Today's Science News

Saturday, March 28, 2015

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Earliest Humans Had Diverse Range of Body Types, Just as We Do Today

Mar. 26, 2015 — New research harnessing fragmentary fossils suggests our genus has come in different shapes and sizes since its origins over two million years ago, and adds weight to the idea that humans began to ... full story

Dark Matter Even Darker Than Once Thought

Mar. 26, 2015 — Astronomers have studied how dark matter in clusters of galaxies behaves when the clusters collide. The results show that dark matter interacts with itself even less than previously thought, and ... full story

Designer's Toolkit for Dynamic DNA Nanomachines: Arm-Waving Nanorobot Signals New Flexibility in DNA Origami

Mar. 26, 2015 — Researchers have demonstrated a new approach to joining -- and reconfiguring -- modular DNA building units, by snapping together complementary shapes instead of zipping together strings of base ... full story

Antarctic Ice Shelves Rapidly Thinning

Mar. 26, 2015 — A new study has revealed that the thickness of Antarctica's floating ice shelves has recently decreased by as much as 18 percent in certain areas over nearly two decades, providing new insights ... full story

Common Bacteria on Verge of Becoming Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs

Mar. 25, 2015 — Antibiotic resistance is poised to spread globally among bacteria frequently implicated in respiratory and urinary infections in hospital settings, according to new research. The study shows that two ... full story

More Evidence for Groundwater on Mars: Conditions Would Be Conducive for Microbial Colonization If on Earth

Mar. 27, 2015 — Scientists investigated the Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) of Arabia Terra in Firsoff crater area, Mars, to understand their formation and potential habitability. On the plateau, ELDs consist of ... full story

Climate Change Does Not Cause Extreme Winters, Experts Say

Mar. 27, 2015 — Cold snaps like the ones that hit the eastern United States in the past winters are not a consequence of climate change. Scientists have now shown that global warming actually tends to reduce ... full story

A Peek at the Secret Life of Pandas

Mar. 27, 2015 — The world is fascinated by the reclusive giant pandas, yet precious little is known about how they spend their time in the Chinese bamboo forests. Until now. A team of researchers who have been ... full story

MRI Based on a Sugar Molecule Can Tell Cancerous from Noncancerous Cells

Mar. 27, 2015 — Imaging tests like mammograms or CT scans can detect tumors, but figuring out whether a growth is or isn't cancer usually requires a biopsy to study cells directly. Now results of a study ... full story

Theory of the Strong Interaction Verified: Supercomputer Calculates Mass Difference Between Neutron and Proton

Mar. 26, 2015 — The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty ... full story

Chemists Make New Silicon-Based Nanomaterials

Mar. 26, 2015 — A new process uses silicon telluride to produce multilayered two-dimensional semiconductor materials in a variety of shapes and ... full story

Bats Obey 'Traffic Rules' When Foraging for Food

Mar. 26, 2015 — Foraging bats obey their own set of 'traffic rules,' chasing, turning and avoiding collisions at high speed according to new ... full story

Ebola Whole Virus Vaccine Shown Effective, Safe in Primates

Mar. 26, 2015 — An Ebola whole virus vaccine, constructed using a novel experimental platform, has been shown to effectively protect monkeys exposed to the often fatal virus. It differs from other Ebola vaccines ... full story

Crossing Fingers Can Reduce Feelings of Pain

Mar. 26, 2015 — How you feel pain is affected by where sources of pain are in relation to each other, and so crossing your fingers can change what you feel on a single finger, finds new research. "Many people ... full story

High-Fat Diet Alters Behavior and Produces Signs of Brain Inflammation

Mar. 26, 2015 — Can the consumption of fatty foods change your behavior and your brain? High-fat diets have long been known to increase the risk for medical problems, including heart disease and stroke, but there is ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

What's Different About This Latest Ebola Vaccine

What's Different About This Latest Ebola Vaccine

Newsy (Mar. 26, 2015) — A whole virus Ebola vaccine has been shown to protect monkeys exposed to the virus. Here's what's different about this vaccine. Video provided by Newsy
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The Salton Sea: A Time-Bomb Amid California Drought

The Salton Sea: A Time-Bomb Amid California Drought

AFP (Mar. 25, 2015) — Salton Sea is California's biggest lake, appearing after a 1905 irrigation accident in the middle of the desert. But the salty, toxic water is slowly disappearing, leaving behind abandoned resorts and a looming environmental disaster. Duration: 02:38 Video provided by AFP
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Giant Triassic Salamander Acted More Like A Crocodile

