Today's Science News

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Lab-Developed Intestinal Organoids Form Mature Human Tissue in Mice

Oct. 19, 2014 — Researchers have successfully transplanted 'organoids' of functioning human intestinal tissue grown from pluripotent stem cells in a lab dish into mice -- creating an unprecedented model ... full story

Origins of Sex Discovered: Side-by-Side Copulation in Distant Ancestors

Oct. 20, 2014 — A palaeontologist has revealed how the intimate act of sexual intercourse first evolved in our deep distant ancestors. In one of the biggest discoveries in the evolutionary history of sexual ... full story

Scientists Restore Hearing in Noise-Deafened Mice, Pointing Way to New Therapies

Oct. 20, 2014 — Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears. By demonstrating the importance of the protein, ... full story

NASA Spacecraft Provides New Information About Sun's Atmosphere

Oct. 16, 2014 — NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has provided scientists with five new findings into how the sun's atmosphere, or corona, is heated far hotter than its surface, what ... full story

Cells' Powerhouses Were Once Energy Parasites: Study Upends Current Theories of How Mitochondria Began

Oct. 16, 2014 — Parasitic bacteria were the first cousins of the mitochondria that power cells in animals and plants -- and first acted as energy parasites in those cells before becoming beneficial, according to a ... full story

Change Your Walking Style, Change Your Mood

Oct. 15, 2014 — Our mood can affect how we walk -- slump-shouldered if we're sad, bouncing along if we're happy. Now researchers have shown it works the other way too -- making people imitate a happy or ... full story

House Fly Genome Reveals Expanded Immune System

Oct. 14, 2014 — The house fly genome has been sequenced for the first time, revealing robust immune genes, as one might expect from an insect that thrives in pathogen-rich dung piles and garbage heaps. The research ... full story

Roman Gladiators Ate a Mostly Vegetarian Diet and Drank a Tonic of Ashes After Training

Oct. 20, 2014 — Roman gladiators ate a mostly vegetarian diet and drank ashes after training as a tonic. These are the findings of anthropological investigations carried out on bones of warriors found during ... full story

Imaging Electric Charge Propagating Along Microbial Nanowires

Oct. 19, 2014 — Physicists report that they've used a new imaging technique, electrostatic force microscopy, to resolve the biological debate with evidence from physics, showing that electric charges do indeed ... full story

Major Breakthrough Could Help Detoxify Pollutants

Oct. 19, 2014 — A major breakthrough could lead to more effective methods for detoxifying dangerous pollutants like PCBs and dioxins, scientists say. The result is a culmination of 15 years of research. It details ... full story

Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Newborn Stress Hormones, DNA, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — The effects of smoking during pregnancy, and its impact on the stress response in newborn babies, has been the focus of recent study. The research indicates that newborns of mothers who smoke ... full story

Artificial Light, Biological Clock Disruptions, Increase Breast Cancer Risk, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — The disruption of a person's circadian rhythm -- their 24-hour biological clock -- has been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, according to new research. The culprit, in this study in ... full story

Action Video Games Bolster Sensorimotor Skills, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — People who play action video games such as Call of Duty or Assassin's Creed seem to learn a new sensorimotor skill more quickly than non-gamers do, psychology researchers have ... full story

New Circuit Design Could Unlock the Power of Experimental Superconducting Computer Chips

Oct. 17, 2014 — Computer chips with superconducting circuits -- circuits with zero electrical resistance -- would be 50 to 100 times as energy-efficient as today's chips, an attractive trait given the ... full story

How the Brain Leads Us to Believe We Have Sharp Vision

Oct. 17, 2014 — We assume that we can see the world around us in sharp detail. In fact, our eyes can only process a fraction of our surroundings precisely. In a series of experiments, psychologists have been ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Japanese Scientists Unveil Floating 3D Projection

Japanese Scientists Unveil Floating 3D Projection

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 20, 2014) — Scientists in Tokyo have demonstrated what they say is the world's first 3D projection that floats in mid air. A laser that fires a pulse up to a thousand times a second superheats molecules in the air, creating a spark which can be guided to certain points in the air to shape what the human eye perceives as an image. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Fish Fossil Shows First-Ever Sex Was Done Side By Side

