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Friday, April 18, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

First Potentially Habitable Earth-Sized Planet Confirmed by Gemini and Keck Observatories

Apr. 17, 2014 The first Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of another star has been confirmed by observations with both the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Gemini Observatory. The initial ... full story

Fear of the Cuckoo Mafia: In Fear of Retaliation, Birds Accept and Raise Brood Parasites' Young

Apr. 17, 2014 If a restaurant owner fails to pay the 'protection money' demanded of him by the mob, he can expect his premises to be trashed. Warnings like these are seldom required, however, as fear of ... full story

There's Something Ancient in the Icebox: Three-Million-Year-Old Landscape Beneath Greenland Ice Sheet

Apr. 17, 2014 Scientists were greatly surprised to discover an ancient tundra landscape preserved under the Greenland Ice Sheet, below two miles of ice. This finding provides strong evidence that the ice sheet has ... full story

The Story of Animal Domestication Retold: Scientists Now Think Wild Animals Interbred With Domesticated Ones Until Quite Recently

Apr. 17, 2014 A review of recent research on the domestication of large herbivores suggests that neither intentional breeding nor genetic isolation were as significant as traditionally thought. "Our findings ... full story

Earliest Ancestor of Land Herbivores Discovered: 300-Million-Year-Old Predator Showed Way to Modern Terrestrial Ecosystem

Apr. 16, 2014 New research demonstrates how carnivores transitioned into herbivores for the first time on land. Previously unknown, the 300-million-year old fossilized juvenile skeleton of Eocasea martini is less ... full story

Air Temperature Influenced African Glacial Movements at Height of Last Ice Age

Apr. 16, 2014 Changes in air temperature, not precipitation, drove the expansion and contraction of glaciers in Africa's Rwenzori Mountains at the height of the last ice age, according to research. The ... full story

Bright Points in Sun's Atmosphere Mark Patterns Deep in Its Interior

Apr. 17, 2014 Like a balloon bobbing along in the air while tied to a child's hand, a tracer has been found in the sun's atmosphere to help track the flow of material coursing underneath the sun's ... full story

Vitamin B3 Might Have Been Made in Space, Delivered to Earth by Meteorites

Apr. 17, 2014 Ancient Earth might have had an extraterrestrial supply of vitamin B3 delivered by carbon-rich meteorites, according to a new analysis. The result supports a theory that the origin of life may have ... full story

Our Brains Are Hardwired for Language

Apr. 17, 2014 People blog, they don't lbog, and they schmooze, not mshooze. But why is this? Why are human languages so constrained? Can such restrictions unveil the basis of the uniquely human capacity for ... full story

Gene Variant Increases Risk of Colorectal Cancer from Eating Processed Meat

Apr. 17, 2014 A common genetic variant that affects one in three people appears to significantly increase the risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of processed meat, according to a new ... full story

People of Color Live in Neighborhoods With More Air Pollution Than Whites, Groundbreaking U.S. Study Shows

Apr. 15, 2014 A first-of-its-kind study has found that on average in the U.S., people of color are exposed to 38 percent higher levels of nitrogen dioxide outdoor air pollution compared to white people. The health ... full story

Alternative Identification Methods for Threatened Species Urged

Apr. 17, 2014 With global climate change and rapidly disappearing habitat critical to the survival of endangered species, there is a sense of urgency to confirm the return of animals thought to be extinct, or to ... full story

More, Bigger Wildfires Burning Western US Over Last 30 Years

Apr. 17, 2014 Wildfires across the western United States have been getting bigger and more frequent over the last 30 years. The total area these fires burned increased at a rate of nearly 90,000 acres a year -- an ... full story

Genetic Study Tackles Mystery of Slow Plant Domestications

Apr. 17, 2014 Did domesticating a plant typically take a few hundred or many thousands of years? Genetic studies often indicate that domestication traits have a fairly simple genetic basis, which should facilitate ... full story

Thinnest Membrane Feasible Has Been Produced

Apr. 17, 2014 A new nano-membrane made out of the 'super material' graphene is extremely light and breathable. Not only can this open the door to a new generation of functional waterproof clothing, but ... full story

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'Holy Grail' Of Weight Loss? New Find Could Be It

'Holy Grail' Of Weight Loss? New Find Could Be It

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) In a potential breakthrough for future obesity treatments, scientists have used MRI scans to pinpoint brown fat in a living adult for the first time. Video provided by Newsy
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First Ever 'Female Penis' Discovered In Animal Kingdom