Giant Triassic Salamander Acted More Like A Crocodile

Newsy (Mar. 24, 2015) — An ancient crocodile-like salamander more than 10 times the average size of its modern-day counterparts has been discovered in Portugal. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Add Woolly Mammoth DNA To Elephant Cells

Scientists Add Woolly Mammoth DNA To Elephant Cells

Newsy (Mar. 23, 2015) — A group of Harvard researchers have been working on this project for a while, but it's not without critics. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2015-03-28 at 8:33 am EDT

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Recipe for Antibacterial Plastic: Plastic Plus Egg Whites

Mar. 27, 2015 — Bioplastics made from protein sources such as albumin and whey have shown significant antibacterial properties, findings that could eventually lead to their use in plastics used in medical ... full story

Study Provides Evidence Against the Fetal Origins of Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease

Mar. 27, 2015 — A study evaluated the relationship between nutritional conditions in early life and adult health, and found that famine exposure during the first pregnancy trimester was associated with increases in ... full story

Love the Cook, Love the Food: Attraction to Comfort Food Linked to Positive Social Connections

Mar. 27, 2015 — A big bowl of mashed potatoes. What about spaghetti and meatballs? Sushi? Regardless of what you identify as comfort food, it’s likely the attraction to that dish is based on having a good ... full story

Long-Standing Mystery in Membrane Traffic Solved

Mar. 27, 2015 — In 2013, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Sόdhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of molecular machineries for vesicle trafficking, a major ... full story

More Than One-Third of Division I College Athletes May Have Low Vitamin D Levels

Mar. 27, 2015 — A new study found that more than one-third of elite, Division I college athletes may have low levels of vitamin D, which is critical in helping the body to absorb calcium needed to maintain bone ... full story

C. Difficile Doubles Hospital Readmission Rates, Lengths of Stay

Mar. 27, 2015 — Patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are twice as likely to be readmitted to the hospital as patients without the deadly diarrheal infection, according to a new ... full story

How Body's Good Fat Tissue Communicates With Brain

Mar. 27, 2015 — Brown fat tissue, the body’s “good fat,” communicates with the brain through sensory nerves, possibly sharing information that is important for fighting human obesity, such as how much fat we ... full story

Smaller Plates, Smaller Portions? Not Always

Mar. 27, 2015 — It may have become conventional wisdom that you can trick yourself into eating less if you use a smaller plate. But a new study finds that trick doesn't work for everyone, particularly overweight ... full story

Switch That Might Tame Most Aggressive of Breast Cancers

Mar. 27, 2015 — So-called 'triple-negative breast cancers' are two distinct diseases that likely originate from different cell types, researchers have found. They have also found a gene that drives the aggressive ... full story

Bio-Marker Set Forms the Basis for New Blood Test to Detect Colorectal Cancer

Mar. 27, 2015 — Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer globally and the second most common cause of cancer deaths. The chance of a cure is high if the cancer is detected early enough, but early ... full story

When Attention Is a Deficit: Sometimes a New Strategy Makes Sense

Mar. 27, 2015 — During tasks that require our attention, we might become so engrossed in what we are doing that we fail to notice there is a better way to get the job done. A new study explores the question of how ... full story

We Don’t Notice Much of What We See: 85 College Students Tried to Draw the Apple Logo from Memory; 84 Failed

Mar. 27, 2015 — Of 85 UCLA undergraduate students, only one correctly recalled the Apple logo when asked to draw it on a blank sheet of paper, psychologists found. Fewer than half correctly identified the logo when ... full story

Teenagers Shape Each Other's Views on How Risky a Situation Is

Mar. 27, 2015 — Young adolescents' judgements on how risky a situation might be are most influenced by what other teenagers think, while most other age groups are more influenced by adults' views, finds new ... full story

Playing Music by Professional Musicians Activates Genes Responsible for Brain Function and Singing of Songbirds

Mar. 27, 2015 — Although music perception and practice are well preserved in human evolution, the biological determinants of music practice are largely unknown. According to a latest study, music performance by ... full story

Big Data Allows Computer Engineers to Find Genetic Clues in Humans

Mar. 27, 2015 — Computer scientists tackled some big data about an important protein and discovered its connection in human history as well as clues about its role in complex neurological ... full story

