Today's Science News

Friday, September 19, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Human Sense of Fairness Evolved to Favor Long-Term Cooperation, Primate Study Suggests

Sep. 18, 2014 — The human response to unfairness evolved in order to support long-term cooperation, according to a new research. Fairness is a social ideal that cannot be measured, so to understand the evolution of ... full story

Scientists Discover 'Dimmer Switch' for Mood Disorders

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as "disappointment." The discovery may provide ... full story

World Population to Keep Growing This Century, Hit 11 Billion by 2100

Sep. 18, 2014 — The chance that world population in 2100 will be between 9.6 billion and 12.3 billion people is 80 percent, according to the first such United Nations forecast to incorporate modern statistical ... full story

How Epigenetic Memory Is Passed Through Generations: Sperm and Eggs Transmit Memory of Gene Repression to Embryos

Sep. 18, 2014 — A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental stresses can cause changes in gene expression that are transmitted from parents to their offspring, making 'epigenetics' a hot topic. ... full story

Nature of War: Chimps Inherently Violent; Study Disproves Theory That 'Chimpanzee Wars' Are Sparked by Human Influence

Sep. 17, 2014 — Of all of the world's species, humans and chimpanzees are some of the only species to coordinate attacks on their own members. Since Jane Goodall introduced lethal inter-community killings, ... full story

Pupil Size Shows Reliability of Decisions, Before Information on Decision Is Presented

Sep. 18, 2014 — The precision with which people make decisions can be predicted by measuring pupil size before they are presented with any information about the decision, according to a new ... full story

A More Efficient, Lightweight and Low-Cost Organic Solar Cell: Researchers Broke the 'Electrode Barrier'

Sep. 18, 2014 — For decades, polymer scientists and synthetic chemists working to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells were hampered by the inherent drawbacks of commonly used metal ... full story

Changes in Coastal Upwelling Linked to Temporary Declines in Marine Ecosystem

Sep. 18, 2014 — In findings of relevance to both conservationists and the fishing industry, new research links short-term reductions in growth and reproduction of marine animals off the California Coast to ... full story

New Molecule Allows for Up to 10-Fold Increase in Stem Cell Transplants

Sep. 18, 2014 — A new molecule, the first of its kind, allows for the multiplication of stem cells in a unit of cord blood. Umbilical cord stem cells are used for transplants aimed at curing a number of ... full story

Toward Quantum Computing, Spintronic Memory, Better Displays: Nuclear Spins Control Current in Plastic LED

Sep. 18, 2014 — Physicists read “spins” in hydrogen nuclei and used the data to control current in a cheap, plastic LED – at room temperature and without strong magnetic fields. The study brings physics a step ... full story

Pulse of a Dead Star Powers Intense Gamma Rays

Sep. 18, 2014 — NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, is helping to untangle the mystery of what powers high-energy gamma rays emanating from supernova. The observatory's high-energy ... full story

August and June-August Global Temperatures Each Reach Record High, Driven Largely by Record Warm Global Oceans

Sep. 18, 2014 — According to NOAA scientists, the globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for August 2014 was the highest for August since record keeping began in 1880. It also marked the 38th ... full story

'Honeybee' Robots Replicate Swarm Behavior

Sep. 18, 2014 — Computer scientists have created a low-cost, autonomous micro-robot which in large numbers can replicate the behavior of swarming ... full story

Plant-Based Battery: Testing and Improving With Help of Neutrons, Simulation

Sep. 17, 2014 — Lignin, a low-cost byproduct of the pulp, paper and biofuels industries, could be transformed into a cheaper version of highly engineered graphite through a simple and industrially scalable ... full story

Getting Water from Fog: Shorebird's Beak Inspires Research on Water Collection

Sep. 17, 2014 — An engineering professor and his doctoral student have designed a device based on a shorebird's beak that can accumulate water collected from fog and dew. The device could provide water in ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

AFP (Sep. 17, 2014) — NASA selected Boeing and SpaceX on Tuesday to build America's next spacecraft to carry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) by 2017, opening the way to a new chapter in human spaceflight. Duration: 01:13 Video provided by AFP
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King Richard III's Painful Cause Of Death Revealed

