Today's Science News

Monday, October 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

NASA Spacecraft Provides New Information About Sun's Atmosphere

Oct. 16, 2014 — NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has provided scientists with five new findings into how the sun's atmosphere, or corona, is heated far hotter than its surface, what ... full story

Cells' Powerhouses Were Once Energy Parasites: Study Upends Current Theories of How Mitochondria Began

Oct. 16, 2014 — Parasitic bacteria were the first cousins of the mitochondria that power cells in animals and plants -- and first acted as energy parasites in those cells before becoming beneficial, according to a ... full story

Wobbling of a Saturn Moon Hints at What Lies Beneath

Oct. 16, 2014 — Using instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft to measure the wobbles of Mimas, the closest of Saturn's regular moons, an astronomer has inferred that this small moon's icy surface cloaks ... full story

Scientists Find 'Hidden Brain Signatures' of Consciousness in Vegetative State Patients

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists in Cambridge have found hidden signatures in the brains of people in a vegetative state, which point to networks that could support consciousness even when a patient appears to be ... full story

Hubble Finds Extremely Distant Galaxy Through Cosmic Magnifying Glass

Oct. 16, 2014 — Using the Hubble Space Telescope and the lensing power of giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744, astronomers may have made the most reliable distance measurement yet of an object that existed in the very ... full story

Brain Surgery, by Robot, Through the Cheek

Oct. 15, 2014 — Engineers have developed a surgical robot designed to perform brain surgery by entering through the cheek instead of the skull that can operate on a patient in an MRI scanner. Additionally, the ... full story

New Way to Lose Weight: Scientists Stimulate Brown Fat to Burn More Energy from Food

Oct. 16, 2014 — The number of overweight persons is greatly increasing worldwide - and as a result is the risk of suffering a heart attack, stroke, diabetes or Alzheimer's disease. For this reason, many people ... full story

Inexplicable Signal from Unseen Universe Provides Tantalizing Clue About One of Astronomy's Greatest Secrets -- Dark Matter

Oct. 16, 2014 — The first potential indication of direct detection of dark matter -- something that has been a mystery in physics for over 30 years -- has been attained. Astronomers found what appears to be a ... full story

Evidence for Huge Mountains That Fed Early Life Discovered

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists have found evidence for a huge mountain range that existed in the supercontinent of Gondwana some 600 million years ago. It ran from modern west Africa to northeast Brazil, and as it ... full story

Magnetic Mirrors Enable New Technologies by Reflecting Light in Uncanny Ways

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists have demonstrated, for the first time, a new type of mirror that forgoes a familiar shiny metallic surface and instead reflects infrared light by using an unusual magnetic property of a ... full story

Brain's Compass Relies on Geometric Relationships, Say Researchers

Oct. 16, 2014 — The brain has a complex system for keeping track of which direction you are facing as you move about; remembering how to get from one place to another would otherwise be impossible. Researchers have ... full story

That Pregnant Feeling Makes a Fly Start Nesting

Oct. 16, 2014 — Across the animal kingdom, it's not uncommon for pregnancy to change an expectant mom's behavior. Even female flies have their own rudimentary way of 'nesting,' which appears to ... full story

Amphibian Communities Collapse in Wake of Viral Outbreak

Oct. 16, 2014 — Two closely related viruses that have been introduced to northern Spain in recent years have already led to the collapse of three different species of amphibian -- the common midwife toad, the common ... full story

Jet Lag Can Cause Obesity by Disrupting the Daily Rhythms of Gut Microbes

Oct. 16, 2014 — Organisms ranging from bacteria to humans have circadian clocks to help them synchronize their biological activities to the time of day. A study now reveals that gut microbes in mice and humans have ... full story

Cosmic Jets of Young Stars Formed by Magnetic Fields

Oct. 16, 2014 — Astrophysical jets are counted among our universe's most spectacular phenomena: From the centers of black holes, quasars, or protostars, these rays of matter sometimes protrude several light ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Japanese Scientists Unveil Floating 3D Projection

Japanese Scientists Unveil Floating 3D Projection

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 20, 2014) — Scientists in Tokyo have demonstrated what they say is the world's first 3D projection that floats in mid air. A laser that fires a pulse up to a thousand times a second superheats molecules in the air, creating a spark which can be guided to certain points in the air to shape what the human eye perceives as an image. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Fish Fossil Shows First-Ever Sex Was Done Side By Side

