Today's Science News

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Beyond Genes: Are Centrioles Carriers of Biological Information?

Apr. 24, 2015 — Scientists have discover that certain cell structures, the centrioles, could act as information carriers throughout cell generations. The discovery raises the possibility that transmission of ... full story

Are Bees 'Hooked' on Nectar Containing Pesticides?

Apr. 23, 2015 — Bees are attracted to nectar containing common pesticides, scientists have discovered. This could increase their chances of exposure to high levels of ... full story

World Happiness Report 2015 Ranks Happiest Countries

Apr. 23, 2015 — Since it was first published in 2012, the World Happiness Report demonstrated that well-being and happiness are critical indicators of a nation's economic and social development, and should be a ... full story

Scientists See Deeper Yellowstone Magma

Apr. 23, 2015 — Seismologists have discovered and made images of a reservoir of hot, partly molten rock 12 to 28 miles beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano, and it is 4.4 times larger than the shallower, long-known ... full story

Entire Genomes of Woolly Mammoths Mapped: Clues to Extinction, Possibility of Bringing Mammoths Back

Apr. 23, 2015 — An international team of researchers has sequenced the nearly complete genome of two Siberian woolly mammoths -- revealing the most complete picture to date -- including new information about the ... full story

Fat Tissue Controls Brain's Response to Food Scarcity, Helping Regulate Optimal Amount of Body Fat for Brain Function

Apr. 23, 2015 — An enzyme secreted by the body's fat tissue controls energy levels in the brain, according to new research. The findings, in mice, underscore a role for the body's fat tissue in controlling ... full story

Gene-Editing Technique Offers Hope for Hereditary Diseases

Apr. 23, 2015 — Scientists have used molecular "scissors" to eliminate mitochondrial mutations in eggs and embryos. They are now investigating the possibility of translating this technology to the clinic ... full story

Personalized Medicine: Device Identifies Drugs That Will Work Best for Each Patient

Apr. 22, 2015 — More than 100 drugs have been approved to treat cancer, but predicting which ones will help a particular patient is an inexact science at best. A new implantable device may change ... full story

Giant Cosmic Tsunami Wakes Up Comatose Galaxies

Apr. 24, 2015 — Galaxies are often found in clusters, which contain many 'red and dead' members that stopped forming stars in the distant past. Now an international team of astronomers have discovered that ... full story

Scientists Announce Final Trial Results of the World’s Most Advanced Malaria Vaccine

Apr. 23, 2015 — The first malaria vaccine candidate (RTS,S/AS01) to reach phase 3 clinical testing is partially effective against clinical disease in young African children up to 4 years after vaccination, according ... full story

Fracking? Injecting Wastewater? New Insight on Ground Shaking from Human-Made Earthquakes

Apr. 23, 2015 — Significant strides in science have been made to better understand potential ground shaking from induced earthquakes, which are earthquakes triggered by human practices. Earthquake activity has ... full story

Second Possible Specimen of 'Pocket Shark' Ever Found

Apr. 23, 2015 — An extraordinarily rare ocean discovery of an inches-long 'pocket shark' has been made. Sharks come in all shapes and sizes and are best known as a dominant predator in the marine food web. ... full story

Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution May Pose Risk to Brain Structure, Cognitive Functions

Apr. 23, 2015 — Air pollution, even at moderate levels, has long been recognized as a factor in raising the risk of stroke. A new study suggests that long-term exposure can cause damage to brain structures and ... full story

A Focus on Flight: Birds Use Just Two Postures to Avoid Obstacles During Flight

Apr. 23, 2015 — A new study shows birds use two highly stereotyped postures to avoid obstacles in flight. The study could open the door to new ways to program drones and other unmanned aerial vehicles to avoid ... full story

Astronomers Find Runaway Galaxies

Apr. 23, 2015 — We know of about two dozen runaway stars, and have even found one runaway star cluster escaping its galaxy forever. Now, astronomers have spotted 11 runaway galaxies that have been flung out of their ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

World's Earliest Jewelry Discovered in Croatia

World's Earliest Jewelry Discovered in Croatia

AFP (Apr. 24, 2015) — Nine eagle talons kept in the Natural History Museum of Zagreb for a century are in fact the world's earliest jewelry, crafted 130,000 years ago by Neanderthals. Duration: 01:09 Video provided by AFP
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3D Food Printing: The Meal of the Future?