King Richard III's Painful Cause Of Death Revealed

Newsy (Sep. 17, 2014) — King Richard III died in the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, and now researchers examining his skull think they know how. Video provided by Newsy
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Chimp Violence Study Renews Debate On Why They Kill

Chimp Violence Study Renews Debate On Why They Kill

Newsy (Sep. 17, 2014) — The study weighs in on a debate over whether chimps are naturally violent or become that way due to human interference in the environment. Video provided by Newsy
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Obesity Rates Steady Even As Americans' Waistlines Expand

Obesity Rates Steady Even As Americans' Waistlines Expand

Newsy (Sep. 17, 2014) — Researchers are puzzled as to why obesity rates remain relatively stable as average waistlines continue to expand. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-09-19 at 4:03 am EDT

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Exercise Boosts Tumor-Fighting Ability of Chemotherapy, Team Finds

Sep. 18, 2014 — Study after study has proven it true: exercise is good for you. But new research suggests that exercise may have an added benefit for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Their work, performed in ... full story

Sensing Neuronal Activity With Light

Sep. 18, 2014 — For years, neuroscientists have been trying to develop tools that would allow them to clearly view the brain's circuitry in action -- from the first moment a neuron fires to the resulting behavior in ... full story

VIP: New Way to Prevent Spread of Devastating Diseases

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers around the country are adopting a technique to try to guard against infection. The method, called VIP, was originally designed to trigger an immune response to HIV, and because of its ... full story

New Insights on an Ancient Plague Could Improve Treatments for Infections

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dangerous new pathogens such as the Ebola virus invoke scary scenarios of deadly epidemics, but even ancient scourges such as the bubonic plague are still providing researchers with new insights on ... full story

Small, Fast, and Crowded: Mammal Traits Amplify Tick-Borne Illness

Sep. 18, 2014 — In the U.S., some 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease annually. Thousands also suffer from babesiosis and anaplasmosis, tick-borne ailments that can occur alone or as co-infections with ... full story

A New Quality Control Pathway in the Cell

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have described a new protein quality control system in the inner nuclear membrane. The new system has two main functions, to eliminate misfolded proteins and to protect the nucleus from ... full story

How Pneumonia Bacteria Can Compromise Heart Health

Sep. 18, 2014 — Bacterial pneumonia in adults carries an elevated risk for adverse cardiac events (such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and heart attacks) that contribute substantially to mortality -- but how the ... full story

Technique to Model Infections Shows Why Live Vaccines May Be Most Effective

Sep. 18, 2014 — Vaccines against Salmonella that use a live, but weakened, form of the bacteria are more effective than those that use only dead fragments because of the particular way in which they stimulate the ... full story

Reliable and Highly Efficient Method for Making Stem Cells

Sep. 18, 2014 — Scientists have found a way to boost dramatically the efficiency of the process for turning adult cells into so-called pluripotent stem cells by combining three well-known compounds, including ... full story

Flu Vaccine for Expectant Moms a Top Priority, Experts Say

Sep. 18, 2014 — All pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant should receive a flu shot because the normal changes to a pregnant woman's immune system, heart and lungs put moms-to-be at increased risk of ... full story

Spouse's Personality Influences Career Success, Study Finds

Sep. 18, 2014 — As much as we might try to leave personal lives at home, the personality traits of a spouse have a way of following us into the workplace, exerting a powerful influence on promotions, salaries, job ... full story

No Sedative Necessary: Scientists Discover New 'Sleep Node' in the Brain

Sep. 18, 2014 — A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. This is only the second 'sleep node' identified in the mammalian brain whose activity ... full story

Gambling With Confidence: Are You Sure About That?