Fish Fossil Shows First-Ever Sex Was Done Side By Side

Newsy (Oct. 19, 2014) — A 380-million-year-old fish may be the first creature to have copulative sex - and it was side by side with arms linked, like square dancers. Video provided by Newsy
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Comet Siding Spring Grazes Mars' Atmosphere

Comet Siding Spring Grazes Mars' Atmosphere

Newsy (Oct. 19, 2014) — A comet from the farthest reaches of the solar system passed extremely close to Mars this weekend, giving astronomers a rare opportunity to study it. Video provided by Newsy
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Study Links Soda To Accelerated DNA Aging

Study Links Soda To Accelerated DNA Aging

Newsy (Oct. 19, 2014) — Researchers at the University of California San Francisco found the sugar in soda might accelerate the body's aging process. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-10-21 at 5:13 am EDT

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Salmonella-Infected Mice That Were Given Antibiotics Became Superspreaders

Oct. 20, 2014 — Some people infected with pathogens spread their germs to others while remaining symptom-free themselves. Now, investigators believe they may know why. In a new study, Salmonella-infected mice that ... full story

Mental Rest and Reflection Boost Learning, Study Suggests

Oct. 20, 2014 — A new study, which may have implications for approaches to education, finds that brain mechanisms engaged when people allow their minds to rest and reflect on things they've learned before may boost ... full story

Untangling the Biological Effects of Blue Light

Oct. 20, 2014 — Blue light can both set the mood and set in motion important biological responses. Researchers have teased apart the separate biological responses of the human eye to blue light, revealing an ... full story

Measuring on Ice: Researchers Create 'Smart' Ice Skating Blade

Oct. 20, 2014 — An ice skating blade that informs figure skaters of the stresses they are imposing on their joints has been developed by a group of researchers in the ... full story

Three People Infected With Ebola Predicted to Fly from West Africa Every Month If No Exit Screening Takes Place

Oct. 20, 2014 — Three Ebola-infected travelers are predicted to depart on an international flight every month from any of the three countries in West Africa currently experiencing widespread Ebola virus outbreaks ... full story

See-Through Sensors Open New Window Into the Brain

Oct. 20, 2014 — Developing invisible implantable medical sensor arrays, a team of engineers has overcome a major technological hurdle in researchers’ efforts to understand the brain. The team has now described its ... full story

Positive Subliminal Messages on Aging Improve Physical Functioning in Elderly

Oct. 20, 2014 — Older individuals who are subliminally exposed to positive stereotypes about aging showed improved physical functioning that can last for several weeks, a new ... full story

New Study Charts the Fate of Chemicals Affecting Health, Environment

Oct. 20, 2014 — The trajectory of chemicals appearing as emergent threats to human or environmental health has been recently studied through a meta-analysis of 143,000 peer-reviewed research papers. The work tracks ... full story

Siblings of Children With Autism Can Show Signs at 18 Months

Oct. 20, 2014 — About 20 percent of younger siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder will develop the condition by age 3. A new study has found that 57 percent of these younger siblings who later develop ... full story

Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy Who Have Tumors in Left Breast Have Comparable Overall Survival to Those With Tumors in Right Breast

Oct. 20, 2014 — Tumor laterality (left-side vs. right-side) does not impact overall survival in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy, according ... full story

See-Through, One-Atom-Thick, Carbon Electrodes Powerful Tool to Study Brain Disorders

Oct. 20, 2014 — A graphene, one-atom-thick microelectrode now solves a major problem for investigators looking at brain circuitry. Pinning down the details of how individual neural circuits operate in epilepsy and ... full story

Sport in Old Age Can Stimulate Brain Fitness, but Effect Decreases With Advancing Age

Oct. 20, 2014 — Physical exercise in old age can improve brain perfusion as well as certain memory skills, say neuroscientists who studied men and women aged between 60 and 77. In younger individuals regular ... full story

User-Friendly Electronic 'Eyecane' Enhances Navigational Abilities for Blind

Oct. 20, 2014 — White Canes provide low-tech assistance to the visually impaired, but some blind people object to their use because they are cumbersome, fail to detect elevated obstacles, or require long training ... full story

Why Your Brain Makes You Reach for Junk Food

Oct. 20, 2014 — Will that be a pizza for you or will you go for a salad? Choosing what you eat is not simply a matter of taste, conclude scientists in a new study. As you glance over a menu or peruse the shelves in ... full story

Brain Activity Provides Evidence for Internal 'Calorie Counter'