First Ever 'Female Penis' Discovered In Animal Kingdom

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) Not only are these newly discovered bugs' sex organs reversed, but they also mate for up to 70 hours. Video provided by Newsy
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Earth's Near-Twin Found Orbiting Red Dwarf

Earth's Near-Twin Found Orbiting Red Dwarf

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2014) The newly-discovered planet is roughly the size of Earth and could have liquid water on its surface. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Create Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells

Scientists Create Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2014) The breakthrough could mean a cure for some serious diseases and even the possibility of human cloning, but it's all still a way off. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-04-18 at 4:43 pm EDT

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Impact of Childhood Bullying Still Evident After 40 Years

Apr. 17, 2014 The negative social, physical and mental health effects of childhood bullying are still evident nearly 40 years later, according to new research. The study is the first to look at the effects of ... full story

Multitarget TB Drug Could Treat Other Diseases, Evade Resistance

Apr. 17, 2014 A drug under clinical trials to treat tuberculosis could be the basis for a class of broad-spectrum drugs that act against various bacteria, fungal infections and parasites, yet evade resistance, ... full story

Target for Treating Dengue Fever Discovered

Apr. 17, 2014 New research may help scientists develop treatments or vaccines for dengue fever, West Nile virus, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and other disease-causing flaviviruses. More than 40 percent of ... full story

How the Immune System Protects Children from Malaria

Apr. 17, 2014 Children who live in regions of the world where malaria is common can mount an immune response to infection with malaria parasites that may enable them to avoid repeated bouts of high fever and ... full story

Malaria Pathogen's Cellular Skeleton Under Super-Microscope

Apr. 17, 2014 The tropical disease malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite. For its survival and propagation, Plasmodium requires a protein called actin. Scientists used high-resolution structural biology ... full story

Gene Variant Raises Risk for Aortic Tear, Rupture

Apr. 17, 2014 The significance of a genetic variant that substantially increases the risk of a frequently fatal thoracic aortic dissection or full rupture has been confirmed by researchers. Thoracic aortic ... full story

Novel Stapled Peptide Nanoparticle Combination Prevents RSV Infection, Study Finds

Apr. 17, 2014 A combination of advanced technologies may lead to a therapy to prevent or treat respiratory syncytial virus, a potentially lethal respiratory infection affecting infants, young children and the ... full story

Tracking Flu Levels With Wikipedia

Apr. 17, 2014 Can monitoring Wikipedia hits show how many people have the flu? Researchers have developed a method of estimating levels of influenza-like illness in the American population by analyzing Internet ... full story

Deadly Human Pathogen Cryptococcus Fully Sequenced

Apr. 17, 2014 A ten-year effort by an international team has sequenced the entire genome and all the RNA products of the most important pathogenic lineage of Cryptococcus neoformans, a strain called H99.These ... full story

Proteomics Discovers Link Between Muscle Damage and Cerebral Malaria

Apr. 17, 2014 Malaria-related complications remain a major cause of death for children in many parts of the world. Why some children develop these complications while others don't is still not understood. ... full story

Inhibited Children Become Anxious Adults: Examining the Causes and Effects of Early Shyness

Apr. 17, 2014 Three little girls sit together in a room, playing with the toys surrounding them. One of the girls -- "Emma" -- has clearly taken charge of the group, and the others happily go along with her. A ... full story

Is Parkinson's an Autoimmune Disease?

Apr. 17, 2014 The cause of neuronal death in Parkinson's disease is still unknown, but a new study proposes that neurons may be mistaken for foreign invaders and killed by the person's own immune system, similar ... full story

Loud Talking, Horseplay in Car Results in More Serious Incidents for Teen Drivers

Apr. 17, 2014 Adolescent drivers are often distracted by technology while they are driving, but loud conversations and horseplay between passengers appear more likely to result in a dangerous incident, according ... full story

Connecting Sleep Deficits Among Young Fruit Flies to Disruption in Mating Later in Life

Apr. 17, 2014 Mom always said you need your sleep, and it turns out, she was right. According to a new study, the lack of sleep in young fruit flies profoundly diminishes their ability to do one thing they do ... full story

Boosting Depression-Causing Mechanisms in Brain Increases Resilience, Surprisingly

Apr. 17, 2014 New research uncovers a conceptually novel approach to treating depression. Instead of dampening neuron firing found with stress-induced depression, researchers demonstrated for the first time that ... full story

New Cause of Brain Bleeding Immediately After Stroke Identified

Apr. 17, 2014 By discovering a new mechanism that allows blood to enter the brain immediately after a stroke, researchers have opened the door to new therapies that may limit or prevent stroke-induced brain ... full story

