Today's Science News

Friday, October 31, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Oceans Arrived Early to Earth; Primitive Meteorites Were a Likely Source of Water, Study Finds

Oct. 30, 2014 — Earth is known as the Blue Planet because of its oceans, which cover more than 70 percent of the planet's surface and are home to the world's greatest diversity of life. While water is ... full story

Seeing Dinosaur Feathers in a New Light

Oct. 30, 2014 — Why were dinosaurs covered in a cloak of feathers long before the early bird species Archaeopteryx first attempted flight? Researchers postulate that these ancient reptiles had a highly developed ... full story

Scientists Propose Existence and Interaction of Parallel Worlds: Many Interacting Worlds Theory Challenges Foundations of Quantum Science

Oct. 30, 2014 — Academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory on parallel universes. Scientists now propose that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. They ... full story

Planet-Forming Lifeline Discovered in a Binary Star System

Oct. 29, 2014 — Scientists have detected a streamer of dust and gas flowing from a massive outer disk toward the inner reaches of a binary star system. This never-before-seen feature may be responsible for ... full story

Scientists Generate First Human Stomach Tissue in Lab With Stem Cells

Oct. 29, 2014 — Scientists used pluripotent stem cells to generate functional, three-dimensional human stomach tissue in a laboratory -- creating an unprecedented tool for researching the development and diseases of ... full story

They Know the Drill: Leading the League in Boring Through Ice Sheets

Oct. 30, 2014 — Hollow coring drills are used to extract ice cores that can analyze the past atmosphere. Scientists have now documented carbon dioxide in the atmosphere between 23,000 and 9,000 years ago, based on ... full story

Genetic Factors Behind Surviving or Dying from Ebola Shown in Mouse Study

Oct. 30, 2014 — A newly developed mouse model suggests that genetic factors are behind the mild-to-deadly range of responses to the Ebola virus. The frequency of different manifestations of the disease across the ... full story

Emerging Disease Could Wipe out American, European Salamanders

Oct. 30, 2014 — A fungal disease from Asia wiped out salamanders in parts of Europe and will likely reach the US through the international wildlife trade in Asian newts sold as pets, say US experts. Scientists ... full story

Magma Pancakes Beneath Indonesia's Lake Toba: Subsurface Sources of Mega-Eruptions

Oct. 30, 2014 — The tremendous amounts of lava that are emitted during super-eruptions accumulate over millions of years prior to the event in the Earth's crust. These reservoirs consist of magma that intrudes ... full story

Toddlers Copy Their Peers to Fit In, but Apes Don't

Oct. 30, 2014 — From the playground to the board room, people often follow, or conform, to the behavior of those around them as a way of fitting in. New research shows that this behavioral conformity appears early ... full story

Planet Discovered That Won't Stick to a Schedule

Oct. 30, 2014 — For their latest discovery, astronomers have found a low-mass, low-density planet with a punctuality problem. The new planet, called PH3c, is located 2,300 light years from Earth and has an ... full story

Sadness Lasts Longer Than Other Emotions

Oct. 30, 2014 — Why is it that you can feel sad up to 240 times longer than you do feeling ashamed, surprised, irritated or even bored? It's because sadness often goes hand in hand with events of greater impact ... full story

Why Scratching Makes You Itch More

Oct. 30, 2014 — Turns out your mom was right: scratching an itch only makes it worse. New research reveals that scratching causes the brain to release serotonin, which intensifies the itch sensation. Scientists ... full story

Hubble Sees 'Ghost Light' from Dead Galaxies

Oct. 30, 2014 — The universe is an infinite sea of galaxies, which are majestic star-cities. When galaxies group together in massive clusters, some of them can be ripped apart by the gravitational tug of other ... full story

Identifying the Source of Stem Cells

Oct. 30, 2014 — When most animals begin life, cells immediately begin accepting assignments to become a head, tail or a vital organ. However, mammals, including humans, are special. The cells of mammalian embryos ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 29, 2014) — A Swedish amputee who became the first person to ever receive a brain controlled prosthetic arm is able to manipulate and handle delicate objects with an unprecedented level of dexterity. The device is connected directly to his bone, nerves and muscles, giving him the ability to control it with his thoughts. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Tiny, Lab-Grown Stomachs Could Treat Stomach Diseases