Oct. 20, 2014 — As you think about how a food will taste and whether it's nutritious, an internal calorie counter of sorts is also evaluating each food based on its caloric density, according to findings from a new ... full story

Fairness Is in the Brain, Scientists Say

Oct. 20, 2014 — Ever wondered how people figure out what is fair? Look to the brain for the answer. According to a new brain study, people appreciate fairness in much the same way as they appreciate money for ... full story

Sexual Preference for Masculine Men, Feminine Women Is an Urban Habit

Oct. 20, 2014 — A groundbreaking new study suggests that, rather than being passed down through a long process of social and sexual selection, preferences for masculine men and feminine women is a relatively new ... full story

New Antidepressant: Rapid Agent Restores Pleasure-Seeking Ahead of Other Antidepressant Action

Oct. 20, 2014 — A drug being studied as a fast-acting mood-lifter restored pleasure-seeking behavior independent of -- and ahead of -- its other antidepressant effects. Within 40 minutes after a single infusion of ... full story

Design of Micro, Nanoparticles to Improve Treatments for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

Oct. 20, 2014 — Techniques are being developed to deliver correctly and effectively certain drugs to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Both disorders affect the neurones: their structure and function is lost, and ... full story

Cold Sores Increase Risk of Dementia, Research Suggests

Oct. 20, 2014 — Infection with herpes simplex virus increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease, researchers claim. "Our results clearly show that there is a link between infections of herpes simplex virus and the ... full story

Children Who Drink Non-Cow's Milk Are Twice as Likely to Have Low Vitamin D

Oct. 20, 2014 — Children who drink non-cow's milk such as rice, almond, soy or goat's milk, have lower levels of vitamin D in their blood than those who drink cow's milk, according to a new ... full story

Work to Improve Children's Health Should Start Before Mother Becomes Pregnant

Oct. 20, 2014 — The key to making future generations healthier could lie before the mother becomes pregnant, researchers believe. In a new article, they say that a greater understanding is needed of the role of ... full story

Medication Frequently, Unintentionally Given Incorrectly to Young Children

Oct. 20, 2014 — A new study shows how often adults make mistakes when giving medication to children. The study found that medication errors occur in a child every eight minutes in the United States, on average, and ... full story

Birth Season Affects Your Mood in Later Life, New Research Suggests

Oct. 18, 2014 — New research shows that the season you are born has a significant impact on your risk of developing mood disorders. People born at certain times of year may have a greater chance of developing ... full story

Could Reading Glasses Soon Be a Thing of the Past?

Oct. 18, 2014 — A thin ring inserted into the eye could soon offer a reading glasses-free remedy for presbyopia, the blurriness in near vision experienced by many people over the age of 40, according to a study. A ... full story

Blinded by Non-Science: Trivial Scientific Information Increases Trust in Products

Oct. 17, 2014 — Beware of trivial graphs and formulas, warns new research. The study found trivial graphs or formulas accompanying medical information can lead consumers to believe products are more ... full story

Physicists Sound Warning to 'Nail Beauty Fanatics'

Oct. 17, 2014 — The daily trimming of fingernails and toenails to make them more aesthetically pleasing could be detrimental and potentially lead to serious nail ... full story

Male and Female Brains Aren't Equal When It Comes to Fat

Oct. 16, 2014 — Researchers have found that male and female brains respond in remarkably different ways to high-fat meals. Those differences in the brain lead to greater inflammation and increased health risks in ... full story

Oh, Brother! Having a Sibling Makes Boys Selfless, Study Suggests

Oct. 16, 2014 — A study found that siblings uniquely promote sympathy and altruism. Boys and girls benefited equally -- a surprise since girls generally benefit more from friendships. However, researchers found that ... full story

Pre-Eclampsia May Be Caused by the Fetus, Not the Placenta, Says Expert

Oct. 16, 2014 — Pre-eclampsia, the potentially deadly condition that affects pregnant women, may be caused by problems meeting the oxygen demands of the growing fetus, according to experts. The researchers believe ... full story

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Facetless Crystals That Mimic Starfish Shells Could Advance 3-D-Printing Pills

Oct. 20, 2014 — In a design that mimics a hard-to-duplicate texture of starfish shells, engineers have made rounded crystals that have no ... full story