How Vision Makes Sure That Little Fish Do Not Get Carried Away

Apr. 17, 2014 Our eyes not only enable us to recognize objects, they also provide us with a continuous stream of information about our own movements. The world glides by us and leaves a characteristic motion trace ... full story

Discovery Could Lead to Novel Therapies for Fragile X Syndrome

Apr. 17, 2014 Scientists studying the most common form of inherited mental disability -- a genetic disease called 'Fragile X syndrome' -- have uncovered new details about the cellular processes responsible for the ... full story

Neurons in Brain Tune Into Different Frequencies for Different Spatial Memory Tasks

Apr. 17, 2014 Your brain transmits information about your current location and memories of past locations over the same neural pathways using different frequencies of a rhythmic electrical activity called gamma ... full story

For Resetting Circadian Rhythms, Neural Cooperation Is Key

Apr. 17, 2014 Fruit flies are pretty predictable when it comes to scheduling their days, with peaks of activity at dawn and dusk and rest times in between. Now, researchers have found that the clusters of brain ... full story

Fish Consumption Advisories for Expecting Mothers Fail to Cover All Types of Contaminants

Apr. 17, 2014 Fish consumption advisories for expecting mothers are ineffective in reducing infant exposure to contaminants like persistent organic pollutants. The researchers' model estimates that women who stop ... full story

'I Spy' Used to Show Spoken Language Helps Direct Children's Eyes

Apr. 17, 2014 Children spot objects more quickly when prompted by words than if they are only prompted by images, cognitive scientists have demonstrated. Spoken language taps into children's cognitive system, ... full story

Distracted Driving Among Teens Threatens Public Health and Safety

Apr. 17, 2014 Motor vehicle crashes rank as the leading cause of teen deaths and in 2008, 16% of all distraction-related fatal automobile crashes involved drivers under 20 years of age. These grim statistics, ... full story

Changing Where a Baby Is Held Immediately After Birth Could Lead to Improved Uptake of Procedure That Reduces Infant Iron Deficiency

Apr. 16, 2014 Changing where a newborn baby is held before its umbilical cord is clamped could lead to improved uptake in hospitals of delayed cord clamping, leading to a decreased risk of iron deficiency in ... full story

Bacteria Survive Longer in Contact Lens Cleaning Solution Than Previously Thought, Study Shows

Apr. 16, 2014 Each year in the UK, bacterial infections cause around 6,000 cases of a severe eye condition known as microbial keratitis – an inflammation and ulceration of the cornea that can lead to loss of ... full story

Surprising Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk

Apr. 16, 2014 Eliminating chocolate milk from elementary schools decreased total milk sales by 10 percent, and increased milk waste by 29 percent, a study has shown. Additionally, the ban may have been a factor in ... full story

In Old Age, Lack of Emotion, Interest May Signal Brain Is Shrinking

Apr. 16, 2014 Older people who have apathy but not depression may have smaller brain volumes than those without apathy, according to a new study. Apathy is a lack of interest or ... full story

How Smells Stick to Your Memories: Your Nose Can Be a Pathfinder

Apr. 16, 2014 Waves in your brain make smells stick to your memories and inner maps. Researchers have recently discovered the process behind this phenomenon. The brain, it turns out, connects smells to memories ... full story

Shade Grown Coffee Shrinking as a Proportion of Global Coffee Production

Apr. 16, 2014 Over the past couple of decades, global coffee production has been shifting towards a more intensive, less environmentally friendly style, a new study has found. That's pretty surprising if you live ... full story

Toddlers 'Surprisingly Sophisticated' at Understanding Unfamiliar Accents

Apr. 16, 2014 By two years of age, children are remarkably good at comprehending speakers who talk with accents the toddlers have never heard before, a study has shown. Even more striking, say researchers, ... full story

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'Dressed' Laser Aimed at Clouds May Be Key to Inducing Rain, Lightning

Apr. 18, 2014 The adage 'Everyone complains about the weather but nobody does anything about it,' may one day be obsolete if researchers further develop a new technique to aim a high-energy laser beam into clouds ... full story

Gecko-Like Adhesives Now Useful for Real World Surfaces

Apr. 18, 2014 The ability to stick objects to a wide range of surfaces such as drywall, wood, metal and glass with a single adhesive has been the elusive goal of many research teams across the world, but now a ... full story