3D Food Printing: The Meal of the Future?

AP (Apr. 23, 2015) — Developers of 3D food printing hope the culinary technology will revolutionize the way we cook and eat. (April 23) Video provided by AP
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Hubble Telescope Celebrates 25th Anniversary

Hubble Telescope Celebrates 25th Anniversary

AP (Apr. 23, 2015) — NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is celebrating its 25th anniversary of being placed into orbit. NASA unveiled the official Hubble anniversary image to mark the occasion. (April 23) Video provided by AP
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Newest Pesticide Research Wades Into Debate Over Bee Decline

Newest Pesticide Research Wades Into Debate Over Bee Decline

Newsy (Apr. 23, 2015) — New research supports the claim that a popular pesticide hurts bees, but it only adds to the debate about how to handle those pesticides. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2015-04-25 at 2:33 am EDT

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World's First Genetic Modification of Human Embryos Reported: Experts Consider Ethics

Apr. 24, 2015 — Chinese scientists say they've genetically modified human embryos for the very first time. The team attempted to modify the gene responsible for beta-thalassaemia, a potentially fatal blood disorder, ... full story

Discovery May Open Door for Treating Fragile X Carriers

Apr. 24, 2015 — Fragile X syndrome, an inherited cause of autism and intellectual disability, can have consequences even for carriers of the disorder who don't have full-blown ... full story

Significant Increase in Major Depression Reported During Recent Recession

Apr. 24, 2015 — The recent Great Recession was accompanied by a significant and sustained increase in major depression in US adults, according to a new ... full story

Delayed Diagnosis of Celiac Disease May Put Lives at Risk: Is Screening the Solution?

Apr. 24, 2015 — Celiac disease is one of the most common life-long conditions in Europe, yet many people remain undiagnosed and lengthy diagnostic delays may be putting lives at risk. Today, doctors are being urged ... full story

New Light Shed on Brain's Source of Power

Apr. 24, 2015 — New research represents a potentially fundamental shift in our understanding of how nerve cells in the brain generate the energy needed to function. The study shows neurons are more independent than ... full story

New Insight Into How Brain Makes Memories

Apr. 24, 2015 — Researchers have identified the role that a key protein associated with autism and the co-occurrence of alcohol dependency and depression plays in forming the spines that create new connections in ... full story

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Steatohepatitis: NASH Linked to 50% Higher Death Rate Compared With NAFLD

Apr. 24, 2015 — Results from a large population-based cohort of almost a million people in the UK found that the chances of dying from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, over a 14-year period, was approximately 50 ... full story

Understanding the Body's Response to Worms and Allergies

Apr. 24, 2015 — Scientists are a step closer to developing new therapies for controlling the body's response to allergies and parasitic worm ... full story

Danger in Using Car Seats, Sitting and Carrying Devices for Sleeping Infants

Apr. 24, 2015 — Sleep-related deaths are the most common cause of death for infants 1-12 months of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants sleep on their back on a firm mattress, without ... full story

Are Hospitals Doing All They Can to Prevent C. Difficile Infections? Not Yet, New Study Suggests

Apr. 24, 2015 — Nearly half of American hospitals aren’t taking key steps to prevent C. difficile, a kind of gut infection that kills nearly 30,000 people annually and sickens hundreds of thousands more – ... full story

We Think Better on Our Feet, Literally

Apr. 24, 2015 — A new study finds students with standing desks are more attentive than their seated counterparts. Preliminary results show 12 percent greater on-task engagement in classrooms with standing ... full story

Psychology of the Appeal of Being Anti-GMO

Apr. 24, 2015 — A team of philosophers and plant biotechnologists have turned to cognitive science to explain why opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has become so widespread, despite positive ... full story

Risk Perception: Social Exchange Can Amplify Subjective Fears

Apr. 24, 2015 — A 'pass the message' experiment investigates how people perceive and communicate the risks of a widely used ... full story

Inclusive Classrooms Don't Necessarily Increase Friendships for Children With Disabilities

Apr. 24, 2015 — When parents of children with disabilities drop their child off at kindergarten they often worry about whether they will make friends – a key factor in reducing anxiety, depression and the ... full story

Can a Parent's Concerns Predict Autism?