Wild Molecular Interactions in a New Hydrogen Mixture

Oct. 20, 2014 — Hydrogen responds to pressure and temperature extremes differently. Under ambient conditions hydrogen is a gaseous two-atom molecule. As confinement pressure increases, the molecules adopt different ... full story

Protocells and Information Strings: Self-Organizing Autocatalytic Network Created in Computer Model

Oct. 20, 2014 — Protocells are the simplest, most primitive living systems, you can think of. However, creating an artificial protocell is far from simple. One of the challenges is to create the information strings ... full story

Physicists Build Reversible Laser Tractor Beam

Oct. 20, 2014 — Physicists have built a tractor beam that can repel and attract objects, using a hollow laser beam, bright around the edges and dark in its center. It is the first long-distance optical tractor beam, ... full story

1980s American Aircraft Helps Quantum Technology Take Flight

Oct. 20, 2014 — The X-29, an American experimental aircraft has inspired quantum computing researchers in a development which will bring the technology out of the ... full story

Goldilocks Principle Wrong for Particle Assembly: Too Hot and Too Cold Is Just Right

Oct. 20, 2014 — Microscopic particles that bind under low temperatures will melt as temperatures rise to moderate levels, but re-connect under hotter conditions, a team of scientists has found. Their discovery ... full story

New Tracers Can Identify Frack Fluids in the Environment

Oct. 20, 2014 — Scientists have developed geochemical tracers to identify hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids that have been spilled or released into the environment. The tracers have been field-tested at two sites ... full story

3-D Printed Facial Prosthesis Offers New Hope for Eye Cancer Patients Following Surgery

Oct. 20, 2014 — A fast and inexpensive way to make facial prostheses for eye cancer patients has been developed using facial scanning software and 3-D printing, according to researchers. Their novel process can ... full story

Crystallizing the DNA Nanotechnology Dream

Oct. 19, 2014 — For the last 20 years, scientists have tried to design large DNA crystals with precisely prescribed depth and complex features -- a design quest just fulfilled by scientists. The team built 32 DNA ... full story

Smartphone Approach for Examining Progression of Diabetic Eye Disease Offers Comparable Results to Traditional Method

Oct. 18, 2014 — A smartphone-based tool may be an effective alternative to traditional ophthalmic imaging equipment in evaluating and grading severity of a diabetic eye disease, according to a study. The results of ... full story

NASA Rover Opportunity Views Comet Near Mars

Oct. 21, 2014 — NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured images of a comet passing much closer to Mars than any previous known comet flyby of Earth or Mars. The images of comet Siding Spring were taken ... full story

Mars Orbiter Image Shows Comet Nucleus Is Small

Oct. 21, 2014 — The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter captured views of comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring while that visitor sped past Mars on Sunday (Oct. ... full story

Heavy Metal Frost? A New Look at a Venusian Mystery

Oct. 20, 2014 — Venus is hiding something beneath its brilliant shroud of clouds: a first order mystery about the planet that researchers may be a little closer to solving because of a new re-analysis of ... full story

NASA's Mars Odyssey Orbiter Watches Comet Fly Near

Oct. 20, 2014 — The longest-lived robot ever sent to Mars came through its latest challenge in good health, reporting home on schedule after sheltering behind Mars from possible comet ... full story

NASA's MAVEN Studies Passing Comet and Its Effects

Oct. 20, 2014 — NASA's newest orbiter at Mars, MAVEN, took precautions to avoid harm from a dust-spewing comet that flew near Mars Oct. 19 and is studying the flyby's effects on the Red Planet's ... full story

NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Studies Comet Flyby

Oct. 20, 2014 — NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which has sent home more data about Mars than all other missions combined, is also now providing data about a comet that buzzed The Red Planet Oct. ... full story

Explosion First Evidence of a Hydrogen-Deficient Supernova Progenitor

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new model is the first characterization of the progenitor for a hydrogen-deficient supernova. The model predicts that a bright hot star, which is the binary companion to an exploding object, ... full story

Tiny 'Nanoflares' Might Heat the Sun's Corona

Oct. 16, 2014 — Why is the Sun's million-degree corona, or outermost atmosphere, so much hotter than the Sun's surface? This question has baffled astronomers for decades. Today, a team led by Paola Testa is ... full story

Journey to the Center of the Earth: Geochemist Uses Helium and Lead Isotopes to Gain Insight Into Makeup of Planet’s Deep Interior

