New research shows the vital role of oceans in moderating climate on Earth-like ... full story

Astronauts to Test Free-Flying 'Housekeeper' Robots

July 20, 2014 — Inspired by science fiction, three bowling ball-size free-flying Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) have been flying inside the International Space ... full story

Rosetta Spacecraft Approaching Twofold Comet

July 18, 2014 — As the European Space Agency's spacecraft Rosetta is slowly approaching its destination, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the comet is again proving to be full of surprises. New images obtained by ... full story

Lunar Pits Could Shelter Astronauts, Reveal Details of How 'Man in the Moon' Formed

July 17, 2014 — While the moon's surface is battered by millions of craters, it also has over 200 holes -- steep-walled pits that in some cases might lead to caves that future astronauts could explore and use for ... full story

Earth-Like Soils on Mars? Ancient Fossilized Soils Potentially Found Deep Inside Impact Crater Suggest Microbial Life

July 17, 2014 — Soil deep in a crater dating to some 3.7 billion years ago contains evidence that Mars was once much warmer and wetter, says a geologist based on images and data captured by the rover ... full story

Is the Universe a Bubble? Let's Check: Making the Multiverse Hypothesis Testable

July 17, 2014 — Scientists are working to bring the multiverse hypothesis, which to some sounds like a fanciful tale, firmly into the realm of testable science. Never mind the Big Bang; in the beginning was the ... full story

Sharpest Map of Mars Surface Properties

July 16, 2014 — A heat-sensing camera has provided data to create the most detailed global map yet made of Martian surface properties. Surface properties tell geologists about the physical nature of a planet or ... full story

Asteroid Vesta to Reshape Theories of Planet Formation

July 16, 2014 — Researchers have a better understanding of the asteroid Vesta and its internal structure, thanks to numerical simulations and data from the space mission Dawn. Their findings question contemporary ... full story

NASA's Van Allen Probes Show How to Accelerate Electrons

July 15, 2014 — One of the great, unanswered questions for space weather scientists is just what creates two gigantic donuts of radiation surrounding Earth, called the Van Allen radiation belts. Recent data from the ... full story

Every Full Moon, Landsat Looks to the Moon

July 13, 2014 — Every full moon, Landsat 8 turns its back on Earth. As the satellite's orbit takes it to the nighttime side of the planet, Landsat 8 pivots to point at the moon. It scans the distant lunar surface ... full story

Size and Age of Plants Impact Their Productivity More Than Climate

July 20, 2014 — The size and age of plants has more of an impact on their productivity than temperature and precipitation, according to a landmark study. They show that variation in terrestrial ecosystems is ... full story

Mixing It Up: Study Provides New Insight Into Southern Ocean Behavior

July 20, 2014 — Turbulent mixing in the deep waters of the Southern Ocean, which has a profound effect on global ocean circulation and climate, varies with the strength of surface eddies -- the ocean equivalent of ... full story

Speedy Computation Enables Scientists to Reconstruct an Animal's Development Cell by Cell

July 20, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new computational method that can rapidly track the three-dimensional movements of cells in such data-rich images. Using the method, scientists can essentially automate ... full story

Researchers Identify Brain Network With Mapping Technique

July 18, 2014 — A new image-based strategy has been used to identify and measure placebo effects in randomized clinical trials for brain disorders. The researchers used a network mapping technique to identify ... full story

Universal Three-Body Relation: Physicists Succeed in Revealing the Scaling Behavior of Exotic Giant Molecules

July 18, 2014 — When a two-body relation becomes a three-body relation, the behavior of the system changes and typically becomes more complex. While the basic physics of two interacting particles is well understood, ... full story

New Material Puts a Twist in Light

July 18, 2014 — Scientists have uncovered the secret to twisting light at will. It is the latest step in the development of photonics, the faster, more compact and less carbon-hungry successor to electronics. A ... full story

Getting a Grip on Robotic Grasp: New Wrist-Mounted Device Augments the Human Hand With Two Robotic Fingers