Fish Fossil Shows First-Ever Sex Was Done Side By Side

Newsy (Oct. 19, 2014) — A 380-million-year-old fish may be the first creature to have copulative sex - and it was side by side with arms linked, like square dancers. Video provided by Newsy
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Comet Siding Spring Grazes Mars' Atmosphere

Comet Siding Spring Grazes Mars' Atmosphere

Newsy (Oct. 19, 2014) — A comet from the farthest reaches of the solar system passed extremely close to Mars this weekend, giving astronomers a rare opportunity to study it. Video provided by Newsy
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Study Links Soda To Accelerated DNA Aging

Study Links Soda To Accelerated DNA Aging

Newsy (Oct. 19, 2014) — Researchers at the University of California San Francisco found the sugar in soda might accelerate the body's aging process. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-10-20 at 10:38 pm EDT

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Salmonella-Infected Mice That Were Given Antibiotics Became Superspreaders

Oct. 20, 2014 — Some people infected with pathogens spread their germs to others while remaining symptom-free themselves. Now, investigators believe they may know ... full story

Mental Rest and Reflection Boost Learning, Study Suggests

Oct. 20, 2014 — A new study, which may have implications for approaches to education, finds that brain mechanisms engaged when people allow their minds to rest and reflect on things they've learned before may boost ... full story

Untangling the Biological Effects of Blue Light

Oct. 20, 2014 — Blue light can both set the mood and set in motion important biological responses. Researchers have teased apart the separate biological responses of the human eye to blue light, revealing an ... full story

Measuring on Ice: Researchers Create 'Smart' Ice Skating Blade

Oct. 20, 2014 — An ice skating blade that informs figure skaters of the stresses they are imposing on their joints has been developed by a group of researchers in the ... full story

Three People Infected With Ebola Predicted to Fly from West Africa Every Month If No Exit Screening Takes Place

Oct. 20, 2014 — Three Ebola-infected travelers are predicted to depart on an international flight every month from any of the three countries in West Africa currently experiencing widespread Ebola virus outbreaks ... full story

See-Through Sensors Open New Window Into the Brain

Oct. 20, 2014 — Developing invisible implantable medical sensor arrays, a team of engineers has overcome a major technological hurdle in researchers’ efforts to understand the brain. The team has now described its ... full story

Scientists Restore Hearing in Noise-Deafened Mice, Pointing Way to New Therapies

Oct. 20, 2014 — Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears. By demonstrating the importance of the protein, ... full story

Positive Subliminal Messages on Aging Improve Physical Functioning in Elderly

Oct. 20, 2014 — Older individuals who are subliminally exposed to positive stereotypes about aging showed improved physical functioning that can last for several weeks, a new ... full story

New Study Charts the Fate of Chemicals Affecting Health, Environment

Oct. 20, 2014 — The trajectory of chemicals appearing as emergent threats to human or environmental health has been recently studied through a meta-analysis of 143,000 peer-reviewed research papers. The work tracks ... full story

Siblings of Children With Autism Can Show Signs at 18 Months

Oct. 20, 2014 — About 20 percent of younger siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder will develop the condition by age 3. A new study has found that 57 percent of these younger siblings who later develop ... full story

See-Through, One-Atom-Thick, Carbon Electrodes Powerful Tool to Study Brain Disorders

Oct. 20, 2014 — A graphene, one-atom-thick microelectrode now solves a major problem for investigators looking at brain circuitry. Pinning down the details of how individual neural circuits operate in epilepsy and ... full story

Sport in Old Age Can Stimulate Brain Fitness, but Effect Decreases With Advancing Age

Oct. 20, 2014 — Physical exercise in old age can improve brain perfusion as well as certain memory skills, say neuroscientists who studied men and women aged between 60 and 77. In younger individuals regular ... full story

Brain Activity Provides Evidence for Internal 'Calorie Counter'

Oct. 20, 2014 — As you think about how a food will taste and whether it's nutritious, an internal calorie counter of sorts is also evaluating each food based on its caloric density, according to findings from a new ... full story

Fairness Is in the Brain, Scientists Say

Oct. 20, 2014 — Ever wondered how people figure out what is fair? Look to the brain for the answer. According to a new brain study, people appreciate fairness in much the same way as they appreciate money for ... full story