Sep. 18, 2014 — Confidence determines much of our path through life, but what is it? Most people would describe it as an emotion or a feeling. In contrast, scientists have found that confidence is actually a ... full story

Single Dose of Antidepressant Changes the Brain

Sep. 18, 2014 — A single dose of antidepressant is enough to produce dramatic changes in the functional architecture of the human brain. Brain scans taken of people before and after an acute dose of a commonly ... full story

Gene Linked to Increased Dendritic Spines -- A Signpost of Autism

Sep. 18, 2014 — Knocking out the gene NrCAM increases the number of dendritic spines on excitatory pyramidal neurons, researchers have discovered. Other studies have confirmed that the overabundance of dendritic ... full story

Dogs Can Be Pessimists, Too

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dogs generally seem to be cheerful, happy-go-lucky characters, so you might expect that most would have an optimistic outlook on life. In fact some dogs are distinctly more pessimistic than others, ... full story

Kids Eat Better If Their Parents Went to College

Sep. 18, 2014 — Children of college-educated parents eat more vegetables and drink less sugar, according to a new study. But it's still not enough, the study goes on to say, as all kids are falling short when it ... full story

Men Enjoy Competition, but So Do Women, Researchers Find

Sep. 18, 2014 — Common stereotypes would have us believe that men are more competitive and women more cooperative. Researchers studied the physiological responses to competitive and cooperative play, investigating ... full story

How Stress Tears Us Apart: Enzyme Attacks Synaptic Molecule, Leading to Cognitive Impairment

Sep. 18, 2014 — Why is it that when people are too stressed they are often grouchy, grumpy, nasty, distracted or forgetful? Researchers have just highlighted a fundamental synaptic mechanism that explains the ... full story

Spontaneous Mutations in Key Brain Gene Are a Cause of Autism, Study Concludes

Sep. 18, 2014 — Spontaneous mutations in the brain gene TBR1 disrupt the function of the encoded protein in children with severe autism. In addition, there is a direct link between TBR1 and FOXP2, a well-known ... full story

Fighting Parents Hurt Children's Ability to Recognize and Regulate Emotions

Sep. 17, 2014 — Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study. Exposure to conflict and violence in the ... full story

Asian Americans Lower Insulin Resistance on Traditional Diet

Sep. 17, 2014 — Asian Americans have been shown to lower insulin resistance on a traditional diet, researchers report. One part of this puzzle may lie in the transition from traditional high-fiber, low-fat Asian ... full story

Babies Learn Words Differently as They Age, Researcher Finds

Sep. 17, 2014 — Researcher has found that toddlers learn words differently as they age, and a limit exists as to how many words they can learn each day. These findings could help parents enhance their children's ... full story

Smart Teens Rub Off on Teammates, Study Shows

Sep. 17, 2014 — Having smart teammates can double a high school student's odds of going to college, research shows, and the type of or club does not appear to matter. Participating in more than one extra-curricular ... full story

Benefits, Risks of Yoga Found for Bipolar Disorder

Sep. 17, 2014 — A survey of people with bipolar disorder who practice yoga have identified benefits and risks of the practice. The information, plus a pilot clinical trial currently underway, could help ... full story

Phthalates Heighten Risk for Childhood Asthma

Sep. 17, 2014 — An association between childhood asthma and prenatal exposure to two phthalates used in a diverse array of household products has been discovered by researchers. Phthalates are used in everything ... full story

Do Wearable Lifestyle Activity Monitors Really Work?

Sep. 16, 2014 — Wearable electronic activity monitors hold great promise in helping people to reach their wellness goals. These increasingly sophisticated devices help the wearers improve their wellness by ... full story

Effect of Magnesium Sulfate During Pregnancy on Very Preterm Infants

Sep. 16, 2014 — Magnesium sulfate given intravenously to pregnant women at risk of very preterm birth was not associated with benefit on neurological, behavioral, growth, or functional outcomes in their children at ... full story

Lactation Linked to Reduced Estrogen Receptor-Negative, Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Risk

Sep. 16, 2014 — Women who have had children (parous women) appear to have an increased risk of developing estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, the subtype that carries a higher mortality rate and is more common ... full story

How Learning to Talk Is in the Genes

Sep. 16, 2014 — Researchers have found evidence that genetic factors may contribute to the development of language during infancy. Scientists discovered a significant link between genetic changes near the ROBO2 gene ... full story

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New Insights Into the World of Quantum Materials