Oct. 16, 2014 — A geochemist studying Samoan volcanoes has found evidence of the planet's early formation still trapped inside Earth. Known as hotspots, volcanic island chains such as Samoa can ancient primordial ... full story

Cosmic Jets of Young Stars Formed by Magnetic Fields

Oct. 16, 2014 — Astrophysical jets are counted among our universe's most spectacular phenomena: From the centers of black holes, quasars, or protostars, these rays of matter sometimes protrude several light years ... full story

iPhones for Eye Health: Capturing Ocular Images in Difficult-to-Photograph Patients

Oct. 18, 2014 — Smartphone technology is a widely available resource which may also be a portable and effective tool for imaging the inside of the eye, according to results of a study. Researchers are successfully ... full story

Scientific Breakthrough Will Help Design Antibiotics of the Future

Oct. 17, 2014 — Computer simulations have been used to show how bacteria are able to destroy antibiotics -- a breakthrough which will help develop drugs which can effectively tackle infections in the ... full story

Modeling Tumor Dormancy: What Makes a Tumor Switch from Dormant to Malignant?

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new computational model may help illuminate the conditions surrounding tumor dormancy and the switch to a malignant state. The so-called cellular automaton model simulated various scenarios of ... full story

Dispelling a Misconception About Mg-Ion Batteries

Oct. 16, 2014 — Researchers used supercomputer simulations to dispel a popular misconception about magnesium-ion batteries that should help advance the development of multivalent ion battery ... full story

Digital Archaeology Changes Exploration of the Past

Oct. 15, 2014 — New ways of documenting and sharing artifacts are being explored in recent study. Archaeologists are now using the tools of the 21st century to explore the past, researchers say, and are exploring ... full story

Brain Surgery, by Robot, Through the Cheek

Oct. 15, 2014 — Engineers have developed a surgical robot designed to perform brain surgery by entering through the cheek instead of the skull that can operate on a patient in an MRI scanner. Additionally, the ... full story

Weather History 'Time Machine' Created

Oct. 15, 2014 — A software program that allows climate researchers to access historical climate data for the entire global surface (excluding the poles) has been developed. This software include the oceans, and is ... full story

Future Computers Could Be Built from Magnetic 'Tornadoes'

Oct. 14, 2014 — Computers of the future could be built from 'magnetic tornadoes,' according to new research into nanotechnology. Using computer simulations, the team have shown it is possible to create magnetic ... full story

How to Train a Robot: Can We Teach Robots Right from Wrong?

Oct. 14, 2014 — From performing surgery and flying planes to babysitting kids and driving cars, today’s robots can do it all. With chatbots such as Eugene Goostman recently being hailed as “passing” the Turing ... full story

Monitoring Heart Failure With Tiny Implant

Oct. 13, 2014 — A new implant gives patients the opportunity to send daily updates about their heart condition to physicians. The system features a paper clip-sized sensor that is implanted in the pulmonary artery ... full story

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Built-in Billboards: Male Bluefin Killifish Signal Different Things With Different Fins

Oct. 20, 2014 — They help fish swim, but fins also advertise a fish's social standing and health. In a new study, researchers report that for the male bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei), each colorful fin presents ... full story

Fish Tale: New Study Evaluates Antibiotic Content in Farm-Raised Fish

Oct. 20, 2014 — Antibiotic use in the rapidly expanding world of global aquaculture has been examined in a new study. Results of the research evaluated the presence of antibiotics in shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, ... full story

Secrets of Dinosaur Ecology Found in Fragile Amber

Oct. 20, 2014 — Ryan McKellar’s research sounds like it was plucked from Jurassic Park: he studies pieces of amber found buried with dinosaur skeletons. But rather than re-creating dinosaurs, he uses the tiny ... full story

Mediterranean, Semi-Arid Ecosystems Prove Resistant to Climate Change

Oct. 20, 2014 — Climate change predictions for the Middle East, like other arid regions of the world, are alarming. But in testing these dire predictions, ecologists found that, contrary to expectations, no ... full story

Fish Just Want to Have Fun, According to a New Study That Finds Even Fish 'Play'

Oct. 20, 2014 — Biologists have documented fish playing with a bottom-weighted thermometer and other objects. Play, like much of animals' psychology including emotions, motivations, perceptions and intellect, is ... full story