Better Thermal-Imaging Lens from Waste Sulfur

Apr. 17, 2014 A new chemical process can transform waste sulfur into lightweight plastic lenses that have a high refractive index and are transparent to mid-range infrared light. The lenses may have applications ... full story

Building 'Smart' Cell-Based Therapies

Apr. 17, 2014 A technology for engineering human cells as therapies has been developed by scientists. The the technology becomes activated only in diseased tissues. It sits on the surface of a cell and can be ... full story

Surprising Material Could Play Huge Role in Saving Energy: Tin Selenide Is Best at Converting Waste Heat to Electricity

Apr. 17, 2014 One strategy for addressing the world's energy crisis is to stop wasting so much energy when producing and using it, such as in coal-fired power plants or transportation. Nearly two-thirds of energy ... full story

Patented Research Remotely Detects Nitrogen-Rich Explosives

Apr. 17, 2014 A patented technique that improves military security and remotely detects improvised explosive devices has been developed by an engineer. The same technique could help police during drug searches. ... full story

New Technique Detects Microscopic Diabetes-Related Eye Damage

Apr. 17, 2014 New early-warning signs of the potential loss of sight associated with diabetes have been detected by researchers. This discovery could have far-reaching implications for the diagnosis and treatment ... full story

Key Milestone for Brown Fat Research With Ground-Breaking MRI Scan

Apr. 17, 2014 The first MRI scan to show 'brown fat' in a living adult could prove to be an essential step towards a new wave of therapies to aid the fight against diabetes and obesity. Brown fat has become a hot ... full story

Chiral Breathing: Electrically Controlled Polymer Changes Its Optical Properties

Apr. 17, 2014 Electrically controlled glasses with continuously adjustable transparency, new polarization filters, and even chemosensors capable of detecting single molecules of specific chemicals could be ... full story

Simplicity Is Key to Co-Operative Robots

Apr. 16, 2014 A way of making hundreds -- or even thousands -- of tiny robots cluster to carry out tasks without using any memory or processing power has been developed. Engineers have programmed extremely simple ... full story

Impact Glass Stores Biodata for Millions of Years

Apr. 18, 2014 Bits of plant life encapsulated in molten glass by asteroid and comet impacts millions of years ago give geologists information about climate and life forms on the ancient Earth. Scientists exploring ... full story

A Cross-Section of the Universe

Apr. 17, 2014 An image of a galaxy cluster gives a remarkable cross-section of the universe, showing objects at different distances and stages in cosmic history. They range from cosmic near neighbors to objects ... full story

Red Moon at Night: Stargazer's Delight

Apr. 16, 2014 Monday night's lunar eclipse proved just as delightful as expected to those able to view it. On the East Coast, cloudy skies may have gotten in the way, but at the National Science Foundation's ... full story

Mars: Meteorites Yield Clues to Red Planet's Early Atmosphere

Apr. 16, 2014 Geologists analyzed 40 meteorites that fell to Earth from Mars to understand the history of the Martian atmosphere. Their new article shows the atmospheres of Mars and Earth diverged in important ... full story

A Study in Scarlet: Hot Newborn Stars Formed out of the Clouds

Apr. 16, 2014 An area of the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur), is home to many bright nebulae, each associated with hot newborn stars that formed out of the clouds of hydrogen gas. The ... full story

Astronomers: 'Tilt-a-Worlds' Could Harbor Life

Apr. 15, 2014 A fluctuating tilt in a planet's orbit does not preclude the possibility of life, according to new research. In fact, sometimes it may help. That's because such "tilt-a-worlds," as astronomers ... full story

NASA Cassini Images May Reveal Birth of a Saturn Moon

Apr. 14, 2014 NASA's Cassini spacecraft has documented the formation of a small icy object within the rings of Saturn that may be a new moon, and may also provide clues to the formation of the planet's known ... full story

Cosmic Slurp: Supercomputers Help Astronomers Understand and Predict How Black Holes Swallow Stars

Apr. 14, 2014 A 'tidal disruption' occurs when a star orbits too close to a black hole and gets usurped. Researchers are using supercomputers to simulate tidal disruptions to better understand the dynamics of the ... full story

SpaceX’s Dragon Headed to Space Station to Create Astronaut Farmers

Apr. 14, 2014 "Enter the Dragon" takes on a whole new meaning this month as SpaceX's Dragon capsule heads to the International Space Station for its third commercial resupply mission on April 14. During the ... full story

International Space Station to Beam Video Via Laser Back to Earth

Apr. 14, 2014 A team of about 20 working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., through the lab's Phaeton early-career-hire program, led the development of the Optical Payload for Lasercomm ... full story

Chess Robots to Cause Judgment Day?