Sexual Preference for Masculine Men, Feminine Women Is an Urban Habit

Oct. 20, 2014 — A groundbreaking new study suggests that, rather than being passed down through a long process of social and sexual selection, preferences for masculine men and feminine women is a relatively new ... full story

New Antidepressant: Rapid Agent Restores Pleasure-Seeking Ahead of Other Antidepressant Action

Oct. 20, 2014 — A drug being studied as a fast-acting mood-lifter restored pleasure-seeking behavior independent of -- and ahead of -- its other antidepressant effects. Within 40 minutes after a single infusion of ... full story

Design of Micro, Nanoparticles to Improve Treatments for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

Oct. 20, 2014 — Techniques are being developed to deliver correctly and effectively certain drugs to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Both disorders affect the neurones: their structure and function is lost, and ... full story

Cold Sores Increase Risk of Dementia

Oct. 20, 2014 — Infection with herpes simplex virus increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease, researchers claim. "Our results clearly show that there is a link between infections of herpes simplex virus and the ... full story

Head Injury Causes Immune System to Attack Brain, New Study Finds

Oct. 20, 2014 — Scientists have uncovered a surprising way to reduce the brain damage caused by head injuries -- stopping the body's immune system from killing brain cells. A new study showed that in experiments on ... full story

Aspirin Shown to Benefit Schizophrenia Treatment

Oct. 20, 2014 — Some anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, estrogen, and Fluimucil, can improve the efficacy of existing schizophrenia treatments, new research suggests. Research has shown that the immune ... full story

Children Who Drink Non-Cow's Milk Are Twice as Likely to Have Low Vitamin D

Oct. 20, 2014 — Children who drink non-cow's milk such as rice, almond, soy or goat's milk, have lower levels of vitamin D in their blood than those who drink cow's milk, according to a new ... full story

Work to Improve Children's Health Should Start Before Mother Becomes Pregnant

Oct. 20, 2014 — The key to making future generations healthier could lie before the mother becomes pregnant, researchers believe. In a new article, they say that a greater understanding is needed of the role of ... full story

Medication Frequently, Unintentionally Given Incorrectly to Young Children

Oct. 20, 2014 — A new study shows how often adults make mistakes when giving medication to children. The study found that medication errors occur in a child every eight minutes in the United States, on average, and ... full story

Birth Season Affects Your Mood in Later Life, New Research Suggests

Oct. 18, 2014 — New research shows that the season you are born has a significant impact on your risk of developing mood disorders. People born at certain times of year may have a greater chance of developing ... full story

Vitamin D Deficiency Increases Poor Brain Function After Cardiac Arrest by Sevenfold

Oct. 18, 2014 — Patients with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to have a poor neurological outcome or die after sudden cardiac arrest than those who were not deficient. Nearly one-third of the patients who were ... full story

Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Newborn Stress Hormones, DNA, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — The effects of smoking during pregnancy, and its impact on the stress response in newborn babies, has been the focus of recent study. The research indicates that newborns of mothers who smoke ... full story

Action Video Games Bolster Sensorimotor Skills, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — People who play action video games such as Call of Duty or Assassin's Creed seem to learn a new sensorimotor skill more quickly than non-gamers do, psychology researchers have ... full story

Blinded by Non-Science: Trivial Scientific Information Increases Trust in Products

Oct. 17, 2014 — Beware of trivial graphs and formulas, warns new research. The study found trivial graphs or formulas accompanying medical information can lead consumers to believe products are more ... full story

Physicists Sound Warning to 'Nail Beauty Fanatics'

Oct. 17, 2014 — The daily trimming of fingernails and toenails to make them more aesthetically pleasing could be detrimental and potentially lead to serious nail ... full story

Major Benefits for Students Who Attend Live Theater, Study Finds

Oct. 16, 2014 — Field trips to live theater enhance literary knowledge, tolerance, and empathy among students, according to a study. The research team found that reading and watching movies of Hamlet and A Christmas ... full story

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User-Friendly Electronic 'Eyecane' Enhances Navigational Abilities for Blind

Oct. 20, 2014 — White Canes provide low-tech assistance to the visually impaired, but some blind people object to their use because they are cumbersome, fail to detect elevated obstacles, or require long training ... full story