July 18, 2014 — Twisting a screwdriver, removing a bottle cap, and peeling a banana are just a few simple tasks that are tricky to pull off single-handedly. Now a new wrist-mounted robot can provide a helping hand ... full story

Big Data Used to Guide Conservation Efforts

July 18, 2014 — Genetic studies have given us detailed information about the evolutionary relationships embodied in the Tree of Life, while newly digitized museum collections contain a wealth of information about ... full story

Revealed: The Mystery Behind Starling Flocks

July 18, 2014 — The mystery behind the movements of flocking starlings could be explained by the areas of light and dark created as they fly, new research suggests. The research found that flocking starlings aim to ... full story

Random Nature of Metastasis Revealed by Physicists

July 17, 2014 — The spreading of a cancerous tumor from one part of the body to another may occur through pure chance instead of key genetic mutations, a new study has shown. Physicists have used a statistical model ... full story

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Mixed Genes Mix Up the Migrations of Hybrid Birds

July 22, 2014 — Mixed genes appear to drive hybrid birds to select more difficult routes than their parent species, according to new research. "Instead of taking well-trodden paths through fertile areas, these birds ... full story

Real Price of Steak: Comparing Environmental Costs of Livestock-Based Foods

July 21, 2014 — New research reveals the comparative environmental costs of livestock-based foods. While we are told that eating beef is bad for the environment, do we know its real cost? Are the other animal or ... full story

Climate: Meat Turns Up the Heat as Livestock Emit Greenhouse Gases

July 21, 2014 — Eating meat contributes to climate change, due to greenhouse gasses emitted by livestock. New research finds that livestock emissions are on the rise and that beef cattle are responsible for far more ... full story

Mammals Metabolize Some Pesticides to Limit Their Biomagnification

July 21, 2014 — The concentrations of many historically used, and now widely banned, pesticides and other toxic chemicals -- called legacy contaminants -- can become magnified in an animal that eats contaminated ... full story

Technology Tracks the Elusive Nightjar

July 21, 2014 — Bioacoustic recorders could provide us with vital additional information to help us protect rare and endangered birds such as the European nightjar, new research has shown. The study found that newly ... full story

Fecal Transplants Let Packrats Eat Poison

July 21, 2014 — Woodrats lost their ability to eat toxic creosote bushes after antibiotics killed their gut microbes. Woodrats that never ate the plants were able to do so after receiving fecal transplants with ... full story

When Temperatures Get Cold, Newly-Discovered Process Helps Fruit Flies Cope

July 21, 2014 — Cold-blooded animals cannot regulate their body temperature, so their cells are stressed when facing temperature extremes. Worse still, even at slightly colder temperatures, some biological processes ... full story

Healing the Heart With Fat? 18-HEPE Might Help, Study Suggests

July 21, 2014 — Too much dietary fat is bad for the heart, but the right kind of fat keeps the heart healthy, according to a new paper. Scientists in Japan have shown that mice engineered to produce their own EPA ... full story

Scientists Map One of Most Important Proteins in Life -- And Cancer

July 20, 2014 — Scientists reveal the structure of one of the most important and complicated proteins in cell division -- a fundamental process in life and the development of cancer -- in a new research article. ... full story

Effect on Pregnancy of Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of HIV

July 19, 2014 — Among heterosexual African couples in which the male was HIV positive and the female was not, receipt of antiretroviral pre-exposure preventive (PrEP) therapy did not result in significant ... full story

Is Antarctic Sea Ice Cover Really Setting Record Highs? Processing Errors May Be Confusing the Matter

July 22, 2014 — Antarctic sea ice may not be expanding as fast as previously thought, new research suggests. A team of scientists say much of the increase measured for Southern Hemisphere sea ice could be due to a ... full story

Global Warming 'Pause' Since 1998 Reflects Natural Fluctuation

July 21, 2014 — Statistical analysis of average global temperatures between 1998 and 2013 shows that the slowdown in global warming during this period is consistent with natural variations in temperature, according ... full story

New Meteorological Insight Into Mid-Level Clouds

July 21, 2014 — At medium altitudes ranging from 6,000 feet to 20,000 feet above mean sea level, water droplets in altocumulus clouds can remain in a supercooled liquid phase that cannot be reasonably resolved in ... full story