John Lennon Commemorated by Naming a New Tarantula Species from South America After Him

Oct. 20, 2014 — A newly described tarantula species from Western Brazilian Amazonia was named Bumba lennoni in honor of John Lennon, a founder member of the legendary band the Beatles. The new species is part of the ... full story

Breathing Sand: New Measurement Technique Detects Oxygen Supply to Bottom of North Sea

Oct. 20, 2014 — New analytical methods show for the first time, how the permeable, sandy sediment at the bottom of the North Sea is supplied with oxygen and which factors determine the exchange. Based on the ... full story

Winning the War Against Human Parainfluenza Virus

Oct. 20, 2014 — Researchers have moved a step closer to identifying a treatment for the dreaded Human parainfluenza virus. These highly-infectious viruses are the leading cause of upper and lower respiratory tract ... full story

Blind Cave Fish May Provide Insight on Eye Disease, Other Human Health Issues

Oct. 20, 2014 — Blind cave fish may not be the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to understanding human sight, but recent research indicates they may have quite a bit to teach us about the causes of many ... full story

Fish Intake Associated With Boost to Antidepressant Response

Oct. 20, 2014 — Up to half of patients who suffer from major depression do not respond to treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Now a group of researchers has carried out a study that shows that ... full story

Massive Debris Pile Reveals Risk of Huge Tsunamis in Hawaii

Oct. 20, 2014 — A mass of marine debris discovered in a giant sinkhole in the Hawaiian islands provides evidence that at least one mammoth tsunami, larger than any in Hawaii's recorded history, has struck the ... full story

Earthquakes in the Ocean: Towards a Better Understanding of Their Precursors

Oct. 20, 2014 — New research offers the first theoretical model that, based on fluid-related processes, explains the seismic precursors of an underwater earthquake. Using quantitative measurements, this innovative ... full story

Later Supper for Blackbirds in the City: Artificial Light Gives Birds Longer to Forage for Food

Oct. 20, 2014 — Artificial light increases foraging time in blackbirds. Birds in city centers are active not just considerably earlier, but also for longer than their relatives in darker parts of the city. The study ... full story

Asbestos Likely More Widespread Than Previously Thought

Oct. 19, 2014 — Naturally occurring asbestos minerals may be more widespread than previously thought, with newly discovered sources now identified within the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The asbestos-rich areas are ... full story

Scale of Declines of UK Migratory Birds Wintering in Africa Revealed

Oct. 17, 2014 — The migration of millions of birds across the face of the planet is one of nature's greatest annual events. Every spring some species move in one direction, while every autumn those same species move ... full story

Australian Volcanic Mystery Explained

Oct. 17, 2014 — Scientists have solved a long-standing mystery surrounding Australia's only active volcanic area. The volcanism springs from a unique interaction between the continent's movement north and local ... full story

Climate Change Alters Cast of Winter Birds

Oct. 17, 2014 — Over the past two decades, the resident communities of birds that attend eastern North America’s backyard bird feeders in winter have quietly been remade, most likely as a result of a warming ... full story

Plastic Nanoparticles Also Harm Freshwater Organisms

Oct. 17, 2014 — Organisms can be negatively affected by plastic nanoparticles, not just in the seas and oceans but in freshwater bodies too. These particles slow the growth of algae, cause deformities in water fleas ... full story

Loss of Big Predators Could Leave Herbivores in a Thorny Situation

Oct. 16, 2014 — Global declines in carnivore populations could embolden plant eaters to increasingly dine on succulent vegetation, driving losses in plant and tree biodiversity, according to new research published ... full story

Mysterious Midcontinent Rift Is a Geological Hybrid

Oct. 16, 2014 — Geologists have a new explanation for the formation of the Midcontinent Rift, an ancient 2,000-mile-long underground crack that starts in Lake Superior and runs south. The rift is a geological ... full story

Mummy Remains Refute Antiquity of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Oct. 20, 2014 — Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic disease that causes inflammation in the spinal joints and was thought to have affected members of the ancient Egyptian royal families. Now a new study refutes ... full story

Gene Duplications Associated With Autism Evolved Recently in Human History

Oct. 19, 2014 — Human geneticists have discovered that a region of the genome associated with autism contains genetic variation that evolved in the last 250,000 years, after the divergence of humans from ancient ... full story