Facetless Crystals That Mimic Starfish Shells Could Advance 3-D-Printing Pills

Oct. 20, 2014 — In a design that mimics a hard-to-duplicate texture of starfish shells, engineers have made rounded crystals that have no ... full story

Wild Molecular Interactions in a New Hydrogen Mixture

Oct. 20, 2014 — Hydrogen responds to pressure and temperature extremes differently. Under ambient conditions hydrogen is a gaseous two-atom molecule. As confinement pressure increases, the molecules adopt different ... full story

Scientists Create Possible Precursor to Life

Oct. 20, 2014 — How did life originate? And can scientists create life? These questions not only occupy the minds of scientists interested in the origin of life, but also researchers working with technology of the ... full story

Physicists Build Reversible Laser Tractor Beam

Oct. 20, 2014 — Physicists have built a tractor beam that can repel and attract objects, using a hollow laser beam, bright around the edges and dark in its center. It is the first long-distance optical tractor beam, ... full story

1980s American Aircraft Helps Quantum Technology Take Flight

Oct. 20, 2014 — The X-29, an American experimental aircraft has inspired quantum computing researchers in a development which will bring the technology out of the ... full story

Goldilocks Principle Wrong for Particle Assembly: Too Hot and Too Cold Is Just Right

Oct. 20, 2014 — Microscopic particles that bind under low temperatures will melt as temperatures rise to moderate levels, but re-connect under hotter conditions, a team of scientists has found. Their discovery ... full story

New Tracers Can Identify Frack Fluids in the Environment

Oct. 20, 2014 — Scientists have developed geochemical tracers to identify hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids that have been spilled or released into the environment. The tracers have been field-tested at two sites ... full story

Imaging Electric Charge Propagating Along Microbial Nanowires

Oct. 19, 2014 — Physicists report that they've used a new imaging technique, electrostatic force microscopy, to resolve the biological debate with evidence from physics, showing that electric charges do indeed ... full story

Crystallizing the DNA Nanotechnology Dream

Oct. 19, 2014 — For the last 20 years, scientists have tried to design large DNA crystals with precisely prescribed depth and complex features -- a design quest just fulfilled by scientists. The team built 32 DNA ... full story

Heavy Metal Frost? A New Look at a Venusian Mystery

Oct. 20, 2014 — Venus is hiding something beneath its brilliant shroud of clouds: a first order mystery about the planet that researchers may be a little closer to solving because of a new re-analysis of ... full story

NASA's Mars Odyssey Orbiter Watches Comet Fly Near

Oct. 20, 2014 — The longest-lived robot ever sent to Mars came through its latest challenge in good health, reporting home on schedule after sheltering behind Mars from possible comet ... full story

NASA's MAVEN Studies Passing Comet and Its Effects

Oct. 20, 2014 — NASA's newest orbiter at Mars, MAVEN, took precautions to avoid harm from a dust-spewing comet that flew near Mars Oct. 19 and is studying the flyby's effects on the Red Planet's ... full story

NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Studies Comet Flyby

Oct. 20, 2014 — NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which has sent home more data about Mars than all other missions combined, is also now providing data about a comet that buzzed The Red Planet Oct. ... full story

Explosion First Evidence of a Hydrogen-Deficient Supernova Progenitor

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new model is the first characterization of the progenitor for a hydrogen-deficient supernova. The model predicts that a bright hot star, which is the binary companion to an exploding object, ... full story

Tiny 'Nanoflares' Might Heat the Sun's Corona

Oct. 16, 2014 — Why is the Sun's million-degree corona, or outermost atmosphere, so much hotter than the Sun's surface? This question has baffled astronomers for decades. Today, a team led by Paola Testa is ... full story

Journey to the Center of the Earth: Geochemist Uses Helium and Lead Isotopes to Gain Insight Into Makeup of Planet’s Deep Interior

Oct. 16, 2014 — A geochemist studying Samoan volcanoes has found evidence of the planet's early formation still trapped inside Earth. Known as hotspots, volcanic island chains such as Samoa can ancient primordial ... full story

Getting to Know Super-Earths: Using Hubble to Study Mysterious Exoplanet

Oct. 15, 2014 — Results from NASA's Kepler mission have indicated that the most common planets in the galaxy are super-Earths -- those that are bigger than Earth but smaller than Neptune. We have no examples of ... full story