Tiny, Lab-Grown Stomachs Could Treat Stomach Diseases

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) — The researchers grew tiny stomachs using stem cells, saying the research could lead to better treatment for ulcers and even stomach cancer. Video provided by Newsy
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Robots Get Funky on the Dance Floor

Robots Get Funky on the Dance Floor

AP (Oct. 29, 2014) — Dancing, spinning and fighting robots are showing off their agility at "Robocomp" in Krakow. (Oct. 29) Video provided by AP
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Major Clue Found In Amelia Earhart Mystery

Major Clue Found In Amelia Earhart Mystery

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) — Researchers believe they have identified a fragment from Amelia Earhart's plane. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-10-31 at 6:53 am EDT

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Heart's Own Immune Cells Can Help It Heal

Oct. 30, 2014 — The heart holds its own pool of immune cells capable of helping it heal after injury, according to new research. In a mouse model of heart failure, the researchers showed that blocking the bone ... full story

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence in U.S. Revealed by Study

Oct. 30, 2014 — Nearly 5 percent of U.S. children may be affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), according to a new study. FASD are a group of conditions that can occur in the children of mothers who ... full story

Hygienic Funerals, Better Protection for Health Workers Offer Best Chance to Stop Ebola

Oct. 30, 2014 — Hygienic funeral practices, case isolation, contact tracing with quarantines, and better protection for health care workers are the keys to stopping the Ebola epidemic that continues to expand in ... full story

High-Intensity Sound Waves May Aid Regenerative Medicine

Oct. 30, 2014 — Researchers have developed a way to use sound to create cellular scaffolding for tissue engineering, a unique approach that could help overcome one of regenerative medicine’s significant ... full story

What Do American Babies Eat? A Lot Depends on Mom's Socioeconomic Background

Oct. 30, 2014 — Dietary patterns of babies vary according to the racial, ethnic and educational backgrounds of their mothers, pediatrics researchers have found. For example, babies whose diet included more ... full story

Making Lab-Grown Tissues Stronger

Oct. 30, 2014 — Lab-grown tissues could one day provide new treatments for injuries and damage to the joints, including articular cartilage, tendons and ligaments. Cartilage, for example, is a hard material that ... full story

Could Daylight Savings Time Be a Risk to Diabetics?

Oct. 30, 2014 — Many will turn back the hands of time as part of the twice-annual ritual of daylight savings time. That means remembering to change the alarm clock next to the bed, which means an extra hour of sleep ... full story

Blocking a Fork in the Road to DNA Replication

Oct. 30, 2014 — A team of scientists has discovered the surprising manner in which an enigmatic protein known as SUUR acts to control gene copy number during DNA replication. It’s a finding that could shed new ... full story

Clock Gene Dysregulation May Explain Overactive Bladder

Oct. 30, 2014 — If you think sleep problems and bladder problems are a fact of life in old age, you may be right. A new report shows that our sleep-wake cycles are genetically connected to our bladder, and ... full story

New Molecule Sneaks Medicines Across Blood/brain Barrier

Oct. 30, 2014 — Delivering life-saving drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) might become a little easier thanks to a new study. In the new report, scientists describe an antibody, called 'FC5,' is one-tenth ... full story

Can Parents Make Their Kids Smarter?

Oct. 30, 2014 — Reading bedtime stories, engaging in conversation and eating nightly dinners together are all positive ways in which parents interact with their children, but according to new research, none of these ... full story

Peripheral Clocks Don't Need the Brain's Master Clock to Function Correctly

Oct. 30, 2014 — New research further adds to our understanding of the circadian rhythm by suggesting that the suprachiasmaticus nucleus clock, a tiny region of the hypothalamus considered to be the body's 'master' ... full story

Breakdown in Gut Barriers to Bacteria May Promote Inflammation and Craving in Alcoholics

Oct. 30, 2014 — Bacteria in the GI tract fulfill many vital functions and are critical for digestion. Yet, these same bacteria can induce strong inflammatory responses by the immune system if they penetrate the gut ... full story

Even Mild Depressive Symptoms Result in Poorer Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Surgery Outcome

Oct. 30, 2014 — Even mild depressive symptoms can weaken the outcome of lumbar spinal stenosis surgery, according to a recent study. Patients with depressive symptoms had a weaker functional capacity post-surgery ... full story