Apr. 23, 2015 — New research shows that many parents notice signs of autism spectrum disorder in their infant children far before an official diagnosis. The study concludes that parental concerns for their children ... full story

In Search of Tinnitus, That Phantom Ringing in the Ears

Apr. 23, 2015 — About one in five people experience tinnitus, the perception of a sound -- often described as ringing -- that isn't really there. Now, researchers have taken advantage of a rare opportunity to record ... full story

Extra Sleep Fixes Memory Problems in Flies With Alzheimer's-Like Condition

Apr. 23, 2015 — Many studies have linked more sleep to better memory, but new research in fruit flies demonstrates that extra sleep helps the brain overcome catastrophic neurological defects that otherwise would ... full story

How Experience May Lead to Misperception

Apr. 23, 2015 — Distance, volume, brightness or duration -- when judging magnitudes, we make systematic errors. A new model combines two competing classical theories of magnitude estimates and attributes prior ... full story

Scientists Create the Sensation of Invisibility

Apr. 23, 2015 — The power of invisibility has long fascinated man and inspired the works of many great authors and philosophers. A team of neuroscientists now reports a perceptual illusion of having an invisible ... full story

Epigenetic Marks Lay Foundations for a Child’s Future Abilities

Apr. 22, 2015 — Epigenetic marks on our DNA account for how all cells in the body have the same DNA sequence, inherited from our parents, but nonetheless there are hundreds of different cell types. The body uses ... full story

Heavy Drinking and Binge Drinking Rise Sharply in US Counties

Apr. 23, 2015 — Today, Americans are more likely to be heavy drinkers and binge drinkers than in recent years due in large part to rising rates of drinking among women, according to a new analysis of county-level ... full story

Strength Vs. Endurance: Does Exercise Type Matter in the Fight Against Obesity?

Apr. 23, 2015 — Researchers look at which form of exercise -- strength, endurance or a combination of both -- work best in tandem with diet to reduce weight and change body composition among obese study ... full story

Reducing School Bus Pollution Improves Children's Health

Apr. 23, 2015 — Use of clean fuels and updated pollution control measures in the school buses 25 million children ride every day could result in 14 million fewer absences from school a year, based on a new ... full story

Sugar and Carbs, Not Physical Inactivity, Behind Surge in Obesity, Say Experts

Apr. 22, 2015 — Excess sugar and carbs, not physical inactivity, are behind the surge in obesity, say experts. It is time to bust myth that anyone -- including athletes -- can outrun a bad diet, they ... full story

Backyard Birds Enhance Life in Urban Neighborhoods

Apr. 22, 2015 — How aware are you of the birds that live in your neighborhood? Do you know how many different species there are? Do enjoy your local birds, or find them annoying? A new paper provides a fascinating ... full story

Just Two Weeks of Drinking Sugary Drinks Boost Risk Factors for Heart Disease, Study Suggests

Apr. 22, 2015 — Beverages sweetened with low, medium and high amounts of high-fructose corn syrup significantly increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease, even when consumed for just two weeks by young, ... full story

Genes Make Some People Mosquito Targets, Twins Pilot Study Shows

Apr. 22, 2015 — The likelihood of being bitten by mosquitoes could be down to our genes, according to a study carried out on ... full story

This Is Your Teen's Brain Behind the Wheel

Apr. 22, 2015 — A new study of teenagers and their moms reveals how adolescent brains negotiate risk -- and the factors that modulate their risk-taking behind the wheel. Researchers observed that teens driving alone ... full story

A Lot of Smoke: Study Examines Cigarillo Modification Health Claims

Apr. 22, 2015 — Known by a variety of names, “hyping,” “champing” and “freaking” a cigarillo – a smaller, leaner type of cigar – is believed by many to significantly reduce the amount of ... full story

How Breast Milk Protects Against Severe Intestinal Disease in Preemies

Apr. 22, 2015 — The immune-boosting properties of breast milk have long been known. Now a team of scientists says experiments in mice reveal how breast milk works to ward off the development of necrotizing ... full story

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Generating Broadband Terahertz Radiation from a Microplasma in Air

Apr. 24, 2015 — Researchers have shown that a laser-generated microplasma in air can be used as a source of broadband terahertz radiation. They demonstrate that an approach for generating terahertz waves using ... full story