Milky Way Ransacks Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

Oct. 15, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that our nearest galactic neighbors, the dwarf spheroidal galaxies, are devoid of star-forming gas, and that our Milky Way Galaxy is to ... full story

Potential Kuiper Belt Targets for New Horizons Pluto Mission

Oct. 15, 2014 — NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered three Kuiper Belt objects that the agency's New Horizons spacecraft could potentially visit after it flies by Pluto in July ... full story

3D Printed Facial Prosthesis Offers New Hope for Eye Cancer Patients Following Surgery

Oct. 20, 2014 — A fast and inexpensive way to make facial prostheses for eye cancer patients has been developed using facial scanning software and 3-D printing, according to researchers. Their novel process can ... full story

Smartphone Approach for Examining Progression of Diabetic Eye Disease Offers Comparable Results to Traditional Method

Oct. 18, 2014 — A smartphone-based tool may be an effective alternative to traditional ophthalmic imaging equipment in evaluating and grading severity of a diabetic eye disease, according to a study. The results of ... full story

iPhones for Eye Health: Capturing Ocular Images in Difficult-to-Photograph Patients

Oct. 18, 2014 — Smartphone technology is a widely available resource which may also be a portable and effective tool for imaging the inside of the eye, according to results of a study. Researchers are successfully ... full story

Superconducting Circuits, Simplified

Oct. 17, 2014 — New circuit design could unlock the power of experimental superconducting computer ... full story

Scientific Breakthrough Will Help Design Antibiotics of the Future

Oct. 17, 2014 — Computer simulations have been used to show how bacteria are able to destroy antibiotics -- a breakthrough which will help develop drugs which can effectively tackle infections in the ... full story

Tailored 'Activity Coaching' by Smartphone

Oct. 17, 2014 — Today’s smartphone user can obtain a lot of data about his or her health, thanks to built-in or separate sensors. Researchers now take this health monitoring to a higher level. Using the system he ... full story

Modeling Tumor Dormancy: What Makes a Tumor Switch from Dormant to Malignant?

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new computational model may help illuminate the conditions surrounding tumor dormancy and the switch to a malignant state. The so-called cellular automaton model simulated various scenarios of ... full story

Dispelling a Misconception About Mg-Ion Batteries

Oct. 16, 2014 — Researchers used supercomputer simulations to dispel a popular misconception about magnesium-ion batteries that should help advance the development of multivalent ion battery ... full story

Digital Archaeology Changes Exploration of the Past

Oct. 15, 2014 — New ways of documenting and sharing artifacts are being explored in recent study. Archaeologists are now using the tools of the 21st century to explore the past, researchers say, and are exploring ... full story

Weather History 'Time Machine' Created

Oct. 15, 2014 — A software program that allows climate researchers to access historical climate data for the entire global surface (excluding the poles) has been developed. This software include the oceans, and is ... full story

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Fish Tale: New Study Evaluates Antibiotic Content in Farm-Raised Fish

Oct. 20, 2014 — Antibiotic use in the rapidly expanding world of global aquaculture has been examined in a new study. Results of the research evaluated the presence of antibiotics in shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, ... full story

Secrets of Dinosaur Ecology Found in Fragile Amber

Oct. 20, 2014 — Ryan McKellar’s research sounds like it was plucked from Jurassic Park: he studies pieces of amber found buried with dinosaur skeletons. But rather than re-creating dinosaurs, he uses the tiny ... full story

Mediterranean, Semi-Arid Ecosystems Prove Resistant to Climate Change

Oct. 20, 2014 — Climate change predictions for the Middle East, like other arid regions of the world, are alarming. But in testing these dire predictions, ecologists found that, contrary to expectations, no ... full story

Fish Just Want to Have Fun, According to a New Study That Finds Even Fish 'Play'

Oct. 20, 2014 — Biologists have documented fish playing with a bottom-weighted thermometer and other objects. Play, like much of animals' psychology including emotions, motivations, perceptions and intellect, is ... full story

Breathing Sand: New Measurement Technique Detects Oxygen Supply to Bottom of North Sea

Oct. 20, 2014 — New analytical methods show for the first time, how the permeable, sandy sediment at the bottom of the North Sea is supplied with oxygen and which factors determine the exchange. Based on the ... full story