A Noble Gas Cage: New Material Traps Gases from Nuclear Fuel Better and Uses Less Energy Than Currently Available Options

July 20, 2014 — A new material called CC3 effectively traps xenon, krypton, and radon. These gases are used in industries such as lighting or medicine and, in the case of radon, one that can be hazardous when it ... full story

The Bend in the Appalachian Mountain Chain Is Finally Explained

July 18, 2014 — The 1,500-mile Appalachian mountain chain runs along a nearly straight line from Alabama to Newfoundland -- except for a curious bend in Pennsylvania and New York State. Researchers now know what ... full story

Microplastics Worse for Crabs and Other Marine Life Than Previously Thought: Enter Through Gills

July 18, 2014 — The tiny plastic particles polluting our seas are not only orally ingested by marine creatures, but also enter their systems through their gills, according to a new study. When microplastics are ... full story

A 10-Year Endeavor: NASA's Aura and Climate Change

July 18, 2014 — Celebrating its 10th anniversary this week, NASA's Aura satellite and its four onboard instruments measure some of the climate agents in the atmosphere, including greenhouse gases, clouds and dust ... full story

Catastrophic Debris Avalanches: A Second Volcanic Hazard

July 18, 2014 — Volcanic hazards aren't limited to eruptions. Debris avalanche landslides can also cause a great deal of damage and loss of life. Stratovolcanoes, with their steep, conical shapes made up of lava and ... full story

Tiniest Catch: Scientists' Fishing Expedition Reveals Viral Diversity in Sea

July 17, 2014 — Using bacteria as bait, scientists caught wild ocean viruses and then deciphered their genomes. They learned that the genetic lines between virus types in nature are less blurred than previously ... full story

Atlantic Salmon Show Capacity to Adapt to Warmer Waters

July 17, 2014 — Populations of Atlantic salmon have a surprisingly good capacity to adjust to warmer temperatures that are being seen with climate change, a group of scientists has discovered. The finding about ... full story

Tooth Plaque Provides Unique Insights Into Our Prehistoric Ancestors' Diet

July 16, 2014 — An international team of researchers has found new evidence that our prehistoric ancestors had a detailed understanding of plants long before the development of agriculture. By extracting chemical ... full story

Brain of World's First Known Predators Discovered

July 16, 2014 — Scientists have found the fossilized remains of the brain of the world's earliest known predators, from a time when life teemed in the oceans but had not yet colonized the land. The discovery reveals ... full story

Animal Foraging Tactics Unchanged for 50 Million Years

July 15, 2014 — Animals have used the same technique to search for food that's in short supply for at least 50 million years, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed fossilized sea urchin trails from northern ... full story

Dodos and Spotted Green Pigeons Are Descendants of an Island Hopping Bird

July 15, 2014 — The mysterious spotted green pigeon was a relative of the dodo, according to scientists who have examined its genetic make-up. The authors say their results support a theory that both birds are ... full story

New Feathered Predatory Fossil Sheds Light on Dinosaur Flight

July 15, 2014 — A new raptorial dinosaur fossil with exceptionally long feathers has provided exciting insights into dinosaur flight. A new article asserts that the fossil has a long feathered tail that scientists ... full story

Little Too Late: Pathogenic Bacterium in 700-Year-Old Skeleton Identified

July 15, 2014 — Researchers have recovered a genome of the bacterium Brucella melitensis from a 700-year-old skeleton found in the ruins of a Medieval Italian village. Researchers used a technique called shotgun ... full story

Ötzi's Non-Human DNA: Opportunistic Pathogen Discovered in Iceman Tissue Biopsy

July 15, 2014 — Ötzi’s human genome was decoded from a hip bone sample taken from the 5,300 year old mummy. However the tiny sample weighing no more than 0.1 g provides so much more information. A team of ... full story

Bones of Elephant Ancestor Unearthed: Meet the Gomphothere

July 14, 2014 — An ancient ancestor of the elephant, once believed to have disappeared from North America before humans ever arrived there, might actually have roamed the continent longer than previously thought. ... full story