Possible Cause of Common Dementia Found, Opening Avenues for Treatment

Oct. 30, 2014 — A major cause of dementia has been potentially discovered, scientists report. In the type of dementia studied, there is damage to the white matter (nerve fibres) of the brain apparent on computerized ... full story

Expectant Mothers With Epilepsy Face Tough Choices Over Their Medication

Oct. 29, 2014 — A new study highlights the difficult decisions women with epilepsy have to face when they become pregnant. Taking certain drugs used to control epilepsy during pregnancy may be linked to ... full story

The Science of Charismatic Voices: How One Man Was Viewed as Authoritarian, Then Benevolent

Oct. 29, 2014 — When a right-wing Italian politician named Umberto Bossi suffered a severe stroke in 2004, his speech became permanently impaired. Strangely, this change impacted Bossi’s perception among his ... full story

Innovative Study Utilizing Video Games Shows Sleep Apnea May Affect Memory of Everyday Events

Oct. 29, 2014 — Sleep apnea may affect your ability to form new spatial memories, such as remembering where you parked your car, new research suggests. The study demonstrates through the playing of a specific video ... full story

Low Carb, High Fat Diets May Reduce Seizures in Tough-to-Treat Epilepsy

Oct. 29, 2014 — Diets high in fat and low in carbohydrates, such as the ketogenic or modified Atkins diet, may reduce seizures in adults with tough-to-treat epilepsy, according to a review of ... full story

Dozens of Genes Associated With Autism in New Research

Oct. 29, 2014 — Two major genetic studies of autism, involving more than 50 laboratories worldwide, have newly implicated dozens of genes in the disorder. The research shows that rare mutations in these genes affect ... full story

Size Matters: Baby's Size at Birth May Predict Risk for Disease Later in Life

Oct. 30, 2014 — Being overweight might be better in the long term than being underweight, at least when it comes to infants. "These findings support the hypothesis that common long-term variation in the activity of ... full story

BPA Exposure by Infants May Increase Later Risk of Food Intolerance

Oct. 30, 2014 — Scientists show, for the first time, that there is a link between perinatal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) at low doses and the risk to develop food intolerance in later life. "We may look back one ... full story

Device Developed for Running Shoes That Prevents Injuries

Oct. 30, 2014 — A prototype running shoe has been designed with an integrated device that improves training management and prevents injuries. The device consists of a microelectronic measuring system capable of ... full story

Availability of Tanning Beds On, Near College Campuses

Oct. 29, 2014 — Among the top 125 colleges on a list compiled by US News & World Report, 48 percent have indoor tanning facilities either on campus or in off-campus housing despite evidence that tanning is a risk ... full story

Clean Smell Doesn't Always Mean Clean Air

Oct. 29, 2014 — Scientists are taking a closer look at aerosol formation involving an organic compound -- called limonene -- that provides the pleasant smell of cleaning products and air fresheners. This research ... full story

Walking Workstations Improve Physical, Mental Health, Builds Healthier Workplace

Oct. 29, 2014 — Walking workstations can improve not only physical, but also mental health during the workday, a new study has found. With growing concerns regarding obesity in the United States, the author hopes ... full story

Liberal or Conservative? Reactions to Disgust Are a Dead Giveaway

Oct. 29, 2014 — The way a person's brain responds to a single disgusting image is enough to reliably predict whether he or she identifies politically as liberal or conservative. As we approach Election Day, the ... full story

To Reap the Brain Benefits of Physical Activity, Just Get Moving

Oct. 29, 2014 — Everyone knows that exercise makes you feel more mentally alert at any age. But do you need to follow a specific training program to improve your cognitive function? Science has shown that the ... full story

Diets High in Fruit, Vegetables, Whole Grains and Nuts Among Factors to Lower First-Time Stroke Risk

Oct. 29, 2014 — Eating Mediterranean or DASH-style diets, regularly engaging in physical activity and keeping your blood pressure under control can lower your risk of a first-time stroke, experts say. Additionally, ... full story

From Age 8 to 80, Expert Reveals the Price We Pay for Not Sleeping

Oct. 29, 2014 — Most Americans who spend part of the year on daylight saving time look forward to the extra hour of sleep when it’s time to “fall back” to standard time. We are a nation of sleep-deprived ... full story

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Lord of the Microrings

Oct. 30, 2014 — Researchers report a significant breakthrough in laser technology with the development of a unique microring laser cavity that can produce single-mode lasing on demand. This advance holds ... full story