Origins of Sex Discovered: Side-by-Side Copulation in Distant Ancestors

Oct. 20, 2014 — A palaeontologist has revealed how the intimate act of sexual intercourse first evolved in our deep distant ancestors. In one of the biggest discoveries in the evolutionary history of sexual ... full story

Blind Cave Fish May Provide Insight on Eye Disease, Other Human Health Issues

Oct. 20, 2014 — Blind cave fish may not be the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to understanding human sight, but recent research indicates they may have quite a bit to teach us about the causes of many ... full story

Fish Intake Associated With Boost to Antidepressant Response

Oct. 20, 2014 — Up to half of patients who suffer from major depression do not respond to treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Now a group of researchers has carried out a study that shows that ... full story

Later Supper for Blackbirds in the City: Artificial Light Gives Birds Longer to Forage for Food

Oct. 20, 2014 — Artificial light increases foraging time in blackbirds. Birds in city centers are active not just considerably earlier, but also for longer than their relatives in darker parts of the city. The study ... full story

Pediatric Allergology: Fresh Milk Keeps Infections at Bay

Oct. 20, 2014 — Infants fed on fresh rather than UHT cow’s milk are less prone to infection, new research suggests. The authors recommend the use of alternative processing methods to preserve the protectants found ... full story

Massive Debris Pile Reveals Risk of Huge Tsunamis in Hawaii

Oct. 20, 2014 — A mass of marine debris discovered in a giant sinkhole in the Hawaiian islands provides evidence that at least one mammoth tsunami, larger than any in Hawaii's recorded history, has struck the ... full story

Earthquakes in the Ocean: Towards a Better Understanding of Their Precursors

Oct. 20, 2014 — New research offers the first theoretical model that, based on fluid-related processes, explains the seismic precursors of an underwater earthquake. Using quantitative measurements, this innovative ... full story

Improved Electricity Access Has Little Impact on Climate Change

Oct. 19, 2014 — Expanding access to household electricity services accounts for only a small portion of total emission growth, shows a new study, shedding light on an ongoing debate on potential conflicts between ... full story

Major Breakthrough Could Help Detoxify Pollutants

Oct. 19, 2014 — A major breakthrough could lead to more effective methods for detoxifying dangerous pollutants like PCBs and dioxins, scientists say. The result is a culmination of 15 years of research. It details ... full story

Asbestos Likely More Widespread Than Previously Thought

Oct. 19, 2014 — Naturally occurring asbestos minerals may be more widespread than previously thought, with newly discovered sources now identified within the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The asbestos-rich areas are ... full story

Scale of Declines of UK Migratory Birds Wintering in Africa Revealed

Oct. 17, 2014 — The migration of millions of birds across the face of the planet is one of nature's greatest annual events. Every spring some species move in one direction, while every autumn those same species move ... full story

Australian Volcanic Mystery Explained

Oct. 17, 2014 — Scientists have solved a long-standing mystery surrounding Australia's only active volcanic area. The volcanism springs from a unique interaction between the continent's movement north and local ... full story

Climate Change Alters Cast of Winter Birds

Oct. 17, 2014 — Over the past two decades, the resident communities of birds that attend eastern North America’s backyard bird feeders in winter have quietly been remade, most likely as a result of a warming ... full story

New Data About Endangered Marsh Harrier Distribution in Europe

Oct. 17, 2014 — The use of ringing recoveries -- a conventional method used to study bird migration -- in combination with more modern techniques such as species distribution modelling and stable isotope analysis is ... full story

Plastic Nanoparticles Also Harm Freshwater Organisms

Oct. 17, 2014 — Organisms can be negatively affected by plastic nanoparticles, not just in the seas and oceans but in freshwater bodies too. These particles slow the growth of algae, cause deformities in water fleas ... full story

Roman Gladiators Ate a Mostly Vegetarian Diet and Drank a Tonic of Ashes After Training

Oct. 20, 2014 — Roman gladiators ate a mostly vegetarian diet and drank ashes after training as a tonic. These are the findings of anthropological investigations carried out on bones of warriors found during ... full story

Mummy Remains Refute Antiquity of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Oct. 20, 2014 — Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic disease that causes inflammation in the spinal joints and was thought to have affected members of the ancient Egyptian royal families. Now a new study refutes ... full story

Cellular Self-Destruct Program Has Deep Roots Throughout Evolution

Oct. 16, 2014 — In what seems like a counter-intuitive move against survival, within animals, some cells are fated to die from the triggering of an elaborate cell death program, known as apoptosis. Now, researchers ... full story