Sep. 18, 2014 — A team of physicists has experimentally observed how the anisotropic properties of particles deform the Fermi surface in a quantum gas. The work provides the basis for future studies on how the ... full story

Germanium Tin Could Mean Better and Cheaper Infrared Cameras in Smartphones, and Faster Computer Chips

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have fabricated a new semiconductor material that can be used to build better and less expensive infrared cameras for smartphone and ... full story

New Microscopy Technique Yields Fresh Data on Muscular Dystrophy

Sep. 18, 2014 — A new microscopy technique yields resolution an order of magnitude better than previously possible. Through this new technique, the researchers showed that dystrophin was responsible for regulating ... full story

How Do Neutron Bells Toll on the Skin of the Atomic Nucleus? Vibrations of the Surface of a Heavy Nucleus Observed

Sep. 18, 2014 — Physicists have observed -- for the first time with such precision -- vibrations of the surface of a heavy nucleus, lead 208Pb. Through their extremely accurate measurements this team has unraveled ... full story

Carbon Dioxide Converted Into a Valuable Resource

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have opened a pilot plant that converts carbon dioxide and slag, the by-product of steel manufacturing, into a valuable mineral product. The product, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), ... full story

CT Scan Is No More Accurate Than Ultrasound to Detect Kidney Stones, Study Finds

Sep. 17, 2014 — To diagnose painful kidney stones in hospital emergency rooms, CT scans are no better than less-often-used ultrasound exams, according to a clinical study conducted at 15 medical centers. "Ultrasound ... full story

Reduce Traffic Congestion: Wirelessly Route Drivers Around Congested Roadways

Sep. 17, 2014 — At the Intelligent Transportation Systems World Congress last week, MIT researchers received one of the best-paper awards for a new system, dubbed RoadRunner, that uses GPS-style turn-by-turn ... full story

Doing Science Just Got Cheaper -- And Faster: 3-D Printing Leads to Another Advance in Make-It-Yourself Lab Equipment

Sep. 17, 2014 — A new open-source design library lets researchers make their own syringe pumps and save hundreds or even thousands of dollars. Syringe pumps are used to dispatch precise amounts of liquid, as for ... full story

Oxides Could Advance Memory Devices

Sep. 17, 2014 — The quest for the ultimate memory device for computing may have just taken an encouraging step forward. Researchers have discovered new complex oxides that exhibit both magnetic and ferroelectric ... full story

Engineers Develop Algorithms to Switch out and Recharge Battery Modules in Electric Cars

Sep. 17, 2014 — Imagine being able to switch out the batteries in electric cars just like you switch out batteries in a photo camera or flashlight. A team of engineers are trying to accomplish just that, in ... full story

Miranda: An Icy Moon Deformed by Tidal Heating

Sep. 18, 2014 — Miranda, a small, icy moon of Uranus, is one of the most visually striking and enigmatic bodies in the solar system. Despite its relatively small size, Miranda appears to have experienced an episode ... full story

Comet Landing Mission: 'J' Marks the Spot for Rosetta's Lander

Sep. 18, 2014 — The European Space Agency's Rosetta's lander, Philae, will target Site J, an intriguing region on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that offers unique scientific potential, with hints of activity ... full story

NASA Releases IRIS Footage of X-Class Flare

Sep. 17, 2014 — On Sept. 10, 2014, NASA's newest solar observatory, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS, joined other telescopes to witness an X-class flare -- an example of one of the strongest solar ... full story

Smallest Known Galaxy With a Supermassive Black Hole

Sep. 17, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that an ultracompact dwarf galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole – the smallest galaxy known to contain such a massive light-sucking object. The finding suggests huge ... full story

NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station

Sep. 17, 2014 — U.S. astronauts once again will travel to and from the International Space Station from the United States on American spacecraft under groundbreaking contracts NASA announced Tuesday. The agency ... full story

Violent Origins of Disc Galaxies: Why Milky Way-Like Galaxies Are So Common in the Universe

Sep. 17, 2014 — For decades scientists have believed that galaxy mergers usually result in the formation of elliptical galaxies. Now, for the the first time, researchers have found direct evidence that merging ... full story