Domestic Violence Victims May Be Hurt by Mandatory Arrest Laws

Mar. 26, 2015 — Mandatory arrest is a law enforcement policy that was created in an effort to curb domestic violence in the United States. But a recent study by sociologists suggests that the law may be intimidating ... full story

Stereotypes Lower Math Performance in Women, but Effects Go Unrecognized

Mar. 26, 2015 — A new study suggests that gender stereotypes about women's ability in mathematics negatively impact their performance. And in a significant twist, both men and women wrongly believe those stereotypes ... full story

The Brain in the Supermarket: Index Strategy Informs Decision-Making

Mar. 26, 2015 — Researchers suggest that your brain is most likely deploying an 'index strategy,' a straightforward ranking of products, when you shop. It may not be an absolutely perfect calculation, given all the ... full story

Researchers Identify Timeline for HIV Replication in the Brain

Mar. 26, 2015 — HIV can begin replicating in the brain as early as four months after initial infection, researchers have discovered. One-third of people not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control their HIV ... full story

Intergenerational Transmission of Abuse and Neglect More Complicated Than Previously Believed

Mar. 26, 2015 — Offspring of parents with histories of child abuse and neglect are themselves at risk for childhood neglect and sexual abuse but not physical ... full story

How Did the Chicken Cross the Sea?

Mar. 26, 2015 — It may sound like the makings of a joke, but answering the question of how chickens crossed the sea may soon provide more than just a punch line. Researchers have studied the mysterious ancestry of ... full story

Why Popular Antacids May Increase Chance of Bone Fractures

Mar. 26, 2015 — Newly research details a discovery explaining why the 100 million Americans estimated to be taking prescription and over-the-counter antacid and heartburn medications may be at an increased risk of ... full story

Fitness Level Associated With Lower Risk of Some Cancers, Death in Men

Mar. 26, 2015 — Men with a high fitness level in midlife appear to be at lower risk for lung and colorectal cancer, but not prostate cancer, and that higher fitness level also may put them at lower risk of death if ... full story

One in Four High School Seniors Now Try Smoking Water Pipes

Mar. 26, 2015 — Despite declines in the number of youths who smoke cigarettes, hookah or water pipe use continues to rise among Canadian youth, a new study reports. The study found that almost one in four high ... full story

The Mediterranean Diet Is Not Only Healthier, It Also Pollutes Less

Mar. 26, 2015 — The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet are well-known. As well as being healthier, a recent article concludes that the menu traditionally eaten in Spain leaves less of a carbon footprint than ... full story

Metabolic Imbalance Increases Risk of Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

Mar. 26, 2015 — An imbalance in our metabolism can trigger inflammatory processes in the body and activate the immune system. In a recent study, researchers have been able to show that this applies even to newborns ... full story

Just Slip out the Back, Jack: Are Humans Hardwired to Break-Up and Move On?

Mar. 25, 2015 — When it comes to romantic relationships, a research review article suggests humans are wired to break-up and move on. Drawing largely upon the field of evolutionary psychology, they say men and women ... full story

Sleep Loss Tied to Emotional Reactions

Mar. 25, 2015 — A new book summarizes research on the interplay of sleep and various components of emotion and affect that are related to mood disorders, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder and ... full story

Position Statement on Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening Issued

Mar. 25, 2015 — Two professional societies of human geneticists have issued a position statement on the promise and challenges of non-invasive prenatal testing, a procedure to test blood drawn from pregnant mothers ... full story

Autistic Children More Likely to Have GI Issues in Early Life

Mar. 25, 2015 — Children with autism spectrum disorder were two-and-a-half times more likely to have persistent gastrointestinal symptoms as infants and toddlers than children with typical development, researchers ... full story

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Light-Emitting Diode Tech: Solving Molybdenum Disulfide's 'Thin' Problem

Mar. 27, 2015 — A research team used silver nanodiscs to increase the promising new material's light emission by twelve times, making it a better candidate for light-emitting diode ... full story

Nanoscale Worms Provide New Route to Nano-Necklace Structures

Mar. 27, 2015 — Researchers have developed a novel technique for crafting nanometer-scale necklaces based on tiny star-like structures threaded onto a polymeric backbone. The technique could provide a new way to ... full story

Mira Supercomputer Use to Peer Inside High-Temperature Superconductors

Mar. 27, 2015 — Researchers are using supercomputers to shed light on the mysterious nature of high-temperature ... full story