Microfossils Reveal Warm Oceans Had Less Oxygen

Oct. 15, 2014 — Researchers are pairing chemical analyses with micropaleontology -- the study of tiny fossilized organisms -- to better understand how global marine life was affected by a rapid warming event more ... full story

Canary for Climate Change: How Past Extinctions Have Influenced Modern Distribution, Population Size of Existing Species

Oct. 15, 2014 — Wing-propelled diving seabirds, as well as their extinct relatives, may have served as an indicator species for environmental changes and faunal shifts, researchers suggest. The findings also ... full story

These Roos Were 'Made' for Walking, Study Suggests of Extinct Enigmas

Oct. 15, 2014 — Based on a rigorous comparative analysis of kangaroo anatomy, researchers posit that the ancient family of sthenurine kangaroos that lived until 30,000 years ago likely preferred walking to ... full story

Prehistoric Crocodiles' Evolution Mirrored in Living Species

Oct. 15, 2014 — Crocodiles which roamed the world's seas millions of years ago developed in similar ways to their modern-day relatives, a study has shown. Fresh research into a group of prehistoric marine crocs ... full story

Ancient Fossils of Bizarre Figure-Eight Water Creatures Confirmed Among Our Strangest Distant Cousins

Oct. 15, 2014 — More than 100 years since they were first discovered, some of the world's most bizarre fossils have been identified as close relatives of vertebrates. The fossils belong to 500-million-year-old blind ... full story

Method for Detecting Extremely Rare Inert Gas Isotopes for Water Dating

Oct. 15, 2014 — In earth and environmental sciences, radioactive isotopes, atom variants that decay over time, play a major role in age determination. A radioactive isotope of the inert gas argon 39, for example, is ... full story

Using Test Tube Experiments to Study How Bacterial Species Evolve Antibiotic Resistance

Oct. 14, 2014 — Given a critical change in the environment, how exactly, do species adapt? Researchers wanted to get at the heart of this evolutionary question by measuring the growth rates and DNA mutations of 8 ... full story

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Pathological Gambling Is Associated With Altered Opioid System in the Brain: Reduced Feeling of Euphoria When Compared to Healthy Volunteers

Oct. 18, 2014 — All humans have a natural opioid system in the brain. Now new research has found that the opioid system of pathological gamblers responds differently to those of normal healthy ... full story

High-Speed Evolution in the Lab: Geneticists Evaluate Cost-Effective Genome Analysis

Oct. 17, 2014 — Life implies change. And this holds true for genes as well. Organisms require a flexible genome in order to adapt to changes in the local environment. Researchers want to know why individuals differ ... full story

Myth-Conceptions: How Myths About the Brain Are Hampering Teaching

Oct. 16, 2014 — Myths about the brain are common among teachers worldwide and are hampering teaching, according to new research. The report highlights several areas where new findings from neuroscience are becoming ... full story

FDA, E-Cigarettes, and Demise of Combusted Tobacco

Oct. 15, 2014 — Two professors explore the popularity of E-cigarettes and point out that they could lead to the 'demise' of cigarette smoking and save thousands of lives, but not until they are proven safe and are ... full story

Reminding People of Their Religious Belief System Reduces Hostility, Study Shows

Oct. 15, 2014 — New research may shed some light on religion's actual influence on believers -- and the news is positive. Researchers hypothesized that being reminded of religious beliefs would normally promote less ... full story

Risking Your Life Without a Second Thought: Extreme Altruism May Be Motivated by Intuitive Process

Oct. 15, 2014 — People who risk their lives to save strangers may do so without deliberation, according to an analysis of statements from more than 50 recognized civilian ... full story

Global Natural Gas Boom Alone Won't Slow Climate Change

Oct. 15, 2014 — A new analysis of global energy use, economics and the climate shows that expanding the current bounty of inexpensive natural gas alone would not slow the growth of global greenhouse gas emissions ... full story

Study Questions 21-Day Quarantine Period for Ebola

Oct. 15, 2014 — One of the tenets for minimizing the risk of spreading Ebola Virus has been a 21-day quarantine period for individuals who might have been exposed to the virus. But a new study suggests that 21 days ... full story