219 Million Stars: Astronomers Release Most Detailed Catalog Ever Made of the Visible Milky Way

Sep. 16, 2014 — A new catalog of the visible part of the northern part of our home Galaxy, the Milky Way, includes no fewer than 219 million stars. From dark sky sites on Earth, the Milky Way appears as a glowing ... full story

Martian Meteorite Yields More Evidence of the Possibility of Life on Mars

Sep. 15, 2014 — A tiny fragment of Martian meteorite 1.3 billion years old is helping to make the case for the possibility of life on Mars, say scientists. The finding are of a 'cell-like' structure, which ... full story

Clues to How Giant Elliptical Galaxies Move

Sep. 12, 2014 — New clues to how giant elliptical galaxies move have been discovered by an international team of astronomers. Elliptical galaxies have long been considered as essentially being made up of old stars ... full story

NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Arrives at Martian Mountain

Sep. 11, 2014 — NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has reached the Red Planet's Mount Sharp, a Mount-Rainier-size mountain at the center of the vast Gale Crater and the rover mission's long-term prime ... full story

Math Model Designed to Replace Invasive Kidney Biopsy for Lupus Patients

Sep. 17, 2014 — Mathematics might be able to reduce the need for invasive biopsies in patients suffering kidney damage related to the autoimmune disease lupus. The model could also be used to monitor the ... full story

Physicists Heat Freestanding Graphene to Control Curvature of Ripples

Sep. 17, 2014 — Physicists have discovered that heating can be used to control the curvature of ripples in freestanding graphene. The finding provides fundamental insight into understanding the influence temperature ... full story

'Smart Material' Chin Strap Harvests Energy from Chewing

Sep. 17, 2014 — A chin strap that can harvest energy from jaw movements has been created by a group of researchers in Canada. It is hoped that the device can generate electricity from eating, chewing and talking, ... full story

Flying Robots Will Go Where Humans Can't

Sep. 17, 2014 — There are many situations where it’s impossible, complicated or too time-consuming for humans to enter and carry out operations. Think of contaminated areas following a nuclear accident, or the ... full story

Computerized Emotion Detector

Sep. 16, 2014 — Face recognition software measures various parameters in a mug shot, such as the distance between the person's eyes, the height from lip to top of their nose and various other metrics and then ... full story

First Water-Based Nuclear Battery Can Be Used to Generate Electrical Energy

Sep. 16, 2014 — For the first time using a water-based solution, researchers have created a long-lasting and more efficient nuclear battery that could be used for many applications such as a reliable energy source ... full story

Scientists Twist Radio Beams to Send Data: Transmissions Reach Speeds of 32 Gigibits Per Second

Sep. 16, 2014 — Researchers twist four radio beams together to achieve high data transmission speeds. The researchers reached data transmission rates of 32 gigabits per second across 2.5 meters of free space in a ... full story

For Electronics Beyond Silicon, a New Contender Emerges

Sep. 16, 2014 — Using a quantum material called a correlated oxide, researchers have achieved a reversible change in electrical resistance of eight orders of magnitude, a result the researchers are calling ... full story

Ebola Outbreak 'out of All Proportion' and Severity Cannot Be Predicted, Expert Says

Sep. 16, 2014 — A mathematical model that replicates Ebola outbreaks can no longer be used to ascertain the eventual scale of the current epidemic, finds new ... full story

The Future Face of Molecular Electronics

Sep. 16, 2014 — The emerging field of molecular electronics could take our definition of portable to the next level, enabling the construction of tiny circuits from molecular components. In these highly efficient ... full story

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Unique Waste Cleanup for Rural Areas Developed

Sep. 18, 2014 — A unique method has been developed to use microbes buried in pond sediment to power waste cleanup in rural areas. The first microbe-powered, self-sustaining wastewater treatment system could lead to ... full story

Stem Cells Use 'First Aid Kits' to Repair Damage

Sep. 18, 2014 — Neural stem cells -- master cells that can develop into any type of nerve cell -- are able to generate mini “first aid kits” and transfer them to immune cells, according to a new ... full story