Cellular Self-Destruct Program Has Deep Roots Throughout Evolution

Oct. 16, 2014 — In what seems like a counter-intuitive move against survival, within animals, some cells are fated to die from the triggering of an elaborate cell death program, known as apoptosis. Now, researchers ... full story

Evidence for Huge Mountains That Fed Early Life Discovered

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists have found evidence for a huge mountain range that existed in the supercontinent of Gondwana some 600 million years ago. It ran from modern west Africa to northeast Brazil, and as it ... full story

Microfossils Reveal Warm Oceans Had Less Oxygen

Oct. 15, 2014 — Researchers are pairing chemical analyses with micropaleontology -- the study of tiny fossilized organisms -- to better understand how global marine life was affected by a rapid warming event more ... full story

Canary for Climate Change: How Past Extinctions Have Influenced Modern Distribution, Population Size of Existing Species

Oct. 15, 2014 — Wing-propelled diving seabirds, as well as their extinct relatives, may have served as an indicator species for environmental changes and faunal shifts, researchers suggest. The findings also ... full story

These Roos Were 'Made' for Walking, Study Suggests of Extinct Enigmas

Oct. 15, 2014 — Based on a rigorous comparative analysis of kangaroo anatomy, researchers posit that the ancient family of sthenurine kangaroos that lived until 30,000 years ago likely preferred walking to ... full story

Prehistoric Crocodiles' Evolution Mirrored in Living Species

Oct. 15, 2014 — Crocodiles which roamed the world's seas millions of years ago developed in similar ways to their modern-day relatives, a study has shown. Fresh research into a group of prehistoric marine crocs ... full story

Ancient Fossils of Bizarre Figure-Eight Water Creatures Confirmed Among Our Strangest Distant Cousins

Oct. 15, 2014 — More than 100 years since they were first discovered, some of the world's most bizarre fossils have been identified as close relatives of vertebrates. The fossils belong to 500-million-year-old blind ... full story

Method for Detecting Extremely Rare Inert Gas Isotopes for Water Dating

Oct. 15, 2014 — In earth and environmental sciences, radioactive isotopes, atom variants that decay over time, play a major role in age determination. A radioactive isotope of the inert gas argon 39, for example, is ... full story

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Pathological Gambling Is Associated With Altered Opioid System in the Brain

Oct. 18, 2014 — All humans have a natural opioid system in the brain. Now new research has found that the opioid system of pathological gamblers responds differently to those of normal healthy ... full story

Myth-Conceptions: How Myths About the Brain Are Hampering Teaching

Oct. 16, 2014 — Myths about the brain are common among teachers worldwide and are hampering teaching, according to new research. The report highlights several areas where new findings from neuroscience are becoming ... full story

FDA, E-Cigarettes, and Demise of Combusted Tobacco

Oct. 15, 2014 — Two professors explore the popularity of E-cigarettes and point out that they could lead to the 'demise' of cigarette smoking and save thousands of lives, but not until they are proven safe and are ... full story

Reminding People of Their Religious Belief System Reduces Hostility, Study Shows

Oct. 15, 2014 — New research may shed some light on religion's actual influence on believers -- and the news is positive. Researchers hypothesized that being reminded of religious beliefs would normally promote less ... full story

Risking Your Life Without a Second Thought: Extreme Altruism May Be Motivated by Intuitive Process

Oct. 15, 2014 — People who risk their lives to save strangers may do so without deliberation, according to an analysis of statements from more than 50 recognized civilian ... full story

Global Natural Gas Boom Alone Won't Slow Climate Change

Oct. 15, 2014 — A new analysis of global energy use, economics and the climate shows that expanding the current bounty of inexpensive natural gas alone would not slow the growth of global greenhouse gas emissions ... full story

Study Questions 21-Day Quarantine Period for Ebola

Oct. 15, 2014 — One of the tenets for minimizing the risk of spreading Ebola Virus has been a 21-day quarantine period for individuals who might have been exposed to the virus. But a new study suggests that 21 days ... full story

Climate Change Not Responsible for Altering Forest Tree Composition, Experts Say

Oct. 15, 2014 — Change in disturbance regimes -- rather than a change in climate -- is largely responsible for altering the composition of Eastern forests, according to a researcher. Forests in the Eastern United ... full story