Picture This: Graphene Brings 3-D Holograms Clearer and Closer

Apr. 24, 2015 — From mobile phones and computers to television, cinema and wearable devices, the display of full-color, wide-angle, 3-D holographic images is moving ever closer to ... full story

Heat Makes Electrons' Spin in Magnetic Superconductors

Apr. 24, 2015 — Physicists have shown how heat can be exploited for controlling magnetic properties of matter. The finding helps in the development of more efficient mass ... full story

Four-Dimensional Printing Unfolding as Technology That Takes 3D Printing to an Entirely New Level

Apr. 23, 2015 — The fourth dimension is time, shape shifting in fact, and scientists are already working on the next revolution in additive ... full story

Silver Nanoclusters Inside Synthetic DNA to Create a Programmed, Tunable Fluorescent Array

Apr. 23, 2015 — Scientists use a novel form of nanotechnology to create a positionable silver cluster with DNA-programmed tunable fluorescent ... full story

Researchers Add a New Wrinkle to Cell Culture

Apr. 23, 2015 — Using a technique that introduces tiny wrinkles into sheets of graphene, researchers have developed new textured surfaces for culturing cells in the lab that better mimic the complex surroundings in ... full story

Revolutionary Discovery Leads to Invention of New 'Building Blocks'

Apr. 23, 2015 — Taking a revolutionary 'building blocks' approach, a research team has invented a new thinking pathway in the design and synthesis of macromolecules by creating an original class of giant tetrahedra. ... full story

Crime Scene Discovery: Scientist Separates the DNA of Identical Twins

Apr. 23, 2015 — Since its first use in the 1980s -- a breakthrough dramatized in recent crime-solving dramas -- DNA profiling has been a vital tool for forensic investigators.  Now researchers have solved one of ... full story

Nanotech-Enabled Moisturizer Speeds Healing of Diabetic Skin Wounds

Apr. 23, 2015 — A new high-tech but simple ointment applied to the skin may one day help diabetic patients heal stubborn and painful ulcers on their feet, Northwestern University researchers report. They are the ... full story

Examining Einstein: Precise Experiments Using Lasers and Clocks in Space

Apr. 23, 2015 — Albert Einstein tells us that clocks run slower the deeper they are in the gravitational potential well of a mass – the closer they are to a heavenly body, for example. This effect is described by ... full story

To Flare or Not to Flare: The Riddle of Galactic Thin to Thick Disk Solved

Apr. 24, 2015 — A long-standing puzzle regarding the nature of disk galaxies has finally been solved by a team of astronomers using state-of-the-art theoretical models. The new study shows that groups of stars with ... full story

James Webb Space Telescope: Building Hubble's Successor

Apr. 23, 2015 — Inside NASA's giant thermal vacuum chamber, called Chamber A, at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, the James Webb Space Telescope's Pathfinder backplane test model, is being prepared for its ... full story

Can Sound Help Us Detect 'Earthquakes' on Venus?

Apr. 23, 2015 — Detecting an 'earthquake' on Venus would seem to be an impossible task. But conditions in Venus' atmosphere are much more hospitable, and it is here that researchers hope to deploy an array of ... full story

Celestial Fireworks Celebrate Hubble's 25th Anniversary

Apr. 23, 2015 — The glittering tapestry of young stars flaring to life in this new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image aptly resembles an exploding shell in a fireworks display. This vibrant image of the star ... full story

Thick Atmosphere of Saturn's Moon Titan Fluctuates With Sun's Cycle

Apr. 22, 2015 — Saturn's moon Titan is the only moon in the solar system that has an atmosphere as thick as Earth's, consisting of more than 98 percent nitrogen, roughly 1.4 percent of methane, and smaller amounts ... full story

Tau Ceti: The Next Earth? Probably Not

Apr. 22, 2015 — Star system Tau Ceti has long been used in science fiction as a very likely place to have life due to its proximity to Earth and the star's sun-like characteristics. Since December 2012 Tau Ceti has ... full story

Millimeter-Sized Stones Formed Our Planet

Apr. 22, 2015 — Researchers can now explain how asteroids are formed. Our own planet also has its origins in the same process, a cosmic ocean of millimeter-sized particles that orbited the young sun, according to ... full story