Tolerating, Not Fighting, Viruses a Viable Survival Strategy

Sep. 18, 2014 — In ecology, disease tolerance is defined as a host strategy not to fight a pathogen tooth and nail, but rather tolerate it to live (and survive) better in the long term. One key feature of tolerance ... full story

Tropical Rabbitfish a Threat to Mediterranean Sea Ecosystems

Sep. 18, 2014 — The tropical rabbitfish, which have devastated algal forests in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, pose a major threat to the entire Mediterranean basin if their distribution continues to expand as the ... full story

'Office Life' of Bacteria May Be Their Weak Spot

Sep. 17, 2014 — We may be able to drown deadly bacteria in their own paperwork, scientists suggest. For the first time, researchers have shown how the "paper shredder" that keeps the bacteria E. coli on top of its ... full story

Wild Berry Extract May Strengthen Effectiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Drug

Sep. 17, 2014 — A wild berry native to North America may strengthen the effectiveness of a chemotherapy drug commonly used to treat pancreatic cancer, reveals research. The study suggests that adding nutraceuticals ... full story

Chemists Modify Antibiotic to Vanquish Resistant Bacteria

Sep. 17, 2014 — Scientists have devised a new antibiotic based on vancomycin that is powerfully effective against vancomycin-resistant strains of MRSA and other disease-causing bacteria. The new vancomycin analog ... full story

In Mice, Vaccine Stops Urinary Tract Infections Linked to Catheters

Sep. 17, 2014 — The most common type of hospital-associated infection may be preventable with a vaccine, new research in mice suggests. The experimental vaccine prevented urinary tract infections associated with ... full story

Dogs Respond to Goal-Directed Behavior at Similar Level to Infants

Sep. 17, 2014 — Dogs look at a person interacting with a new object longer than a person interacting with a familiar object moved to a different location, suggesting perception of goal-directed behavior, according ... full story

Nemo Can Travel Great Distances to Connect Populations: Baby Clownfish Travel Hundreds of Kilometers Across Open Ocean

Sep. 17, 2014 — Clownfish spend their entire lives nestling in the protective tentacles of host anemones, but new research shows that as babies they sometimes travel hundreds of kilometres across the open ocean. ... full story

Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments

Sep. 18, 2014 — Microplastics have been discovered widely distributed across the bottom of the St. Lawrence River, the first time such pollutants have been found in freshwater sediments. The microbeads likely ... full story

Mysterious Volcanic Eruption of 1808 Described

Sep. 18, 2014 — New light has been shed on one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in the last 500 years -- the so-called 'Unknown eruption' -- thanks to an unusual collaboration between a historian and a team of ... full story

Is Sahara Desert Several Million Years Older Than Previously Thought?

Sep. 18, 2014 — The Sahara is the world’s largest subtropical desert. During the last decades, numerous scientific studies have probed its geological and archeological archives seeking to reveal its history. ... full story

The Future of Global Agriculture May Include New Land, Fewer Harvests

Sep. 17, 2014 — Climate change may expand suitable cropland, particularly in the Northern high latitudes, but tropical regions may becoming decreasingly ... full story

New Explanation for Origin of Plate Tectonics: What Set Earth's Plates in Motion?

Sep. 17, 2014 — Geologists have a new explanation for the origin of plate tectonics. Researchers suggest it was triggered by the spreading of early continents then it eventually became a self-sustaining ... full story

Effect of Ocean Acidification: Coral Growth Rate on Great Barrier Reef Plummets in 30-Year Comparison

Sep. 17, 2014 — Researchers working in Australia's Great Barrier Reef have documented that coral growth rates have plummeted 40 percent since the mid-1970s. The scientists suggest that ocean acidification may be ... full story

Cape Cod Saltmarsh Recovery Looks Good, Falls Short

Sep. 17, 2014 — In some places Cape Cod's imperiled saltmarsh grasses have been making a comeback, but a new study reports that their ability to protect the coast has not returned nearly as fast as their healthy ... full story

Global Change: Trees in Central Europe Continue to Grow at a Faster Rate, Long-Term Study Finds