Apr. 16, 2014 Next time you play a computer at chess, think about the implications if you beat it. It could be a very sore loser! A new study reflects upon the growing need for autonomous technology, and suggests ... full story

Beating the Clock for Ischemic Stroke Sufferers

Apr. 16, 2014 Researchers have developed a new computer tool to ensure faster care and treatment for stroke patients. The CAD stroke technology is capable of detecting signs of stroke from computed tomography (CT) ... full story

Information Storage for the Next Generation of Plastic Computers: Efficient Conversion from Magnetic Storage to Light Is Key

Apr. 16, 2014 Inexpensive computers, cell phones and other systems that substitute flexible plastic for silicon chips may be one step closer to reality, thanks to new research. Scientists have made a new proposal ... full story

Quantum Computing? Progress in the Fight Against Quantum Dissipation

Apr. 16, 2014 Scientists have confirmed a 50-year-old, previously untested theoretical prediction in physics and improved the energy storage time of a quantum switch by several orders of magnitude. High-quality ... full story

Scientists Capture Ultrafast Snapshots of Light-Driven Superconductivity

Apr. 16, 2014 A new study pins down a major factor behind the appearance of superconductivity -- the ability to conduct electricity with 100 percent efficiency -- in a promising copper-oxide material. Scientists ... full story

Ant Colonies Help Evacuees in Disaster Zones

Apr. 16, 2014 An escape route mapping system based on the behavior of ant colonies could give evacuees a better chance of reaching safe harbor after a natural disaster or terrorist attack by building a map showing ... full story

Augmented Reality: Bringing History and the Future to Life

Apr. 16, 2014 Have you ever wished you had a virtual time machine that could show you how your street looked last century? Or have you wanted to see how your new furniture might look, before you’ve even bought ... full story

Computer Software Analyzing Facial Expressions Accurately Predicts Student Test Performance

Apr. 16, 2014 Real-time engagement detection technology that processes facial expressions can perform with accuracy comparable to that of human observers, according to new research. The study used automatic ... full story

Potential Use of Google Glass in Surgical Settings

Apr. 16, 2014 A new article shows the potential applications for Google Glass in the surgical setting, particularly in relation to training. Personal portable information technology is advancing at a breathtaking ... full story

Lens Turns Any Smartphone Into a Portable Microscope

Apr. 15, 2014 The Micro Phone Lens can turn any smartphone or tablet computer into a hand-held microscope. The soft, pliable lens sticks to a device's camera without any adhesive or glue and makes it possible to ... full story

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Five Anthropogenic Factors That Will Radically Alter Northern Forests in 50 Years

Apr. 17, 2014 Five anthropogenic factors that will radically alter forest conditions and management needs in the Northern United States have been outlined in a new report. "The northern quadrant of the United ... full story

Proper Stem Cell Function Requires Hydrogen Sulfide

Apr. 17, 2014 Stem cells in bone marrow need to produce hydrogen sulfide in order to properly multiply and form bone tissue, according to a new study. Researchers demonstrated that mice's osteoporosis-like ... full story

East African Honeybees Safe from Invasive Pests ... for Now

Apr. 17, 2014 Several parasites and pathogens that devastate honeybees in Europe, Asia and the United States are spreading across East Africa, but do not appear to be impacting native honeybee populations at this ... full story

Refining Language for Chromosomes

Apr. 17, 2014 A new classification system that may standardize how structural chromosomal rearrangements are described has been proposed by a team of researchers. Known as Next-Gen Cytogenetic Nomenclature, it is ... full story

Surprise: Lost Stem Cells Naturally Replaced by Non-Stem Cells, Fly Research Suggests

Apr. 17, 2014 An unexpected phenomenon in the organs that produce sperm in fruit flies has been discovered: When a certain kind of stem cell is killed off experimentally, another group of non-stem cells can come ... full story

Fighting Malaria Drug Resistance: Scientists Find New Way

Apr. 17, 2014 An anti-malarial treatment that lost its status as the leading weapon against the deadly disease could be given a new lease of life, with new research indicating it simply needs to be administered ... full story

Some Immune Cells Defend Only One Organ

Apr. 17, 2014 Some organs have the immunological equivalent of 'neighborhood police' -- specialized squads of defenders that patrol only one area, a single organ, instead of an entire city, the body, scientists ... full story

Biologists Help Solve Fungal Mysteries, Inform Studies on Climate Change

Apr. 17, 2014 A new genetic analysis revealing the previously unknown biodiversity and distribution of thousands of fungi in North America might also reveal a previously underappreciated contributor to climate ... full story