First Exoplanet Visible Light Spectrum

Apr. 22, 2015 — Astronomers have made the first-ever direct detection of the spectrum of visible light reflected off an exoplanet. These observations also revealed new properties of this famous object, the first ... full story

Space Scientists Pay Homage to 25 Years of the Hubble Space Telescope

Apr. 22, 2015 — It was launched 25 years ago and has given humankind a glimpse at some of the farthest and earliest cosmic phenomenon in the observable Universe. On Friday, 24 April, the HST will celebrate exactly ... full story

Exploding Stars Help Us Understand Thunderclouds on Earth

Apr. 22, 2015 — How is lightning initiated in thunderclouds? This is difficult to answer -- how do you measure electric fields inside large, dangerously charged clouds? It was discovered, more or less by ... full story

Making Waves With Robotic Ultrasound Between New York and Chicago

Apr. 23, 2015 — A new clinical trial is testing the feasibility and efficiency of a doctor in New York City remotely performing long-distance, tele-robotic ultrasound exams over the Internet on patients in ... full story

Ultra-Sensitive Sensor Detects Individual Electrons

Apr. 23, 2015 — Scientists have created an electronic device so accurate that it can detect the charge of a single electron in less than one microsecond. It has been dubbed the 'gate sensor' and could be applied in ... full story

Industrial Virtual Factory Lowers Costs and Reduces Emissions

Apr. 23, 2015 — Scientists have developed a cloud-based, easily customized, modular software platform for improving the sustainability performance of industrial products by lowering production costs and reducing ... full story

Reducing Big Data Using Ideas from Quantum Theory Makes It Easier to Interpret

Apr. 23, 2015 — Analysing the large volumes of data gathered by modern businesses and public services is problematic. Traditionally, relationships between the different parts of a network have been  represented  ... full story

Materials Scientists Putting New Spin on Computing Memory

Apr. 22, 2015 — As computers continue to shrink -- moving from desks and laps to hands and wrists -- memory has to become smaller, stable and more energy conscious. A group of researchers is trying to do just that ... full story

Backache: A Matter of Mechanics

Apr. 22, 2015 — The mechanics of the lower vertebrae have been the focus of recent study. Researchers are aiming to reveal how wear and tear comes about on vertebral bodies and spinal disks, hoping to make easier ... full story

Brain Activity Tested to Identify Cybersecurity Threats

Apr. 22, 2015 — In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers tested brain activity to better understand employees who pose a risk to ... full story

How Much of the Amazon Rainforest Would It Take to Print the Internet?

Apr. 22, 2015 — Today (22 April) is Earth Day 2015 where worldwide events are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. Student study suggests that 0.002% of the Amazon rainforest, which spans 5.5 ... full story

Invasion of the Earthworms, Mapped and Analyzed

Apr. 22, 2015 — In their efforts to forecast the spread of an invasive worm species, researchers are bringing a new weapon to bear: statistical ... full story

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Diabetes Drug Found in Freshwater Is a Potential Cause of Intersex Fish

Apr. 24, 2015 — A medication commonly taken for Type II diabetes, which is being found in freshwater systems worldwide, has been shown to cause intersex in fish – male fish that produce eggs. The medication is ... full story

Bumblebee Genomes Create a Buzz in the Field of Pollination

Apr. 24, 2015 — Bees play a key role in our ecosystem and in the world’s food supply. Thanks to a large collaborative effort, the genomes of two important pollinating bumblebees have been sequenced and compared ... full story

Why Do Animals Fight Members of Other Species?

Apr. 23, 2015 — Why do animals fight with members of other species? A nine-year study by biologists says the reason often has to do with 'obtaining priority access to females' in the ... full story

Many Dry Tortugas Loggerheads Actually Bahamas Residents

Apr. 23, 2015 — Many loggerhead sea turtles that nest in Dry Tortugas National Park head to rich feeding sites in the Bahamas after nesting, a discovery that may help those working to protect this threatened ... full story

Finding New Life for First-Line Antibiotics

Apr. 23, 2015 — Researchers have identified a single, simple measure -- recovery time -- to guide antibiotic dosing that could bring an entire arsenal of first-line antibiotics back into the fight against ... full story

Photosynthesis Has Unique Isotopic Signature: 'Clumped' Isotopes Used to Trace Biogeochemical Processes