Ion Adsorption Matter in Biology

Oct. 30, 2014 — Biological membranes are mainly composed of lipid bilayers. Gaining a better understanding of adsorption of solution ions onto lipid membranes helps clarify functional processes in biological cells. ... full story

'Nanomotor Lithography' Answers Call for Affordable, Simpler Device Manufacturing

Oct. 30, 2014 — What does it take to fabricate electronic and medical devices tinier than a fraction of a human hair? Nanoengineers recently invented a new method of lithography in which nanoscale robots swim over ... full story

High Air Pollution Levels Near Unconventional Oil and Gas Production Sites

Oct. 30, 2014 — Research suggests air pollutants released by unconventional oil and gas production are well over recommended levels in the US. High levels of benzene, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde were found. ... full story

Could Copper Prevent Spread of Ebola?

Oct. 30, 2014 — Copper could help to prevent the spread of Ebola, researchers have found. While hand washing, disinfectants and quarantine procedures alone have been found to be insufficient to contain the spread of ... full story

Physicists Pave the Way for Quantum Interfaces

Oct. 30, 2014 — Researchers have controlled interplay of light and matter at the level of individual photons emitted by ... full story

Game Technology Can Make Emergency Robots Easier to Control

Oct. 30, 2014 — A method borrowed from video gaming can make remote-controlled emergency response robots easier to use -- enabling the operator to focus more on the dangerous situations they ... full story

Economical Process for Micro Energy Harvesting

Oct. 30, 2014 — The trend toward energy self-sufficient probes and ever smaller mobile electronics systems continues unabated. They are used, for example, to monitor the status of the engines on airplanes, or for ... full story

Line Camera Makes Magnetic Field Lines Visible in 3-D and Real Time

Oct. 30, 2014 — Scientists have developed a high-resolution magnetic line camera to measure magnetic fields in real time. Field lines in magnetic systems such as generators or motors, which are invisible to the ... full story

3-D Printing Incorporates Quasicrystals for Stronger Manufacturing Products

Oct. 30, 2014 — Researchers say that quasicrystals, a type of complex metal alloy with crystal-like properties, can be useful in the design of new composite ... full story

When Did Galaxies Settle Down?

Oct. 30, 2014 — Astronomers have long sought to understand exactly how the universe evolved from its earliest history to the cosmos we see around us in the present day. In particular, the way that galaxies form and ... full story

NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility Completes Initial Assessment After Orbital Launch Mishap

Oct. 29, 2014 — The Wallops Incident Response Team completed today an initial assessment of Wallops Island, Virginia, following the catastrophic failure of Orbital Science Corp.'s Antares rocket shortly after ... full story

Supersonic Laser-Propelled Rockets: Hybrid Approach May Help Power Rockets, Launch Satellites, Push Future Aircraft Past Mach 10

Oct. 29, 2014 — Researchers have described a new system that integrates a laser-ablation propulsion system with the gas blasting nozzles of a spacecraft which can increase the speed of the gas flow out of the system ... full story

Moon Mission: Images of LADEE's Impact Crater Captured

Oct. 28, 2014 — NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft has spied a new crater on the lunar surface; one made from the impact of NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer ... full story

Laser Experiments Mimic Cosmic Explosions and Planetary Cores

Oct. 28, 2014 — Researchers are finding ways to understand some of the mysteries of space without leaving earth. Using high-intensity lasers focused on targets smaller than a pencil's eraser, they conducted ... full story

Physicists Closer to Understanding Balance of Matter, Antimatter in Universe

Oct. 27, 2014 — Physicists have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the Universe contains more matter than ... full story

Tremendously Bright Pulsar May Be One of Many

Oct. 27, 2014 — A newly found pulsar, the brightest ever seen, raises questions about a mysterious category of cosmic objects called ultraluminous X-ray sources. A member of the team that announced the discovery now ... full story

Zero Gravity Experiments on the International Space Station Shed Some Light on Thermodiffusion Effects

Oct. 27, 2014 — Thermodiffusion, also called the Soret effect, is a mechanism by which an imposed temperature difference establishes a concentration difference within a mixture. Two studies now provide a better ... full story

Astronomers Image the Exploding Fireball Stage of a Nova

Oct. 26, 2014 — Astronomers have observed the expanding thermonuclear fireball from a nova that erupted last year in the constellation Delphinus with unprecedented ... full story