Running for Life: How Speed Restricts Evolutionary Change of the Vertebral Column

July 14, 2014 — One of the riddles of mammal evolution is explained: the conservation of the number of trunk vertebrae. Dutch and American researchers have shown that this conservation is due to the role of speed in ... full story

Serendipity at the Smithsonian: The 107-Year 'Journey' of the Beetle Rhipidocyrtus Muiri

July 14, 2014 — Serendipity leads scientists to the discovery and description of Rhipidocyrtus muiri -- a 107 year old, lost in collections specimen, which turned out to represent a new genus and species. The long ... full story

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Rate of HIV Diagnosis in U.S. Examined in Study

July 19, 2014 — The annual HIV diagnosis rate in the U.S. decreased more than 30 percent from 2002-2011, with declines observed in several key populations, although increases were found among certain age groups of ... full story

How Existing Cropland Could Feed Billions More

July 17, 2014 — Feeding a growing human population without increasing stresses on Earth's strained land and water resources may seem like an impossible challenge. But according to a new report focusing efforts to ... full story

Forty Percent of Ontario Female Prisoners Enter Correctional System With a Traumatic Brain Injury

July 17, 2014 — Almost 40 per cent of Ontario female prisoners have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a study has shown. Unlike the men participating in the study, half of these women sustained a TBI before ... full story

Anti-Tank Missile Detector Joins Fight Against Malaria

July 17, 2014 — State-of-the-art military hardware could soon fight malaria, one of the most deadly diseases on the planet. Researchers have used an anti-tank Javelin missile detector, more commonly used in warfare ... full story

Cooperation: Preteens, Teens Most Fickle, Older People Most Cooperative

July 15, 2014 — A new experimental study analyzed how cooperative attitudes evolve in different age ranges. Researchers found that young people between the ages of ten and sixteen demonstrate more fickle behavior ... full story

Socio-Economic Change More of a Problem for Nomads Than Climate Change

July 15, 2014 — Socio-economic change could have a much bigger impact than climate change on grazing lands in the world’s arid regions. This is the conclusion reached by scientists who simulated ecological and ... full story

Rethinking Fish Farming to Offset Its Public Health and Environmental Risks

July 14, 2014 — As government agencies recommend greater consumption of seafood for its health benefits, a new analysis urges medical and public health professionals to consider the environmental and health impact ... full story

Sierra Leone Samples: Ebola Evidence in West Africa in 2006

July 14, 2014 — Analysis of clinical samples from suspected Lassa fever cases in Sierra Leone showed that about two-thirds of the patients had been exposed to other emerging diseases, and nearly nine percent tested ... full story

Belize's Lobster, Conch, and Fish Populations Rebuild in No-Take Zones

July 13, 2014 — A new report shows that no-take zones in Belize can not only help economically valuable species such as lobster, conch, and fish recover from overfishing, but may also help re-colonize nearby reef ... full story

Australia Drying Caused by Greenhouse Gases, Study Shows

July 13, 2014 — A new high-resolution climate model has been developed that shows southwestern Australia's long-term decline in fall and winter rainfall is caused by increases in human-made greenhouse gas emissions ... full story

Powerful New Source of Up-to-Date Information on Economic Activity

July 10, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure uses aggregated and de-identified data on transactions and account balances from Check, a ... full story

Computer Security: 'Melbourne Shuffle' Secures Data in the Cloud

July 10, 2014 — Encryption might not be enough for all that data stored in the cloud. Usage patterns -- which files are accessed and when -- can give away secrets as well. Computer scientists have developed an ... full story

Neuroeconomists Confirm Warren Buffett's Wisdom: Brain Research Suggests an Early Warning Signal Tips Off Smart Traders

July 7, 2014 — Investment magnate Warren Buffett has famously suggested that investors should try to 'be fearful when others are greedy and be greedy only when others are fearful.' That turns out to be excellent ... full story