Methane Climate Change Risk Suggested by Proof of Redox Cycling of Humic Substances

Apr. 17, 2014 Disruption of natural methane-binding process may worsen climate change, scientists have suggested, painting a stark warning on the possible effects of gases such as methane -- which has a greenhouse ... full story

In Sex-Reversed Cave Insects, Females Have the Penises

Apr. 17, 2014 Little-known cave insects with rather novel sex lives have been discovered by researchers. The Brazilian insects, which represent four distinct but related species in the genus Neotrogla, are the ... full story

Fewer Sources for Self-Cleaning Air: Study Overturns Existing Knowledge on Nitrous Acid, HONO

Apr. 17, 2014 Up to now, nitrous acid, HONO, was considered one of the most important sources of hydroxyl radicals, OH, which is regarded as the detergent of the atmosphere, allowing the air to clean itself. ... full story

Study Shows Lasting Effects of Drought in Rainy Eastern U.S.

Apr. 17, 2014 This spring, more than 40 percent of the western U.S. is in a drought that the USDA deems "severe" or "exceptional." The same was true in 2013. In 2012, drought even spread to the humid east. But new ... full story

Declining Catch Rates in Caribbean Nicaragua Green Turtle Fishery May Be Result of Overfishing

Apr. 16, 2014 A 20-year assessment of Nicaragua’s legal, artisanal green sea turtle fishery has uncovered a stark reality: greatly reduced overall catch rates of turtles in what may have become an unsustainable ... full story

Chimpanzees Prefer Firm, Stable Beds

Apr. 16, 2014 Chimpanzees may select a certain type of wood, Ugandan ironwood, over other options for its firm, stable, and resilient properties to make their bed. Chimpanzees use tree branches to build beds or ... full story

Residing in High Altitude Military Facilities Protects Service Members from Obesity

Apr. 16, 2014 Overweight U.S. service members are 41 percent less likely to transition to clinical obesity when stationed at military facilities located at high altitude, according to a new study. The ... full story

Crucial New Information About How the Ice Ages Came About

Apr. 16, 2014 Scientists have discovered new relationships between deep-sea temperature and ice-volume changes to provide crucial new information about how the ice ages came about. The researchers found, for the ... full story

NutNet: New Model for Global Research

Apr. 16, 2014 What do zebra and kangaroos have in common? At first glance, not much -- they aren’t even found in the same part of the world. But here’s one thing they do share: Both are part of the Nutrient ... full story

A Greener Source of Polyester: Cork Trees

Apr. 16, 2014 On the scale of earth-friendly materials, you'd be hard pressed to find two that are farther apart than polyester (not at all) and cork (very). In an unexpected twist, however, scientists are ... full story

DNA Looping Damage Tied to HPV Cancer, Researcher Discovers

Apr. 16, 2014 Certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) are known to cause about five percent of all cancer cases, yet all the mechanisms aren't completely understood. Now, researchers have leveraged Ohio ... full story

Floating Nuclear Plants Could Ride out Tsunamis: New Design for Enhanced Safety, Easier Siting and Centralized Construction

Apr. 16, 2014 When an earthquake and tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant complex in 2011, neither the quake nor the inundation caused the ensuing contamination. Rather, it was the aftereffects -- ... full story

New City Wall Discovered at Ancient Roman Port

Apr. 17, 2014 Researchers have discovered a new section of the boundary wall of the ancient Roman port of Ostia, proving the city was much larger than previously ... full story

Family Ties in the Language Jungle: Amazon Language Relationships Revealed

Apr. 16, 2014 Relationships between rare languages in the Colombian Amazon have been revealed by researchers. The only linguistic data available for Carabayo, a language spoken by an indigenous group that lives in ... full story

Ancient Shark Fossil Reveals New Insights Into Jaw Evolution

Apr. 16, 2014 The skull of a newly discovered 325-million-year-old shark-like species suggests that early cartilaginous and bony fishes have more to tell us about the early evolution of jawed vertebrates -- ... full story

Trials of the Cherokee Were Reflected in Their Skulls

Apr. 16, 2014 Researchers have found that environmental stressors -- from the Trail of Tears to the Civil War -- led to significant changes in the shape of skulls in the eastern and western bands of the Cherokee ... full story

At the Origin of Cell Division: The Features of Living Matter Emerge from Inanimate Matter in Simulation