Apr. 23, 2015 — Photosynthesis leaves behind a unique calling card, a chemical signature that is spelled out with stable oxygen isotopes, according to a new study. The findings suggest isotopic signatures could ... full story

A GPS for Chromosomes: Microtubules Direct Chromosomes During Cell Division

Apr. 23, 2015 — Scientists have identified a " Highway Code" within cells, a finding that changes the way we perceive how chromosomes move during cell division. Using chromosomes as a model to explain this ... full story

Dolphins Use Extra Energy to Communicate in Noisy Waters

Apr. 23, 2015 — Dolphins that raise their voices to be heard in noisy environments expend extra energy in doing so, according to new research that for the first time measures the biological costs to marine mammals ... full story

Differences in Personality Influence Survival in Field Crickets

Apr. 23, 2015 — An individual's behaviour in risky situations is a distinct personality trait both in humans and animals that can have an immediate impact on longevity. Researchers have now found differences in ... full story

Human Tape Worm Drug Shows Promise Against MRSA in Lab

Apr. 23, 2015 — A drug already approved to fight tapeworms in people, effectively treated MRSA superbugs in lab cultures and in infected nematode worms. The scientists are pursuing further testing with hope that the ... full story

Continental U. S: Map Shows Content and Origins of the Geologic Basement

Apr. 24, 2015 — This map provides a picture of the nation's geologic basement. More than 80 pieces of crust have been added to the nation's basement since the Earth began preserving crust about 3.6 billion years ... full story

Ascent or No Ascent? How Hot Material Is Stopped in Earth's Mantle

Apr. 24, 2015 — Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth's mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to ... full story

Hiatus in Global Average Temperatures Has Little Effect on Projected Temperatures in 2100

Apr. 23, 2015 — The recent slowdown in the rise of global average air temperatures will make no difference to how much the planet will warm by 2100, a new study has ... full story

Thawing Permafrost Feeds Climate Change

Apr. 23, 2015 — Single-cell organisms called microbes are rapidly devouring the ancient carbon being released from thawing permafrost soil and ultimately releasing it back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, ... full story

High Mountains Warming Faster Than Expected

Apr. 23, 2015 — High elevation environments around the world may be warming much faster than previously thought, according to members of an international research team. They call for more aggressive monitoring of ... full story

Iridescent Animals Shine to Startle Predators

Apr. 23, 2015 — Animals which appear to shimmer and shine may have evolved these qualities as a way to startle predators, new research ... full story

More Americans at Risk from Strong Earthquakes, Says New Report

Apr. 22, 2015 — More than 143 million Americans living in the 48 contiguous states are exposed to potentially damaging ground shaking from earthquakes, with as many as 28 million people likely to experience strong ... full story

'Flameproof' Falcons and Hawks: Most Polluted Bird on Record Found in Vancouver

Apr. 22, 2015 — A Cooper's hawk, found in Greater Vancouver, is the most polluted wild bird that has been found anywhere in the ... full story

First Invasive Lionfish in Brazil: Urgent Control Measures Needed to Protect Coral Reefs

Apr. 22, 2015 — A single fish caught with a hand spear off the Brazilian coast is making big waves across the entire southwestern Atlantic. In May 2014, a group of recreational divers spotted an adult lionfish -- ... full story

Arctic Beetles May Be Ideal Marker of Climate Change

Apr. 22, 2015 — Researchers need to find ways to measure how the changes in climate are affecting biodiversity. One of the best places to look may be down at our feet, at beetles. That`s because, as a research team ... full story

Looking to Fossils to Predict Tooth Evolution in Rodents: Ever-Growing Molars in the Future?

Apr. 23, 2015 — Fifty million years ago, all rodents had short, stubby molars -- teeth similar to those found in the back of the human mouth, used for grinding food. Over time, rodent teeth progressively evolved to ... full story

Stegosaurus Plates May Have Differed Between Male, Female

Apr. 22, 2015 — The first convincing evidence for sexual differences in a species of dinosaur has been described in a study of the iconic dinosaur ... full story

Large Heads, Narrow Pelvises and Difficult Childbirth in Humans: Adaptations in Human Morphology Explain Why

Apr. 22, 2015 — The size of the neonatal skull is large relative to the dimensions of the birth canal in the female pelvis. This is the reason why childbirth is slower and more difficult in humans than in most other ... full story