Hydraulic Fracturing Linked to Earthquakes in Ohio

Oct. 14, 2014 — Hydraulic fracturing triggered a series of small earthquakes in 2013 on a previously unmapped fault in Harrison County, Ohio, according to a new ... full story

Nationality at Birth Plays a Role in U.S. Adult Vaccination Rates

Oct. 14, 2014 — Nationality at birth appears to play a significant role in whether or not adults in the United States are routinely vaccinated for preventable diseases, a new study finds, reflecting a risky medical ... full story

Helping Outdoor Workers Reduce Skin Cancer Risk

Oct. 14, 2014 — Skin cancer is one of the biggest fears for one in two outdoor workers, and when the boss and staff work together the sun safe message gets through, a study has ... full story

Scientists Identify Method of Eradicating Harmful Impacts from Manufacturing Process

Oct. 8, 2014 — A novel technique for applying high-quality finishes in engineering industries could reduce the human and environmental impact by up to 98 percent, scientists ... full story

Private Telephone Conversations: Dynamic Encryption Keeps Secrets

Oct. 7, 2014 — Scientists have invented a new way to encrypt telephone conversations that makes it very difficult to ‘eavesdrop’. The invention can help to curb industrial ... full story

What Makes a Song Sing? Backup Singers

Sep. 29, 2014 — What made Michael Jackson’s “Billie Jean” a No. 1 hit on Billboard’s Hot 100 in 1983, and other songs, like Madonna’s 1999 “Nothing Really Matters,” flounder at 90 or below? New ... full story

Job Loss Fears May Boost First-Time Asthma Risk

Sep. 22, 2014 — Job loss fears may boost the risk of developing asthma for the first time, indicates research. The findings back up other epidemiological studies pointing to a link between the development of asthma ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Working During Depression Can Offer Health Benefits to Employees

Sep. 10, 2014 — Attending work while suffering a depressive illness could help employees better manage their depression more than taking a sickness absence from work, a new study has found. The study is the first ... full story

There Could Be Increased Numbers of Psychopaths in Senior Managerial Positions, High Levels of Business, Research Shows

Sep. 8, 2014 — For the first time, it has been demonstrated that people with psychopathic tendencies who have high IQs can mask their symptoms by manipulating tests designed to reveal their personalities. It raises ... full story

More Physical Activity Improved School Performance in Swedish Study

Oct. 14, 2014 — Just two hours of extra physical activity each week can improve school performance, researchers report. This has been shown by a study of approximately 2,000 ... full story

Trying to Fool a Kindergartner? Not So Fast

Oct. 8, 2014 — A new study shows that by the age of five, children become wary of information provided by people who make overly confident ... full story

Why Is Educational Achievement Heritable?

Oct. 6, 2014 — The high heritability of exam grades reflects many genetically influenced traits such as personality, behavior problems, and self-efficacy and not just intelligence. The study looked at 13,306 twins ... full story

Kids' Oral Language Skills Can Predict Future Writing Difficulties

Oct. 6, 2014 — Children's future writing difficulties can be identified before they even learn how to begin writing, according to a new study. The research data also contradicts the popular belief that bilingualism ... full story

How Curiosity Changes the Brain to Enhance Learning

Oct. 2, 2014 — The more curious we are about a topic, the easier it is to learn information about that topic. New research provides insights into what happens in our brains when curiosity is piqued. The findings ... full story

After-School Exercise Program Enhances Cognition in 7-, 8 And 9-Year-Olds

Sep. 29, 2014 — A nine-month-long, randomized controlled trial involving 221 prepubescent children found that those who engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes a day after school ... full story

Secret to Raising Well Behaved Teens? Maximize Their Zzzzz's

Sep. 26, 2014 — While American pediatricians warn sleep deprivation can stack the deck against teenagers, a new study reveals youth’s irritability and laziness aren’t down to attitude problems but lack of sleep. ... full story

False Memories Could Be a Side-Effect of Human Ability to Learn Rules

Sep. 24, 2014 — Our tendency to create false memories could be related to our ability to learn rules according to new research. New research suggests that individuals who are particularly good at learning rules and ... full story

Fighting Parents Hurt Children's Ability to Recognize and Regulate Emotions

Sep. 17, 2014 — Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study. Exposure to conflict and violence in the ... full story

Brain Scans Used to Forecast Early Reading Difficulties

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience ... full story

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