Metals Used in High-Tech Products Face Future Supply Risks

Mar. 27, 2015 — Researchers have assessed the 'criticality' of all 62 metals on the Periodic Table of Elements, providing key insights into which materials might become more difficult to find in the coming decades, ... full story

First Glimpse Inside a Macroscopic Quantum State

Mar. 27, 2015 — Scientists report on the detection of particle entanglement in a beam of squeezed light. Researchers were able to observe effects of entanglement monogamy, where particles can be strongly entangled ... full story

Greener Industry If Environmental Authorities Change Strategy

Mar. 27, 2015 — Fewer industrial firms would violate environmental legislation and a higher number would adopt cleaner technologies if environmental authorities would focus their monitoring efforts on companies with ... full story

Novel Coatings Combine Protection With Color Effects

Mar. 27, 2015 — New colored protective coatings offer the same corrosion and wear protection as colorless coatings while their coloration opens new opportunities. Red could for instance be used as a warning color on ... full story

Virtual Vehicle Testing: Modeling Tires Realistically

Mar. 27, 2015 — Manufacturers conduct virtual tests on vehicle designs long before the first car rolls off the assembly line. Simulation of the tires has remained a challenge, however. The software tool ... full story

First Fully-Implantable Micropacemaker Designed for Fetal Use

Mar. 26, 2015 — The first fully implantable micropacemaker designed for use in a fetus with complete heart block has been designed by researchers. The investigators anticipate the first human use of the device in ... full story

Using Magnetic Fields to Understand High-Temperature Superconductivity

Mar. 26, 2015 — Taking our understanding of quantum matter to new levels, scientists are exposing high-temperature superconductors to very high magnetic fields, changing the temperature at which the materials become ... full story

Best View Yet of Dusty Cloud Passing Galactic Center Black Hole

Mar. 26, 2015 — The best observations so far of the dusty gas cloud G2 confirm that it made its closest approach to the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way in May 2014 and has survived the ... full story

Ancient Martian Lake System Records Two Water-Related Events

Mar. 25, 2015 — Researchers have completed a new analysis of an ancient Martian lake system in Jezero Crater, near the planet's equator. The study finds that the onslaught of water that filled the crater was one of ... full story

A New Spin on Saturn's Peculiar Rotation

Mar. 25, 2015 — The precise measurement of Saturn's rotation has presented a great challenge to scientists, as different parts of this sweltering ball of hydrogen and helium rotate at different speeds whereas its ... full story

Supermassive Black Hole Clears Star-Making Gas from Galaxy's Core

Mar. 25, 2015 — A new study provides the first observational evidence that a supermassive black hole at the center of a large galaxy can power huge, wide-angled outpourings of material from deep inside the galaxy's ... full story

Unexplained Warm Layer Discovered in Venus' Atmosphere

Mar. 25, 2015 — Scientists have found a warm layer in Venus' atmosphere, the nature of which is still unknown. The researchers made the discovery when compiling a temperature map of the upper atmosphere on the ... full story

Explosions of Jupiter's Aurora Linked to Extraordinary Planet-Moon Interaction

Mar. 25, 2015 — New observations of the planet's extreme ultraviolet emissions show that bright explosions of Jupiter's aurora likely also get kicked off by the planet-moon interaction, not by solar ... full story

Did Mars Once Have a Nitrogen Cycle? Scientists Find Fixed Nitrogen in Martian Sediments

Mar. 25, 2015 — Scientists have found fixed forms of nitrogen in Mars. This suggests that there may have been a nitrogen cycle sometime in Mars' past. The detection has been verified through analyses of samples ... full story

NASA Satellites Catch 'Growth Spurt' from Newborn Protostar

Mar. 24, 2015 — Using data from orbiting observatories and ground-based facilities, astronomers have discovered an outburst from a star thought to be in the earliest phase of its development. The eruption, ... full story

NASA Studies the Sun in Soft X-Rays

Mar. 24, 2015 — At any given moment, our sun emits a range of light waves far more expansive than what our eyes alone can see: from visible light to extreme ultraviolet to soft and hard X-rays. In 2012 and 2013, a ... full story

Automation Offers Big Solution to Big Data in Astronomy

Mar. 24, 2015 — The Square Kilometer Array, a radio telescope planned for Africa and Australia, will have an unprecedented ability to deliver data -- lots of data points, with lots of details -- on the location and ... full story