Hinode Satellite Captures X-Ray Footage of Solar Eclipse

Oct. 25, 2014 — The moon passed between the Earth and the sun on Thursday, Oct. 23. While avid stargazers in North America looked up to watch the spectacle, the best vantage point was several hundred miles above the ... full story

Biology Meets Geometry: Geometry of a Common Cellular Structure Explored

Oct. 30, 2014 — Architecture imitates life, at least when it comes to those spiral ramps in multistory parking garages. Stacked and connecting parallel levels, the ramps are replications of helical structures found ... full story

Harnessing Error-Prone Chips

Oct. 30, 2014 — As transistors get smaller, they also grow less reliable. Increasing their operating voltage can help, but that means a corresponding increase in power consumption. With information technology ... full story

Adapative 'Nowcasting' Key to Accurate Flu Data Trends Using Google Search Terms

Oct. 30, 2014 — Google search data really can provide a more accurate real time picture of current flu infections, researchers have found. Official reports of influenza infection rates are produced with a delay of ... full story

Model Explains Why HIV Prevention Dosing Differs by Sex

Oct. 30, 2014 — A mathematical model predicts that women must take the antiretroviral medication Truvada daily to prevent HIV infection via vaginal sex, whereas just two doses per week can protect men from HIV ... full story

Projecting a Robot's Intentions: New Spin on Virtual Reality Helps Engineers Read Robots' Minds

Oct. 29, 2014 — In a darkened, hangar-like space inside MIT's Building 41, a small, Roomba-like robot is trying to make up its mind. Standing in its path is an obstacle — a human pedestrian who’s pacing back and ... full story

Can Social Media Help Stop the Spread of HIV?

Oct. 29, 2014 — In addition to providing other potential benefits to public health, all of those tweets and Facebook posts could help curb the spread of HIV. Although public health researchers have focused early ... full story

Saving Lots of Computing Capacity With a New Algorithm

Oct. 29, 2014 — The control of modern infrastructure such as intelligent power grids needs lots of computing capacity. Scientists have developed an algorithm that might revolutionize these processes. With their new ... full story

5G Networks: Futuristic Communications for Today's Users

Oct. 29, 2014 — Devices that learn from our habits and help us to “think better”, connect us to a friend just by thinking about them, or ensure continuing medical monitoring, will be a reality in 2020, thanks to ... full story

Modeling Cancer: Researchers Prove Models Can Predict Cellular Processes

Oct. 28, 2014 — Mathematical models to predict the dynamics of cell transitions have been developed by researchers who compared their results with actual measurements of activity in cell populations. The results ... full story

Identifying 'Stance Taking' Cues to Enable Sophisticated Voice Recognition

Oct. 28, 2014 — In the future, computers may be capable of talking to us during meetings just like a remote teleconference participant. But to help move this science-fiction-sounding goal a step closer to reality, ... full story

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Himalayan Viagra Fuels Caterpillar Fungus Gold Rush

Oct. 30, 2014 — Overwhelmed by speculators trying to cash-in on a prized medicinal fungus known as Himalayan Viagra, two isolated Tibetan communities have managed to do at the local level what world leaders often ... full story

Bats Will Hang out With Their Friends This Halloween

Oct. 30, 2014 — New research has shown that despite moving house frequently, bats choose to roost with the same social groups of 'friends.' The study found that different social groups roost in separate, though ... full story

Science Casts Light on Sex in the Orchard

Oct. 30, 2014 — Persimmons are among the small club of plants with separate sexes -- individual trees are either male or female. Now scientists have discovered how sex is determined in a species of persimmon, ... full story

Saving Lonely Species Is Important for Environment

Oct. 30, 2014 — Endemic eucalyptus in Tasmania has been the focus of recent study. Researchers discovered that these rare species have developed unique characteristics to survive, and that these characteristics may ... full story

Female Frogs Modify Offspring Development Depending on Reproduction Date

Oct. 30, 2014 — Global warming is altering the reproduction of plants and animals, notably accelerating the date when reproduction and other life processes occur. A new study has discovered that some amphibians are ... full story

Reef-Builders With a Sense of Harmony

Oct. 30, 2014 — Cold-water corals of the species Lophelia pertusa are able to fuse skeletons of genetically distinct individuals. Scientists have made the first-ever discovery of branches of different colors that ... full story