Putting a Price Tag on the 2 Degree Celsius Climate Target

July 2, 2014 — Addressing climate change will require substantial new investment in low-carbon energy and energy efficiency -- but no more than what is currently spent on today's fossil-dominated energy system, ... full story

Oil Palm Plantations Threaten Water Quality, Scientists Say

June 30, 2014 — Indonesia pays a price for a lucrative crop used in many household products. Palm plantations damage freshwater streams that supply drinking water to millions of people. Found in thousands of ... full story

Are You Seen as a Jerk at Work? Many People Are Oblivious to How They Come Across to Counterparts and Colleagues

June 30, 2014 — New research shows that many people seen by others as under-assertive or over-assertive think they're appropriately assertive. The study also reveals that people seen as getting assertiveness right ... full story

Back Away, Please: Humans Tend to Fear Things Approaching, Even If Non-Threatening

June 23, 2014 — We still have negative feelings about things that approach us -- even if they objectively are not threatening, according to new research. Though we modern humans don't really consider such fear, it ... full story

New Research Proves Gender Bias Extraordinarily Prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Fields

June 23, 2014 — With everyone from the federal government to corporate America working to encourage more women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math fields, you would think the doors would ... full story

Android Security Weaknesses Caused by Performance Design Identified

June 19, 2014 — Researchers have identified a weakness in one of Android’s security features. The research identifies an Android performance feature that weakens a software protection called Address Space Layout ... full story

Crucial Security Problem in Google Play: Thousands of Secret Keys Found in Android Apps

June 18, 2014 — Researchers have discovered a crucial security problem in Google Play, the official Android app store. The study is the first to make a large-scale measurement of the huge marketplace, using ... full story

Months Before Their First Words, Babies' Brains Rehearse Speech Mechanics

July 14, 2014 — New research in 7- and 11-month-old infants shows that speech sounds stimulate areas of the brain that coordinate and plan motor movements for speech. The study suggests that baby brains start laying ... full story

Want a Higher GPA in College? Join a Gym

July 10, 2014 — For those students looking to bump up their grade point averages during college, the answer may not be spending more time in a library or study hall, but in a gym. New research shows that students ... full story

Same Genes Drive Mathematics and Reading Ability

July 8, 2014 — About half of the genes that influence how well a child can read also play a role in their mathematics ability, say scientists who led a study into the genetic basis of cognitive traits. While ... full story

Working Memory Is Key to Early Academic Achievement

July 8, 2014 — Working memory in children is linked strongly to reading and academic achievement, a new study has shown. Moreover, this finding holds true regardless of socio-economic status. This suggests that ... full story

3-D Printer to Aid the Visually Impaired Students in Their Educational Endeavors

July 2, 2014 — New technology has been developed to make tactile objects with ease thanks to the convergence technology of 3-D printing and 3-D thermal reflow treatment, which can be denoted as the revolution in ... full story

Learn Dutch in Your Sleep: Listening to Lessons While Sleeping Reinforces Memory

June 30, 2014 — When you have learned words in another language, it may be worth listening to them again in your sleep. A study has now shown that this method reinforces memory. "Our method is easy to use in daily ... full story

The Secrets of Children's Chatter: Research Shows Boys and Girls Learn Language Differently

June 27, 2014 — Experts believe language uses both a mental dictionary and a mental grammar.  The mental ‘dictionary’ stores sounds, words and common phrases, while mental ‘grammar’ involves the real-time ... full story

Increased Nearsightedness Linked to Higher Education Levels and More Years Spent in School

June 26, 2014 — Researchers have found strong evidence that attaining a higher level of education and spending more years in school are two factors associated with a greater prevalence and severity of ... full story

First Year University Students Struggle to Remember Basic Concepts Learned the Year Before

June 25, 2014 — University freshers struggle to remember basic concepts from their A-level studies according to new U.K. research. A new report shows that even grade-A students could only remember 40 percent of ... full story

Learning by Repetition Impairs Recall of Details, Study Shows

June 23, 2014 — While repetition enhances the factual content of memories, it can reduce the amount of detail stored with those memories, neurobiologists report following a recent study. This means that with ... full story

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