Computational Model Simulates Bacterial Behavior

Mar. 27, 2015 — Applied mathematicians and environmental biotechnologists have developed a new computational model that effectively simulates the mechanical behavior of biofilms. Their model may lead to new ... full story

Engineers Develop New Methods to Speed Up Simulations in Computational Grand Challenge

Mar. 26, 2015 — Engineers have developed a new family of methods to significantly increase the speed of time-resolved numerical simulations in computational grand challenge problems. Such problems often arise from ... full story

Magnetic Quantum Crystals

Mar. 26, 2015 — In experiments with ultracold rubidium atoms scientists create magnetic quantum crystals made of gigantic Rydberg ... full story

Quantum Compute This: Mathematicians Build Code to Take on Toughest of Cyber Attacks

Mar. 26, 2015 — Mathematicians have designed an encryption code capable of fending off the phenomenal hacking power of a quantum computer. Using high-level number theory and cryptography, the researchers reworked an ... full story

Thousands of Atoms Entangled With a Single Photon

Mar. 25, 2015 — Physicists have developed a new technique that can successfully entangle 3,000 atoms using only a single photon. The results represent the largest number of particles that have ever been mutually ... full story

Robots on Reins Could Be the 'Eyes' of Firefighters

Mar. 25, 2015 — Firefighters moving through smoke-filled buildings could save vital seconds and find it easier to identify objects and obstacles, thanks to revolutionary reins that enable robots to act like guide ... full story

Concerns Over the Online Market of Human Breast Milk

Mar. 24, 2015 — The sale of human breast milk on the internet poses serious risks to infant health and needs urgent regulation, argue experts. Purchasing human breast milk on the internet can be cheaper than buying ... full story

Study Provides Academic Support for New Steve Jobs Portrayal

Mar. 24, 2015 — The new Steve Jobs biopic, 'Becoming Steve Jobs,' paints a picture of a less arrogant, humbler leader than previously thought. It portrays a softer side of Jobs that executives at Apple say is more ... full story

Why Some HPV Infections Go Away and Others Become Cancer

Mar. 24, 2015 — The body's ability to clear an infection by the cancer-causing human papilloma virus (HPV) may be largely due to unpredictable division patterns in HPV-infected stem cells, rather than the strength ... full story

'Goldilocks Material' Could Change Spintronics

Mar. 24, 2015 — Attempting to develop a novel type of permanent magnet, a team of researchers has discovered a new class of magnetic materials based on Mn-Ga alloys. Described as a zero-moment half metal, the new ... full story

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Do Biofuel Policies Seek to Cut Emissions by Cutting Food?

Mar. 27, 2015 — A new study found that government biofuel policies rely on reductions in food consumption to generate greenhouse gas ... full story

Sexual Selection Isn't the Last Word on Bird Plumage

Mar. 27, 2015 — Evolutionary changes have led to both sexes becoming closer together in color over time to blend into their surroundings and hide from predators, a new study has ... full story

New Lobster-Like Predator Found in 508 Million-Year-Old Fossil-Rich Site

Mar. 27, 2015 — What do butterflies, spiders and lobsters have in common? They are all surviving relatives of a newly identified species called Yawunik kootenayi, a marine creature with two pairs of eyes and ... full story

Spring Plankton Bloom Hitches Ride to Sea's Depths on Ocean Eddies

Mar. 27, 2015 — Just as crocus and daffodil blossoms signal the start of a warmer season on land, a similar 'greening' event --a massive bloom of microscopic plants, or phytoplankton -- unfolds each spring in the ... full story

Evolutionary Novelties in Vision

Mar. 27, 2015 — A new study shows that genes crucial for vision were multiplied in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and acquired distinct functions leading to the sophisticated mechanisms of vertebrate ... full story

Green Roofs: Passive Cooling for Buildings

Mar. 27, 2015 — Researchers have found that green roofs with high vegetation density are 60% more efficient than non-green ... full story

Honey Bees Use Multiple Genetic Pathways to Fight Infections

Mar. 26, 2015 — Honey bees use different sets of genes, regulated by two distinct mechanisms, to fight off viruses, bacteria and gut parasites, according to researchers. The findings may help scientists develop ... full story

Antibiotic Effectiveness Imperiled as Use in Livestock Expected to Increase

Mar. 26, 2015 — Antibiotic consumption in livestock worldwide could rise by 67 percent between 2010 and 2030, and possibly endanger the effectiveness of antimicrobials in humans, researchers ... full story