Pterostilbene, a Molecule Similar to Resveratrol, as a Potential Treatment for Obesity

Oct. 30, 2014 — Pterostilbene is a phenolic compound in the same family as resveratrol and is present in small amounts in a large variety of foods and beverages like blueberries or red wine. Researchers have ... full story

Populations of Rare Songbird Found in Surprising New Habitat

Oct. 30, 2014 — With only 90,000 breeding individuals sparsely distributed across 15 US states, the Swainson's warbler is a species of high conservation concern that, for decades, has left conservationists with ... full story

Running Robots of Future May Learn from World's Best Two-Legged Runners: Birds

Oct. 29, 2014 — With an eye toward making better running robots, researchers have made surprising new findings about some of nature's most energy efficient bipeds -- running birds. Their skills may have evolved from ... full story

Plump Turtles Swim Better: First Models of Swimming Animals

Oct. 29, 2014 — Bigger is better, if you're a leatherback sea turtle. For the first time, researchers have measured the forces that act on a swimming animal and the energy the animal must expend to move through the ... full story

Urban Seismic Network Detects Human Sounds

Oct. 29, 2014 — When listening to the Earth, what clues can seismic data reveal about the impact of urban life? Although naturally occurring vibrations have proven useful to seismologists, until now the vibrations ... full story

Ammonium Source in Open Ocean Tracked by Researchers

Oct. 29, 2014 — To understand the extent to which human activities are polluting Earth's atmosphere and oceans, it's important to distinguish human-made pollutants from compounds that occur naturally. A new study ... full story

Teeth, Sex and Testosterone Reveal Secrets of Aging in Wild Mouse Lemurs

Oct. 29, 2014 — Mouse lemurs can live at least eight years in the wild -- twice as long as some previous estimates, a long-term longitudinal study ... full story

New Frog Discovered Inhabiting I-95 Corridor from Connecticut to North Carolina

Oct. 29, 2014 — More than a half century after claims that a new frog species existed in New York and New Jersey were dismissed, a team of scientists has proven that the frog is living in wetlands from Connecticut ... full story

Combing the Atmosphere to Measure Greenhouse Gases

Oct. 29, 2014 — By remotely 'combing' the atmosphere with a custom laser-based instrument, researchers have developed a new technique that can accurately measure -- over a sizeable distance -- amounts of several of ... full story

Scientists Make Enzyme That Could Help Explain Origins of Life

Oct. 29, 2014 — Mimicking natural evolution in a test tube, scientists have devised an enzyme with a unique property that might have been crucial to the origin of life on ... full story

Thousands of Substances Ranked According to Potential Exposure Level

Oct. 29, 2014 — An overwhelming number of chemicals from household and industrial products are in the environment -- and hundreds are in our bodies. But for most of them, scientists have yet to determine whether ... full story

Why Plants Don't Get Sunburn

Oct. 29, 2014 — Plants rely on sunlight to make their food, but they also need protection from its harmful rays, just like humans do. Recently, scientists discovered a group of molecules in plants that shields them ... full story

New Solar Power Material Converts 90 Percent of Captured Light Into Heat

Oct. 29, 2014 — A multidisciplinary engineering team developed a new nanoparticle-based material for concentrating solar power plants designed to absorb and convert to heat more than 90 percent of the sunlight it ... full story

Upgrading Infrastructure Could Reduce Flood Damage

Oct. 29, 2014 — The severe flooding that devastated a wide swath of Colorado last year might have been less destructive if the bridges, roads and other infrastructure had been upgraded or modernized, according to a ... full story

Evolution of Competitiveness: Scientists Explain Diversity in Competitiveness

Oct. 29, 2014 — Virtually all organisms in the living world compete with members of their own species. However, individuals differ strongly in how much they invest into their competitive ability. Some individuals ... full story

DNA Sequences Used to Look Back in Time at Key Events in Plant Evolution

Oct. 28, 2014 — Scientists have revealed important details about key transitions in the evolution of plant life on our planet. From strange and exotic algae, mosses, ferns, trees and flowers growing deep in steamy ... full story

Ancient Auditory Illusions Reflected in Prehistoric Art?