Apr. 16, 2014 Droplets of filamentous material enclosed in a lipid membrane: these are the models of a “simplified” cell used by physicists who simulated the spontaneous emergence of cell motility and division ... full story

Warm U.S. West, Cold East: 4,000-Year Pattern; Global Warming May Bring More Curvy Jet Streams During Winter

Apr. 16, 2014 Last winter’s curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A new study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, and ... full story

New Study Outlines 'Water World' Theory of Life's Origins

Apr. 15, 2014 Life took root more than four billion years ago on our nascent Earth, a wetter and harsher place than now, bathed in sizzling ultraviolet rays. What started out as simple cells ultimately transformed ... full story

Lifestyle Determines Gut Microbes: Study With Modern Hunter-Gatherers Tells Tale of Bacteria Co-Evolution

Apr. 15, 2014 The intestinal bacteria of present-day hunter-gatherers has for the first time been deciphered by an international team of researchers. Bacterial populations have co-evolved with humans over millions ... full story

Bioarchaeologists Link Climate Instability to Human Mobility in Ancient Sahara

Apr. 15, 2014 Researchers have uncovered clues to how past peoples moved across their landscape as the once lush environment deteriorated. Scientists sampled bone and teeth enamel, and used their chemical ... full story

Medieval Slave Trade Routes in Eastern Europe Extended from Finland and the Baltic Countries to Central Asia

Apr. 15, 2014 The routes of slave trade in Eastern Europe in the medieval and pre-modern period extended all the way to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. A recent study suggests that persons captured during raids ... full story

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New Type of Barcode Could Make Counterfeiters' Lives More Difficult

Apr. 16, 2014 Counterfeiters, beware! Scientists are reporting the development of a new type of inexpensive barcode that, when added to documents or currency, could foil attempts at making forgeries. Although the ... full story

Using Video Surveillance to Measure Peoples' Hand Washing Habits

Apr. 16, 2014 Use of video surveillance to better understand essential hygiene behavior has been pioneered by researchers. Still, despite years of global public awareness campaigns, hand washing rates remain low. ... full story

EU Must Take Urgent Action on Invasive Species, Experts Urge

Apr. 16, 2014 The EU must take urgent action to halt the spread of invasive species that are threatening native plants and animals across Europe, according to scientists. The threats posed by these species cost an ... full story

Antibiotics Improve Growth in Children in Developing Countries

Apr. 15, 2014 Antibiotics improve growth in children at risk of undernourishment in low and middle income countries, according to researchers who have just conducted a research literature review on the subject. ... full story

Mouse Model Would Have Predicted Toxicity of Drug That Killed 5 in 1993 Clinical Trial

Apr. 15, 2014 Over 20 years after the fatal fialuridine trial, a new study demonstrates that mice with humanized livers recapitulate the drug's toxicity. The work suggests that this mouse model should be added to ... full story

Thyroid Disease Risk Varies Among Blacks, Asians, Whites

Apr. 15, 2014 An analysis that included active military personnel finds that the rate of the thyroid disorder Graves disease is more common among blacks and Asian/Pacific Islanders compared with whites. The ... full story

Pre-Diabetes, Diabetes Nearly Double Over the Past Two Decades

Apr. 15, 2014 Cases of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States have nearly doubled since 1988, suggests new research, with obesity apparently to blame for the surge. The researchers also found that the ... full story

How Mothers Help Children Explore Right and Wrong

Apr. 15, 2014 Moms want their kids to grow up to be good people -- but how do they actually help their offspring sort out different types of moral issues? A new study shows many moms talk to their kids in ways ... full story

Sensitive Detection Method May Help Impede Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

Apr. 15, 2014 According to a new study, coupling commercially available spectral X-ray detectors with a specialized algorithm can improve the detection of uranium and plutonium in small, layered objects such as ... full story

European Climate at the 2 Degrees Celsius Global Warming Threshold

Apr. 15, 2014 A global warming of 2 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of ... full story

Flaw in 'Secure' Cloud Storage Could Put Privacy at Risk

Apr. 15, 2014 Computer scientists have found a flaw in the way that secure cloud storage companies protect their customers’ data. The scientists say this weakness jeopardizes the privacy protection these digital ... full story

Cybersecurity Researchers Roll out a New Heartbleed Solution: Red Herring Creates Decoy Servers, Entraps, Monitors Hackers

Apr. 14, 2014 As companies scrambled in recent days to address the latest cybersecurity bug known as Heartbleed, researchers demonstrate a solution that fixes the vulnerability, and also detects and entraps ... full story