To Survive, a Parasite Mixes and Matches Its Disguises, Study Suggests

Mar. 26, 2015 — Researchers found an unexpected diversity of protein coats within populations of <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i>, challenging the conventional understanding of the dynamics that allow the parasite to ... full story

Tagged Mako Shark Traveled More Than 7,300 in Less Than a Year

Mar. 26, 2015 — Like his human counterparts, it seems a shortfin mako shark tagged in Maryland has decided to visit the tropical waters off Puerto ... full story

Study Takes Aim at Mitigating the Human Impact on the Central Valley, California

Mar. 27, 2015 — Study of California's Central Valley shows that as temperature-mitigating technologies are deployed, other environmental factors like pollution become a ... full story

Two Degree Celsius Climate Change Target 'Utterly Inadequate', Expert Argues

Mar. 27, 2015 — The official global target of a two degree Celsius temperature rise is 'utterly inadequate' for protecting those at most risk from climate change, says an expert. The commentary presents a rare ... full story

Pacific-Wide Study Reveals Striped Marlins' Preferred Habitat, May Help Avoid Overfishing

Mar. 26, 2015 — Using the largest tagging data set to date, biologists have shown that across the Pacific Ocean the vertical habitat of striped marlin is defined by the light-penetrated, uppermost part of the ocean ... full story

Twice the Coral Trout in Great Barrier Reef Protected Zones

Mar. 26, 2015 — Coral trout in protected 'green zones' are not only bigger and more abundant than those in fished 'blue zones' of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, but they are also better able to cope with ... full story

Deadly Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Spurred Global Warming, Ozone Loss

Mar. 26, 2015 — Buildings destroyed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake released thousands of tons of climate-warming and ozone-depleting chemicals into the atmosphere, according to a new ... full story

A New Jumping Spider With Mating Plug Discovered from the 'Western Ghats'

Mar. 26, 2015 — Researchers have discovered a new species of jumping spider from 'Western Ghats' in southern India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. The spider, which has been named as Stenaelurillus ... full story

Agricultural Waste Could Be Used as Biofuel

Mar. 26, 2015 — Straw-powered cars could be a thing of the future thanks to new research. A new study pinpoints five strains of yeast capable of turning agricultural by-products, such as straw, sawdust and corncobs, ... full story

Simple Method of Binding Pollutants in Water

Mar. 26, 2015 — New types of membrane adsorbers remove unwanted particles from water and also, at the same time, dissolved substances such as the hormonally active bisphenol A or toxic lead. To do this, researchers ... full story

Misuse of Sustainability Concept May Lead to Even More Toxic Chemical Materials

Mar. 26, 2015 — Replacement of toxic chemical components by non-toxic natural analogs is a popular approach in sustainable projects. A new study has shown that partial replacement of chemical compounds by their ... full story

Desalination With Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

Mar. 25, 2015 — Desalination is an energy-intensive process, which concerns those wanting to expand its application. Now, a team of experimentalists has demonstrated an energy-efficient desalination technology that ... full story

The Stapes in the Middle Ear of a Neanderthal Child Shows Anatomical Differences from Humans

Mar. 27, 2015 — Scientists have produced a 3-D reconstruction of the remains of a two-year-old Neanderthal recovered from an excavation carried out back in the 1970s at La Ferrassie (Dordogne, France). The work ... full story

Study Underscores Complexity of Geopolitics in the Age of the Aztec Empire

Mar. 25, 2015 — New findings from an international team of archaeological researchers highlight the complexity of geopolitics in Aztec era Mesoamerica and illustrate how the relationships among ancient states ... full story

Prehistoric Super Salamander Was Top Predator, Fossils Suggest

Mar. 24, 2015 — A previously undiscovered species of crocodile-like amphibian that lived during the rise of dinosaurs was among Earth's top predators more than 200 million years ago, a study shows. Palaeontologists ... full story

Archaeologists Discover Maya 'Melting Pot'

Mar. 23, 2015 — Archaeologists working in Guatemala has unearthed new information about the Maya civilization's transition from a mobile, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary way of life. They have found ... full story

Ascension of Marine Diatoms Linked to Vast Increase in Continental Weathering

Mar. 23, 2015 — A team of researcher has used mathematical modeling to show that continental erosion over the last 40 million years has contributed to the success of diatoms, a group of tiny marine algae that plays ... full story