Oct. 28, 2014 — Some of humankind's earliest and most mysterious artistic achievements -- including prehistoric cave paintings, canyon petroglyphs and megalithic structures such as Stonehenge -- may have been ... full story

How Did Complex Life Evolve? The Answer Could Be Inside out

Oct. 28, 2014 — A new idea about the origin of complex life turns current theories inside out. Scientists explain their 'inside-out' theory of how eukaryotic cells, which all multicellular life -- including us -- ... full story

How Culture Influences Violence Among the Amazon's ‘fierce People'

Oct. 27, 2014 — When Yanomamφ men in the Amazon raided villages and killed decades ago, they formed alliances with men in other villages rather than just with close kin like chimpanzees do. And the spoils of war ... full story

Emergent Behavior Lets Bubbles 'Sense' Environment

Oct. 27, 2014 — Tiny, soapy bubbles can reorganize their membranes to let material flow in and out in response to the surrounding environment, according to researchers. This behavior could be exploited in creating ... full story

Ebola's Evolutionary Roots More Ancient Than Previously Thought

Oct. 24, 2014 — A new study is helping to rewrite Ebola’s family history. It shows that Ebola and Marburg are each members of ancient evolutionary lines, and that these two viruses last shared a common ancestor ... full story

How Ferns Adapted to One of Earth's Newest and Most Extreme Environments

Oct. 23, 2014 — Ferns are believed to be 'old' plant species -- some of them lived alongside the dinosaurs, over 200 million years ago. However, a group of Andean ferns evolved much more recently: their completely ... full story

Florida Lizards Evolve Rapidly, Within 15 Years and 20 Generations

Oct. 23, 2014 — Scientists working on islands in Florida have documented the rapid evolution of a native lizard species -- in as little as 15 years -- as a result of pressure from an invading lizard species, ... full story

Highest Altitude Archaeological Sites in the World Explored in the Peruvian Andes: Survival in Extreme Environments

Oct. 23, 2014 — Research conducted at the highest-altitude Pleistocene archaeological sites yet identified in the world sheds new light on the capacity of humans to survive in extreme environments. The findings were ... full story

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Microrockets Fueled by Water Neutralize Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

Oct. 29, 2014 — With fears growing over chemical and biological weapons falling into the wrong hands, scientists are developing microrockets to fight back against these dangerous agents, should the need arise. They ... full story

Largest Ever Dataset of Individual Deaths in Africa, SE Asia Reveals Changing Health

Oct. 29, 2014 — An unprecedented insight into the changing health of people across Africa and Asia -- including the fluctuating burdens of HIV, malaria and childhood mortality -- is revealed today by the publication ... full story

Cinema-Like Environment Helps Audiences Become Immersed in Movies Even When Shown on Cell Phones

Oct. 29, 2014 — If the surroundings are designed to be sufficiently stimulating, even a simple computer screen is enough to generate an intense cinematic experience. After observing some 300 study subjects, ... full story

Nestling Birds Struggle in Noisy Environments

Oct. 29, 2014 — Unable to fly, nestling birds depend on their parents for both food and protection: vocal communication between parents and offspring helps young birds to determine when they should beg for food and ... full story

Politics Can Interact With Evolution to Shape Human Destiny

Oct. 28, 2014 — Politics can have unintentional evolutionary consequences that may cause hastily issued policies to cascade into global, multigenerational problems, according to political ... full story

Global Infection Outbreaks, Unique Diseases Rising Since 1980

Oct. 28, 2014 — Ebola has a lot of company. In a novel database now made publicly available, researchers found that since 1980 the world has seen an increasing number of infectious disease outbreaks from an ... full story

Sensors Used to Monitor Dangerous Hits on Football Field

Oct. 28, 2014 — In football, a tackle can supply 100 G’s of force or more, well above the amount that can cause a concussion and more than 10 times the force of an F-16 jet roll maneuver. Now, researchers are ... full story

Salt-Loving Plants May Be Key to Global Efforts for Sustainable Food Production

Oct. 28, 2014 — Farmland is vanishing in part because the salinity in the soil is rising as a result of climate change and other human-made phenomena. Researchers propose a new concept for breeding salt- tolerant ... full story

Compensation and Punishment: 'Justice' Depends on Whether or Not We're a Victim

Oct. 28, 2014 — We’re more likely to punish wrongdoing as a third party to a non-violent offense than when we’re victimized by it, according to a new study. The findings may offer insights into how juries differ ... full story