Sep. 17, 2014 — Trees in Central Europe have been growing significantly faster since the 1960s. The typical development phases of trees and stands have barely changed, but they have accelerated -- by as much as 70 ... full story

Global Shift Away from Cars Would Save US$100 Trillion, Eliminate 1,700 Megatons of Carbon Dioxide Pollution

Sep. 17, 2014 — More than $100 trillion in cumulative public and private spending, and 1,700 megatons of annual carbon dioxide -- a 40 percent reduction of urban passenger transport emissions -- could be eliminated ... full story

Recruiting Bacteria as Technology Innovation Partners: New Self-Healing Materials and Bioprocessing Technologies

Sep. 17, 2014 — For most people biofilms conjure up images of slippery stones in a streambed and dirty drains. While there are plenty of 'bad' biofilms around, a team of scientists see biofilms as a robust new ... full story

New High-Resolution Satellite Image Analysis: 5 of 6 Syrian World Heritage Sites 'Exhibit Significant Damage'

Sep. 18, 2014 — In war-torn Syria, five of six World Heritage sites now 'exhibit significant damage' and some structures have been 'reduced to rubble,' according to new high-resolution satellite image analysis by ... full story

'Lost Chapel' Skeletons Found Holding Hands After 700 Years

Sep. 18, 2014 — Archaeologists have uncovered a trove of relics and remains at Chapel of St Morrell in Leicestershire. Some relationships last a lifetime -- and archaeologists have discovered that they can last even ... full story

New Branch Added to European Family Tree: Europeans Descended from at Least 3, Not 2, Groups of Ancient Humans

Sep. 17, 2014 — Previous work suggested that Europeans descended from two ancestral groups: indigenous hunter-gatherers and early European farmers. This new study shows that there was also a third ancestral group, ... full story

Counting Fish Teeth Reveals Regulatory DNA Changes Behind Rapid Evolution, Adaptation

Sep. 17, 2014 — Threespine sticklebacks, small fish found around the globe, undergo rapid evolutionary change when they move from the ocean to freshwater lakes, losing their armor and gaining more teeth in as little ... full story

Iberian Pig Genome Remains Unchanged After Five Centuries

Sep. 17, 2014 — A team of Spanish researchers have obtained the first partial genome sequence of an ancient pig. Extracted from a sixteenth century pig found at the site of the Montsoriu Castle in Girona, the data ... full story

Modern Forensic Techniques Identify Most Likely Cause of King Richard III’s Death

Sep. 17, 2014 — The remains of King Richard III -- the last English monarch to die in battle -- were found under a car park in Leicester by archaeologists. The forensic imaging team used whole body CT scans and ... full story

Impact That Doomed the Dinosaurs Helped the Forests Bloom

Sep. 16, 2014 — Some 66 million years ago, a 10-km diameter chunk of rock hit the Yucatan peninsula with the force of 100 teratons of TNT. It left a crater more than 150 km across, and the resulting megatsunami, ... full story

Study on Global Carbon Cycle May Require Reappraisal of Climate Events in Earth's History

Sep. 16, 2014 — A recent study of the global carbon cycle offers a new perspective of Earth's climate records through time. Scientists suggest that one of the current methods for interpreting ancient changes in the ... full story

Forgotten Ghost Ships Off Golden Gate Revealed

Sep. 16, 2014 — Researchers confirmed the discovery just outside San Francisco's Golden Gate strait of the 1910 shipwreck SS Selja and an unidentified early steam tugboat wreck tagged the 'mystery wreck.' The ... full story

Human Faces Are So Variable Because We Evolved to Look Unique

Sep. 16, 2014 — Why are human faces so variable compared to other animals, from lizards and penguins to dogs and monkeys? Scientists analyzed human faces and the genes that code for facial features and found a high ... full story

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Waistlines of U.S. Adults Continue to Increase

Sep. 16, 2014 — The prevalence of abdominal obesity and average waist circumference increased among U.S. adults from 1999 to 2012, according to a study. Waist circumference is a simple measure of total and ... full story