Tiny Particles Could Help Verify Goods

Apr. 13, 2014 Chemical engineers hope smartphone-readable microparticles could crack down on counterfeiting. Some 2 to 5 percent of all international trade involves counterfeit goods, according to a 2013 United ... full story

Should You Trust Your Financial Advisor? Pseudo-Mathematics and Financial Charlatanism

Apr. 10, 2014 Your financial advisor calls you up to suggest a new investment scheme. Drawing on 20 years of data, he has set his computer to work on this question: If you had invested according to this scheme in ... full story

UN Climate Report: Pricing of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Critical

Apr. 4, 2014 Despite climate change, most polluters still pay little or nothing when they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A cost $0.15 US per kilo of carbon dioxide would be enough to solve the whole ... full story

Americans Using More Energy, According to New Analysis

Apr. 2, 2014 Americans used more renewable, fossil and even nuclear energy in 2013, according to the most recent energy flow charts. Wind energy continued to grow strongly, increasing 18 percent from 1.36 ... full story

Agroforestry Systems Can Repair Degraded Watersheds

Mar. 27, 2014 Agroforestry, combined with land and water management practices that increase agricultural productivity, can save watersheds from degradation. A study in the Gabayan watershed in eastern Bohol, ... full story

Smoke-Free Air Policies Seem to Protect the Heart

Mar. 27, 2014 Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces may substantially improve public health by reducing heart disease and death, according to a new study on the impact of ... full story

Keeping Secrets in a World of Spies and Mistrust

Mar. 26, 2014 A new article reviews developments in quantum cryptography and describes how we can keep our secrets secret even when faced with the double challenge of mistrust and ... full story

Important and Complex Systems, from the Global Financial Market to Groups of Friends, May Be Highly Controllable

Mar. 20, 2014 Scientists have discovered that all complex systems, whether they are found in the body, in international finance, or in social situations, actually fall into just three basic categories, in terms of ... full story

Teaching to Optimize Learning or Control Misbehavior? Scale of Disruptive Behavior in Schools Seriously Underestimated

Apr. 14, 2014 The true extent of poor pupil behavior in schools is seriously underestimated, according to an academic. The research raises the question of the extent to which there is a right to learn in ... full story

Procrastination and Impulsivity Genetically Linked: Exploring the Genetics of 'I'll Do It Tomorrow'

Apr. 7, 2014 Procrastination and impulsivity are genetically linked, suggesting that the two traits stem from similar evolutionary origins, according to new research. The research indicates that the traits are ... full story

U.S. School Children Exposed to Arsenic in Well Water Have Lower IQ Scores

Apr. 7, 2014 A study from three school districts in Maine exposed to arsenic in drinking water experienced declines in child intelligence. While earlier studies conducted by the researchers in South Asia, and ... full story

Limiting Screen Time Improves Sleep, Academics, Behavior, Study Finds

Mar. 31, 2014 Parents may not always see it, but efforts to limit their children’s screen time can make a difference. A new study found children get more sleep, do better in school and see other health benefits ... full story

Four in 10 Infants Lack Strong Parental Attachments

Mar. 27, 2014 In a study of 14,000 US children, 40 percent lack strong emotional bonds -- what psychologists call 'secure attachment' -- with their parents that are crucial to success later in life, according to a ... full story

Natural History Must Reclaim Its Place, Experts Say

Mar. 26, 2014 Scientists argue that the study of natural history has waned in recent decades in developed countries. Declining course requirements and support for herbaria are among the documented evidence. Yet ... full story

Secret to Cutting Sugary Drink Use by Teens Found by New Study

Mar. 26, 2014 A new study shows that teenagers can be persuaded to cut back on sugary soft drinks -- especially with a little help from their friends. A 30-day challenge encouraging teens to reduce sugar-sweetened ... full story

Life Lessons: Children Learn Aggressive Ways of Thinking and Behaving from Violent Video Games, Study Finds

Mar. 24, 2014 Children who repeatedly play violent video games are learning thought patterns that will stick with them and influence behaviors as they grow older, according to a new study. The effect is the same ... full story

Preterm Children at Increased Risk of Having Math Problems

Mar. 21, 2014 Preterm children are at an increased risk of having general cognitive and mathematic problems, research has concluded. "Teachers should be aware of these children's problems and need to work on ways ... full story

Genes Play Key Role in Parenting: Children Also Shape Parents' Behavior

Mar. 20, 2014 Scientists have presented the most conclusive evidence yet that genes play a significant role in parenting. The study sheds light on another misconception: that parenting is solely a top-down process ... full story

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