Don't Bet on Stinginess to Keep Stress Low

Oct. 28, 2014 — Is generosity less stressful than being stingy? New research examined the physiological reactions of participants in a financial bargaining game and found that not only those receiving relatively low ... full story

Resetting the Circadian Clock: Shift Workers Might Want to Skip High-Iron Foods at Night

Oct. 21, 2014 — Workers punching in for the graveyard shift may be better off not eating high-iron foods at night so they don’t disrupt the circadian clock in their livers. "Iron is like the dial that sets the ... full story

Recognizing Emotion in Text :-S the Business Benefits :-)

Oct. 21, 2014 — Researchers have advanced the field of affective computing -- the creation of computer systems that recognize, express and process human emotions -- by proposing a new way to recognize emotion in ... full story

Helping Outdoor Workers Reduce Skin Cancer Risk

Oct. 14, 2014 — Skin cancer is one of the biggest fears for one in two outdoor workers, and when the boss and staff work together the sun safe message gets through, a study has ... full story

Scientists Identify Method of Eradicating Harmful Impacts from Manufacturing Process

Oct. 8, 2014 — A novel technique for applying high-quality finishes in engineering industries could reduce the human and environmental impact by up to 98 percent, scientists ... full story

Private Telephone Conversations: Dynamic Encryption Keeps Secrets

Oct. 7, 2014 — Scientists have invented a new way to encrypt telephone conversations that makes it very difficult to ‘eavesdrop’. The invention can help to curb industrial ... full story

What Makes a Song Sing? Backup Singers

Sep. 29, 2014 — What made Michael Jackson’s “Billie Jean” a No. 1 hit on Billboard’s Hot 100 in 1983, and other songs, like Madonna’s 1999 “Nothing Really Matters,” flounder at 90 or below? New ... full story

Job Loss Fears May Boost First-Time Asthma Risk

Sep. 22, 2014 — Job loss fears may boost the risk of developing asthma for the first time, indicates research. The findings back up other epidemiological studies pointing to a link between the development of asthma ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Bullying in Schools Still Prevalent, American National Report Finds

Oct. 23, 2014 — Despite a dramatic increase in public awareness and anti-bullying legislation nationwide, the prevalence of bullying is still one of the most pressing issues facing our nation's youth, according to a ... full story

Two Days Later: Adolescents' Conflicts With Family Spill Over to School, Vice Versa

Oct. 23, 2014 — Family conflict and problems at school tend to occur together on the same day. A new study has found that these problems spill over in both directions for up to two days after. The study found that ... full story

Research Highlights Extent, Effects of School Violence in U.S.

Oct. 21, 2014 — Six percent of U.S. children and youth missed a day of school over the course of a year because they were the victim of violence or abuse at school. "This study really highlights the way school ... full story

Mental Rest and Reflection Boost Learning, Study Suggests

Oct. 20, 2014 — A new study, which may have implications for approaches to education, finds that brain mechanisms engaged when people allow their minds to rest and reflect on things they've learned before may boost ... full story

Myth-Conceptions: How Myths About the Brain Are Hampering Teaching

Oct. 16, 2014 — Myths about the brain are common among teachers worldwide and are hampering teaching, according to new research. The report highlights several areas where new findings from neuroscience are becoming ... full story

More Physical Activity Improved School Performance in Swedish Study

Oct. 14, 2014 — Just two hours of extra physical activity each week can improve school performance, researchers report. This has been shown by a study of approximately 2,000 ... full story

Trying to Fool a Kindergartner? Not So Fast

Oct. 8, 2014 — A new study shows that by the age of five, children become wary of information provided by people who make overly confident ... full story

Why Is Educational Achievement Heritable?

Oct. 6, 2014 — The high heritability of exam grades reflects many genetically influenced traits such as personality, behavior problems, and self-efficacy and not just intelligence. The study looked at 13,306 twins ... full story

Kids' Oral Language Skills Can Predict Future Writing Difficulties

Oct. 6, 2014 — Children's future writing difficulties can be identified before they even learn how to begin writing, according to a new study. The research data also contradicts the popular belief that bilingualism ... full story

How Curiosity Changes the Brain to Enhance Learning

Oct. 2, 2014 — The more curious we are about a topic, the easier it is to learn information about that topic. New research provides insights into what happens in our brains when curiosity is piqued. The findings ... full story

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