Key to the Long-Term Storage of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Deep Ocean

Mar. 23, 2015 — Researchers have made strides in the understanding of the mechanisms governing the persistence of dissolved organic carbon for hundreds or thousands of years in the deep ocean. Most of this material ... full story

World's Largest Asteroid Impacts Found in Central Australia

Mar. 23, 2015 — A 400-kilometer-wide impact zone from a huge meteorite that broke in two moments before it slammed into the Earth has been found in Central Australia. The crater from the impact millions of years ago ... full story

Archivists Unearth Rare First Edition of the 1815 'Map That Changed the World'

Mar. 23, 2015 — A rare early copy of William Smith’s 1815 Geological Map of England and Wales, previously thought lost, has been uncovered by Geological Society archivists. The new map has been digitized and made ... full story

Did a Volcanic Cataclysm 40,000 Years Ago Trigger the Final Demise of the Neanderthals?

Mar. 20, 2015 — The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption in Italy 40,000 years ago was one of the largest volcanic cataclysms in Europe and injected a significant amount of sulfur-dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere. ... full story

International Study Raises Questions About Cause of Global Ice Ages

Mar. 20, 2015 — A new international study casts doubt on the leading theory of what causes ice ages around the world -- changes in the way the Earth orbits the sun. The researchers found that glacier movement in the ... full story

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Research Aims to Reduce Health Care Disparities

Mar. 26, 2015 — The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, queer/questioning and intersex (LGBTQI) population has been largely understudied by the medical community. Researchers found that the LGBTQI ... full story

Photosynthesis Hack Is Needed to Feed the World by 2050

Mar. 26, 2015 — Using high-performance computing and genetic engineering to boost the photosynthetic efficiency of plants offers the best hope of increasing crop yields enough to feed a planet expected to have 9.5 ... full story

The State of Vaccine Confidence: Early Results of a Vaccine Confidence Index

Mar. 25, 2015 — A new report examines global issues affecting confidence and hesitation about vaccines. The State of Vaccine Confidence Report analyzes some of the vaccine confidence issues that have occurred over ... full story

Work Site Wellness Centers Equate to Weight Loss and Health Care Savings, Expert Says

Mar. 25, 2015 — As employees and employers face higher health care costs, work site wellness are becoming increasingly more important to help control the costs of health care and encourage healthy lifestyle ... full story

Public Health Responsibility Deal in UK Unlikely to Be an Effective Response to Alcohol Harms

Mar. 25, 2015 — Harmful alcohol consumption in England is unlikely to be reduced by the Public Health Responsibility Deal because the majority of its interventions are ineffective, poorly reported or were already ... full story

Questions Over Value of New Antibiotics to Tackle Resistance

Mar. 25, 2015 — This week, investigators raise questions over the value of new antibiotics and other medical products approved through fast-tracked approval policies. Antimicrobial resistance is a major health care ... full story

30 New Species Discovered in Los Angeles in First-Ever Intensive Urban Biodiversity Survey

Mar. 25, 2015 — Thirty new insect species of the fly family Phoridae have been discovered in the LA region of California. Describing 30 species in a single paper is rare, but what's especially striking is that all ... full story

Coastal Property Values Could Erode If Nourishment Subsidies End

Mar. 25, 2015 — The value of many oceanfront properties on the East Coast could drop dramatically if Congress were to suddenly end federal beach nourishment subsidies. Values could fall by as much as 17 percent in ... full story

Study Maps Development One U. S. County at a Time

Mar. 25, 2015 — Researchers have developed a county-by-county map of the United States' "lower 48" that tells a story of land cover and development across the nation, and could provide a framework for planners and ... full story

Link Between Lifestyles of Indigenous Communities, Gut Microbial Ecologies Discovered

Mar. 25, 2015 — A strong association between the lifestyles of indigenous communities and their gut microbial ecologies (gut microbiome) has been discovered by researchers. This study that may have implications for ... full story

High-Energy TV Commercials: Too Much Stress for Consumers?

Mar. 24, 2015 — Consumers are tuning out TV commercials, making advertisers run louder, higher-energy ads to force their attention. This may be backfiring critically when consumers are watching sad or relaxing ... full story

Apple of the Mind's Eye: How Good Is Our Memory of Everyday Visual Stimuli?