Climate Change Not Responsible for Altering Forest Tree Composition, Experts Say

Oct. 15, 2014 — Change in disturbance regimes -- rather than a change in climate -- is largely responsible for altering the composition of Eastern forests, according to a researcher. Forests in the Eastern United ... full story

Hydraulic Fracturing Linked to Earthquakes in Ohio

Oct. 14, 2014 — Hydraulic fracturing triggered a series of small earthquakes in 2013 on a previously unmapped fault in Harrison County, Ohio, according to a new ... full story

Helping Outdoor Workers Reduce Skin Cancer Risk

Oct. 14, 2014 — Skin cancer is one of the biggest fears for one in two outdoor workers, and when the boss and staff work together the sun safe message gets through, a study has ... full story

Scientists Identify Method of Eradicating Harmful Impacts from Manufacturing Process

Oct. 8, 2014 — A novel technique for applying high-quality finishes in engineering industries could reduce the human and environmental impact by up to 98 percent, scientists ... full story

Private Telephone Conversations: Dynamic Encryption Keeps Secrets

Oct. 7, 2014 — Scientists have invented a new way to encrypt telephone conversations that makes it very difficult to ‘eavesdrop’. The invention can help to curb industrial ... full story

What Makes a Song Sing? Backup Singers

Sep. 29, 2014 — What made Michael Jackson’s “Billie Jean” a No. 1 hit on Billboard’s Hot 100 in 1983, and other songs, like Madonna’s 1999 “Nothing Really Matters,” flounder at 90 or below? New ... full story

Job Loss Fears May Boost First-Time Asthma Risk

Sep. 22, 2014 — Job loss fears may boost the risk of developing asthma for the first time, indicates research. The findings back up other epidemiological studies pointing to a link between the development of asthma ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Working During Depression Can Offer Health Benefits to Employees

Sep. 10, 2014 — Attending work while suffering a depressive illness could help employees better manage their depression more than taking a sickness absence from work, a new study has found. The study is the first ... full story

There Could Be Increased Numbers of Psychopaths in Senior Managerial Positions, High Levels of Business, Research Shows

Sep. 8, 2014 — For the first time, it has been demonstrated that people with psychopathic tendencies who have high IQs can mask their symptoms by manipulating tests designed to reveal their personalities. It raises ... full story

More Physical Activity Improved School Performance in Swedish Study

Oct. 14, 2014 — Just two hours of extra physical activity each week can improve school performance, researchers report. This has been shown by a study of approximately 2,000 ... full story

Trying to Fool a Kindergartner? Not So Fast

Oct. 8, 2014 — A new study shows that by the age of five, children become wary of information provided by people who make overly confident ... full story

Why Is Educational Achievement Heritable?

Oct. 6, 2014 — The high heritability of exam grades reflects many genetically influenced traits such as personality, behavior problems, and self-efficacy and not just intelligence. The study looked at 13,306 twins ... full story

Kids' Oral Language Skills Can Predict Future Writing Difficulties

Oct. 6, 2014 — Children's future writing difficulties can be identified before they even learn how to begin writing, according to a new study. The research data also contradicts the popular belief that bilingualism ... full story

How Curiosity Changes the Brain to Enhance Learning

Oct. 2, 2014 — The more curious we are about a topic, the easier it is to learn information about that topic. New research provides insights into what happens in our brains when curiosity is piqued. The findings ... full story

After-School Exercise Program Enhances Cognition in 7-, 8 And 9-Year-Olds

Sep. 29, 2014 — A nine-month-long, randomized controlled trial involving 221 prepubescent children found that those who engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes a day after school ... full story

Secret to Raising Well Behaved Teens? Maximize Their Zzzzz's

Sep. 26, 2014 — While American pediatricians warn sleep deprivation can stack the deck against teenagers, a new study reveals youth’s irritability and laziness aren’t down to attitude problems but lack of sleep. ... full story

False Memories Could Be a Side-Effect of Human Ability to Learn Rules

Sep. 24, 2014 — Our tendency to create false memories could be related to our ability to learn rules according to new research. New research suggests that individuals who are particularly good at learning rules and ... full story

Fighting Parents Hurt Children's Ability to Recognize and Regulate Emotions

Sep. 17, 2014 — Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study. Exposure to conflict and violence in the ... full story

Brain Scans Used to Forecast Early Reading Difficulties

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience ... full story

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