Evidence of Genetic Link to PTSD in Soldiers Exposed to Childhood Trauma

Sep. 16, 2014 — While abnormalities in the adrenergic and noradrenergic systems, both integral in the fight-or-flight response, are thought to play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, until ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Dental, Nutrition Experts Call for Radical Rethink on Free Sugars Intake

Sep. 15, 2014 — Sugars in the diet should make up no more than 3 percent of total energy intake to reduce the significant financial and social burdens of tooth decay, finds new research. Free sugars are defined by ... full story

Concussions: 'Hidden Injury' in Sports

Sep. 15, 2014 — Two new studies shed light on the most common form of head injury seen in athletes. They suggest that concussions continue to be a 'hidden injury' in sports, even in the face significant increased ... full story

Long-Term Effects of Childhood Asthma Influenced by Socioeconomic Status

Sep. 15, 2014 — Asthma is associated with attention and behavioral issues in children, yet little existing research examines how socioeconomic status may influence the ultimate effects of these difficulties. Now, a ... full story

Like My Body Odor, Like My Politics: People Are Attracted to the Body Odor of Others With Similar Political Beliefs

Sep. 15, 2014 — A new study reveals that people find the smell of others with similar political opinions to be attractive, suggesting that one of the reasons why so many spouses share similar political views is ... full story

New Way to Predict Hurricane Strength, Destruction

Sep. 15, 2014 — A new study demonstrates a different way of projecting a hurricane’s strength and intensity that could give the public a better idea of a storm’s potential for ... full story

Everyday Discrimination Impacts Mental Health

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have determined that African Americans and Caribbean blacks who experience discrimination of multiple types are at substantially greater risk for a variety of mental disorders including ... full story

Skin Cancer Risks Higher for Soldiers Serving Abroad

Sep. 15, 2014 — Soldiers deployed to tropical and sunny climates are coming home with increased risk factors for a threat far from the battlefield: skin cancer. "This study demonstrates room for improvement for skin ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Working During Depression Can Offer Health Benefits to Employees

Sep. 10, 2014 — Attending work while suffering a depressive illness could help employees better manage their depression more than taking a sickness absence from work, a new study has found. The study is the first ... full story

There Could Be Increased Numbers of Psychopaths in Senior Managerial Positions, High Levels of Business, Research Shows

Sep. 8, 2014 — For the first time, it has been demonstrated that people with psychopathic tendencies who have high IQs can mask their symptoms by manipulating tests designed to reveal their personalities. It raises ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 — Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Brain Scans Used to Forecast Early Reading Difficulties

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience ... full story

3-D Printing of Rocks and Fossils

Sep. 15, 2014 — Geologists are using 3-D printing to study the pores within limestone reservoir rocks. A better understanding of the pore networks within the rocks could help industry get at more ... full story

Brain Differences: Sometimes, Adolescents Just Can't Resist

Sep. 11, 2014 — A new study finds teenagers are far more sensitive than adults to the immediate effect or reward of their behaviors. Even when a behavior is no longer in a teenager’s best interest to continue, ... full story

High Levels of Physical Activity Linked to Better Academic Performance in Boys

Sep. 11, 2014 — Higher levels of physical activity are related to better academic achievement during the first three school years, particularly in boys, research shows. For instance, boys with higher levels of ... full story

Binge Drinking in Pregnancy Can Affect Child's Mental Health, School Results

Sep. 10, 2014 — Binge drinking during pregnancy can increase the risk of mental health problems (particularly hyperactivity and inattention) in children aged 11 and can have a negative effect on their school ... full story

Cellphone Addiction Harming Academic Performance Is 'an Increasingly Realistic Possibility'

Aug. 28, 2014 — Women college students spend an average of 10 hours a day on their cellphones, with men college students spending nearly eight hours, according to a study on cellphone activity. "As cellphone ... full story

Readers With Dyslexia Have Disrupted Network Connections in the Brain, Map the Circuitry of Dyslexia Shows

Aug. 28, 2014 — Dyslexia, the most commonly diagnosed learning disability in the United States, is a neurological reading disability that occurs when the regions of the brain that process written language don't ... full story

Social Class Makes a Difference in How Children Tackle Classroom Problems

Aug. 27, 2014 — Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 — The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

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