Mar. 20, 2015 — In our world of branding and repetitive advertising, it is feasible that we dutifully soak up visuals and messages and store them accurately in our mind’s eye. New research tests this theory by ... full story

The Cost of Dominance: Aggressively Pursuing Higher Social Status May Exact a Toll on Health

Mar. 19, 2015 — Researchers conducted four studies to gauge the health effects of the hostile-dominant personality style compared with the warm-dominant style. Their findings are bad news for aggressive ... full story

New Optical Materials Break Digital Connectivity Barriers

Mar. 18, 2015 — In our increasingly networked world, we need much faster computer components to support enormous amounts of data transfer and data processing. A new study finds that new optical materials could serve ... full story

New Work Schedule Could Cure Your 'Social Jetlag'

Mar. 12, 2015 — Many of us are walking around all the time in a fog caused by 'social jetlag.' That's what happens when we lose sleep because our daily schedules don't match our bodies' natural rhythms. The ... full story

'Sugar Papers' Reveal Industry Role in 1970s U.S. National Caries Program, Analysis Shows

Mar. 10, 2015 — A newly discovered cache of industry documents reveals that the sugar industry worked closely with the National Institutes of Health in the 1960s and '70s to develop a federal research program ... full story

New Model of Cybercrime Factors in Perishability of Stolen Data

Mar. 10, 2015 — A new model examining cybercrimes adds an important way of examining the perishable value of stolen data so policy makers can plan against future hacks like the recent Anthem data breach, according ... full story

Being 'Laid Off' Leads to a Decade of Distrust

Mar. 10, 2015 — People who lose their jobs are less willing to trust others for up to a decade after being laid-off, according to new research. The author finds that being made redundant from your job not only makes ... full story

March Madness Brackets: Flipping a Coin Is Your Best Bet

Mar. 10, 2015 — Each year, millions of people lose billions of dollars in NCAA March Madness basketball pools. Still, most return the following year for another ... full story

Content Creators Leave Social Networks When Messaging Gets Too Easy

Mar. 9, 2015 — It's not much harder or more expensive to send a tweet or a Facebook post to hundreds or even thousands of people than to just a handful. So you'd think that the ease of communicating with lots of ... full story

Pre-K Children Outpace Normal Expectations Through Kindergarten

Mar. 25, 2015 — Students who were enrolled in the NC Pre-K Program are making significant gains across all areas of learning through the end of kindergarten, according to a new ... full story

Education May Not Improve Our Life Chances of Happiness

Mar. 25, 2015 — Getting a good education may not improve your life chances of happiness, according to new mental health ... full story

After Learning New Words, Brain Sees Them as Pictures

Mar. 24, 2015 — When we look at a known word, our brain sees it like a picture, not a group of letters needing to be processed. That's the finding from a new study that shows the brain learns words quickly by tuning ... full story

Are Our Schools Damaging Children's Eyes?

Mar. 24, 2015 — Shockingly, research has shown a dramatic increase in the number of students leaving secondary school with short-sightedness, or myopia, and a new study suggests lighting in schools could be a ... full story

More Schools, More Challenging Assignments Add Up to Higher IQ Scores

Mar. 24, 2015 — More schooling -- and the more mentally challenging problems tackled in those schools -- may be the best explanation for the dramatic rise in IQ scores during the past century, often referred to as ... full story

IQ of Children in Better-Educated Households Is Higher

Mar. 24, 2015 — A study comparing the IQs of male siblings in which one member was reared by biological parents and the other by adoptive parents found that the children adopted by parents with more education had ... full story

Supercomputers Give Universities a Competitive Edge

Mar. 23, 2015 — Researchers have long believed that supercomputers give universities a competitive edge in scientific research, but now they have some hard data showing it's true. Scientists have found that ... full story

How Much Math, Science Homework Is Too Much?

Mar. 23, 2015 — When it comes to adolescents with math and science homework, more isn't necessarily better -- an hour a day is optimal -- but doing it alone and regularly produces the biggest knowledge gain, ... full story

Kindergarten and Crime: Students Who Started School Later More Likely to Drop Out, Commit Crimes

Mar. 19, 2015 — Children who are older when they start kindergarten do well in the short term, academically and socially. But as teenagers, these old-for-grade students are more likely to drop out and commit serious ... full story

Robot Model for Infant Learning Shows Bodily Posture May Affect Memory and Learning

Mar. 18, 2015 — Using both robots and infants, a cognitive scientist and collaborators have found that posture is critical in the early stages of acquiring new knowledge. "This study shows that the body plays a role ... full story

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