Eardrum Evolved Independently in Mammals and Reptiles/birds

Apr. 22, 2015 — Researchers have used evo-devo methods to determine that the eardrum evolved independently in mammals and ... full story

Calculating How the Pacific Was Settled: Sailing Against Prevailing Winds, Spotting Big Islands

Apr. 22, 2015 — Using statistics that describe how an infectious disease spreads, an anthropologist analyzed different theories of how people first settled islands of the vast Pacific between 3,500 and 900 years ... full story

Myth of Tolerant Dogs and Aggressive Wolves Refuted

Apr. 21, 2015 — The good relationship between humans and dogs was certainly influenced by domestication. For long, it was assumed that humans preferred particularly tolerant animals for breeding. Thus, cooperative ... full story

Proteins That Control Anxiety in Humans and Cause Insects to Shed Their Skins Have Common Origin

Apr. 21, 2015 — Researchers have discovered that a protein which controls anxiety in humans has the same molecular ancestor as one which causes insects to molt when they outgrow their skins. Studies on sea urchins ... full story

Global Warming More Moderate Than Worst-Case Models, Empirical Data Suggest

Apr. 21, 2015 — A study based on 1,000 years of temperature records suggests global warming is not progressing as fast as it would under the most severe emissions scenarios outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on ... full story

Uranium Isotopes Carry the Fingerprint of Ancient Bacterial Activity

Apr. 20, 2015 — The oceans contain billions of tons of dissolved uranium. Over the planet's history, some of this uranium was transformed into an insoluble form, causing it to precipitate and accumulate in ... full story

Oldest Fossils Controversy Resolved

Apr. 20, 2015 — New analysis of world-famous 3.46-billion-year-old rocks is set to finally resolve a long running evolutionary controversy. The new research shows that structures once thought to be Earth's oldest ... full story

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Expert Panels Successfully Rate Medical Research Proposals

Apr. 23, 2015 — Economists have published an extensive analysis of NIH grants that shows a high correlation between how projects are rated by peer review and the quality of the resulting ... full story

Rising Antibiotic Shortages Raise Concerns About Patient Care

Apr. 23, 2015 — Shortages of key antibiotics, including gold-standard therapies and drugs used to treat highly resistant infections, are on the rise, according to a new study of shortages from 2001 to 2013. The ... full story

No Association Found Between MMR Vaccine and Autism, Even Among Children at Higher Risk

Apr. 21, 2015 — In a study that included approximately 95,000 children with older siblings, receipt of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was not associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders ... full story

Amazon Rainforest Losses Impact on Climate Change, Study Shows

Apr. 21, 2015 — Human activity has removed more than one-tenth of trees and plants from the Amazon rainforest since the 1960s, a study shows. Widespread removal of trees has contributed to a rise in the amount of ... full story

Traffic Emissions May Pollute One in Three Canadian Homes

Apr. 21, 2015 — Air pollution could be spreading up to three times farther than thought, contributing to varying levels of air quality across cities, a trio of recently published studies from a team of engineers has ... full story

Extending Climate Predictability Beyond El Niρo

Apr. 21, 2015 — Tropical Pacific climate variations and their global weather impacts may be predicted much further in advance than previously thought, according to research by an international team of climate ... full story

Ten More Years of Real Money?

Apr. 21, 2015 — We will still be using "real" money for at least the next 5 to 10 years, but financial transactions carried out using mobile electronic devices, such as smart phones and tablet computers, will ... full story

Deep National History of Immigration Predicts Wide Cultural Comfort Displaying Emotion

Apr. 20, 2015 — People who live in countries built on centuries of migration from a wide range of other countries are more emotionally expressive than people in more insular cultures, according to research. The ... full story

Let It Snow: Intricacies of Marine Snow Formation in the Gulf of Mexico Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

Apr. 20, 2015 — Before Deepwater Horizon, scientists didn't know that oil and marine snow had anything to do with each other. "Marine snow is like dust bunnies in the house," explained a research scientist who has ... full story

As US Assumes Arctic Council Chairmanship, New Report Emphasizes Cooperation Over Conflict

Apr. 20, 2015 — Although the media often portray the Arctic as a new 'Great Game' ripe for conflict, a group of international Arctic experts has released recommendations aimed at preserving the polar north as an ... full story

How to Approach Your Boss About a Treadmill Desk

Apr. 21, 2015 — People walking on treadmill desks perform cognitive tasks nearly as well as those at sitting desks, new research finds. An exercise science professor and a neuroscientist report their findings after ... full story

Self-Affirmations May Calm Jitters, Boost Performance

Apr. 17, 2015 — Individuals in positions of low power perform worse under pressure, relative to those in positions of high power. However, new research shows that self-affirmations can effectively reduce the power ... full story

Firearm-Related Hospitalizations Linked to U. S. Stock Market Performance

Apr. 16, 2015 — Economic climate may impact incidence of firearm-related injuries and fatalities, which pose a burden on U.S. healthcare resources, report ... full story

Patents Forecast Technological Change

Apr. 15, 2015 — Engineers have devised a formula for estimating how fast a technology is advancing, based on information gleaned from relevant ... full story

Interactivity Tools Can Boost Persuasiveness of Websites

Apr. 14, 2015 — Messages conveyed on websites may be more persuasive if theses websites are interactive, according to ... full story

Who's a CEO? Google Image Results Can Shift Gender Biases

Apr. 9, 2015 — A new study assesses how accurately gender representations in online image search results for 45 different occupations -- from CEO to telemarketer to engineer -- match reality. Exposure to skewed ... full story

When Health Risks Go Down, Worker Productivity Goes Up

Apr. 8, 2015 — Changes in employee health risk factors have a significant impact on work productivity, reports a new study. The productivity benefits of improved health are "cumulative over time," highlighting the ... full story

Overconfidence in New Technologies Can Influence Decision-Making

Apr. 8, 2015 — Technological advances in recent decades have transformed most aspects of daily life, and technology now plays a major role in business and society. However, little is known about how perceptions of ... full story

How Long Do Firms Live? Finding Patterns of Company Mortality in Market Data

Apr. 1, 2015 — New research reveals a surprising insight: publicly-traded firms die off at the same rate regardless of their age or economic ... full story

Ads in Free Mobile Apps Have Hidden Costs for Both Users and Developers

Apr. 1, 2015 — Advertising may allow developers to make smartphone apps free, but it has hidden costs -- draining batteries, eating up network data, and using more ... full story

Parent Training Can Reduce Serious Behavioral Problems in Young Children With Autism

Apr. 21, 2015 — A multi-site study finds young children with autism spectrum disorder and serious behavioral problems respond positively to a 24-week structured parent training. The benefits of parent training ... full story

Getting Foster Youth Through College Will Take Structured Support, Study Concludes

Apr. 19, 2015 — The college graduation rate for students who have lived in foster care is 3 percent, among the lowest of any demographic group in the country. And this rate is unlikely to improve unless community ... full story

Kids With ADHD Must Squirm to Learn, Study Says

Apr. 17, 2015 — Excessive movement common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is actually vital to how they remember information and work out complex cognitive tasks, a new study shows. The ... full story

Study Links Brain Anatomy, Academic Achievement, and Family Income

Apr. 17, 2015 — Many years of research have shown that for students from lower-income families, standardized test scores and other measures of academic success tend to lag behind those of wealthier students. A new ... full story

Nothing Beats a Good Night's Sleep for Helping People Absorb New Information, New Research Reveals

Apr. 17, 2015 — Researchers have found that successful long-term learning happens after classroom teaching, after the learners have slept on the new ... full story

Teaching Children in Schools About Sexual Abuse May Help Them Report Abuse

Apr. 16, 2015 — Children who are taught about preventing sexual abuse at school are more likely than others to tell an adult if they had, or were actually experiencing sexual abuse. However, the review's authors say ... full story

Family Therapist Suggests Parents Relearn to Play

Apr. 15, 2015 — A family therapist has one word for parents who want to raise a healthy, happy child: ... full story

Childhood Self-Control Linked to Enhanced Job Prospects Throughout Life

Apr. 14, 2015 — Parents who work to instill self-control in their children will see them reap the benefits not only in the short-term but throughout their working life, according to new ... full story

Civic Engagement May Stave Off Brain Atrophy, Improve Memory

Apr. 14, 2015 — Instead of shrinking as expected, as part of the normal aging process, the memory center in the brains of seniors maintained their size and, in men, grew modestly after two years in a program that ... full story

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