Today's Science News

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Gut Bacteria That Protect Against Food Allergies Identified

Aug. 25, 2014 — The presence of Clostridia, a common class of gut bacteria, protects against food allergies, a new study in mice finds. The discovery points toward probiotic therapies for this so-far untreatable ... full story

Taung Child's Brain Development Not Human-Like? CT Scan Casts Doubt on Similarity to That of Modern Humans

Aug. 25, 2014 — By subjecting the skull of the famous Taung Child to the latest CT scan technology, researchers are now casting doubt on theories that Australopithecus africanus shows the same cranial adaptations ... full story

Natural Methane Seepage on U.S. Atlantic Ocean Margin Widespread

Aug. 25, 2014 — Natural methane leakage from the seafloor is far more widespread on the U.S. Atlantic margin than previously thought, according to a study by researchers from Mississippi State University, the U.S. ... full story

Scientists Grow an Organ in an Animal from Cells Created in Lab

Aug. 25, 2014 — Scientists have grown a fully functional organ from transplanted laboratory-created cells in a living animal for the first time. The researchers have created a thymus -- an organ next to the heart ... full story

Simply Complex: The Origin of Our Body Axes

Aug. 24, 2014 — One fundamental question in biology is what constitutes the basic type of the animal body plan and how did all the more complex forms, including that of humans, evolve from it. At the simplest level, ... full story

Trash Burning Worldwide Significantly Worsens Air Pollution

Aug. 26, 2014 — Unregulated trash burning around the globe is pumping far more pollution into the atmosphere than shown by official records. A new study estimates that more than 40 percent of the world's ... full story

Do We Live in a 2-D Hologram? Experiment Will Test the Nature of the Universe

Aug. 26, 2014 — A unique experiment called the Holometer has started collecting data that will answer some mind-bending questions about our universe -- including whether we live in a ... full story

Earth Can Sustain More Terrestrial Plant Growth Than Previously Thought, Analysis Shows

Aug. 26, 2014 — A new analysis suggests the planet can produce much more land-plant biomass -- the total material in leaves, stems, roots, fruits, grains and other terrestrial plant parts -- than previously thought. ... full story

Exposure to Toxins Makes Great Granddaughters More Susceptible to Stress, Rat Study Shows

Aug. 25, 2014 — Male and female rats are affected differently by ancestral exposure to a common fungicide, vinclozolin, new research shows. Female rats whose great grandparents were exposed to vinclozolin become ... full story

A Long Childhood Feeds the Hungry Human Brain

Aug. 25, 2014 — The long-standing mystery of why human children grow so slowly compared with our closest animal relatives has been addressed by new research. A study has shown that energy funneled to the brain ... full story

Zombie Ant Fungi 'Know' Brains of Their Hosts

Aug. 25, 2014 — A parasitic fungus that reproduces by manipulating the behavior of ants emits a cocktail of behavior-controlling chemicals when encountering the brain of its natural target host, but not when ... full story

Learning by Watching, Toddlers Show Intuitive Understanding of Probability

Aug. 25, 2014 — Most people know children learn many skills simply by watching people around them. Without explicit instructions youngsters know to do things like press a button to operate the television and twist a ... full story

Changes in Eye Can Predict Changes in Brain

Aug. 25, 2014 — A loss of cells in the retina is one of the earliest signs of frontotemporal dementia in people with a genetic risk for the disorder -- even before any changes appear in their behavior -- scientists ... full story

Area of Brain Responsible for Exercise Motivation Discovered

Aug. 20, 2014 — An area of the brain that could control a person’s motivation to exercise and participate in other rewarding activities -– potentially leading to improved treatments for depression -- has been ... full story

Haven't My Neurons Seen This Before? What Happens in the Brain With Familiar Pictures?

Aug. 24, 2014 — The world grows increasingly more chaotic year after year, and our brains are constantly bombarded with images. A new study reveals how neurons in the part of the brain responsible for recognizing ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Reuters - Business Video Online (Aug. 22, 2014) — UK-based Malloy Aeronautics is preparing to test a manned quadcopter capable of out-manouvering a helicopter and presenting a new paradigm for aerial vehicles. A 1/3-sized scale model is already gaining popularity with drone enthusiasts around the world, with the full-sized manned model expected to take flight in the near future. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Neanderthals Probably Died Out Earlier Than We Thought

Neanderthals Probably Died Out Earlier Than We Thought

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) — A new study is packed with interesting Neanderthal-related findings, including a "definitive answer" to when they went extinct. Video provided by Newsy
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Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — A U.S. team found nearly 4,000 species in a subglacial lake that hasn't seen sunlight in millennia, showing life can thrive even under the ice. Video provided by Newsy
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Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — Poachers have killed 100,000 elephants between 2010 and 2012, as the booming ivory trade takes its toll on the animals in Africa. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-08-27 at 1:03 pm EDT

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Prescription for Better Stroke Care: Prescription at Discharge Improves Outcomes

Aug. 27, 2014 — Stroke patients are 70 percent more likely to continue taking their stroke prevention medications one year later if they have a prescription in hand when discharged, according to researchers. After ... full story

Why Listeria Bacterium Is So Hard to Fight

Aug. 27, 2014 — The harmful and potentially deadly bacterium Listeria is extremely good at adapting to changes. Now research uncovers exactly how cunning Listeria is and why it is so hard to fight. The discovery can ... full story

Fighting Prostate Cancer With Tomato-Rich Diet

Aug. 27, 2014 — Men who eat over 10 portions a week of tomatoes have an 18 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer, new research suggests. With 35,000 new cases every year in the UK, and around 10,000 ... full story

Soda Tax for Adolescents, Exercise for Children Best Strategies for Reducing Obesity

Aug. 27, 2014 — Childhood obesity in the United States remains high. A tax on sugar-sweetened beverages such as sodas, energy drinks, sweet teas, and sports drinks would reduce obesity in adolescents more than other ... full story

Fear, Safety and the Role of Sleep in Human PTDS

Aug. 27, 2014 — The effectiveness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment may hinge significantly upon sleep quality, report researchers. PTSD is an often difficult-to-treat mental health condition ... full story

HIV Antibodies Block Infection by Reservoir-Derived Virus in Laboratory Study

Aug. 26, 2014 — A laboratory study lends further weight to the potential effectiveness of passive immunotherapy to suppress HIV in the absence of drug treatment. Passive immunotherapy for HIV is an experimental ... full story

Sorting Cells With Sound Waves

Aug. 26, 2014 — Researchers have devised a new way to separate cells by exposing them to sound waves as they flow through a tiny channel. Their device, about the size of a dime, could be used to detect the extremely ... full story

Fever's Origin Discovered by Researchers

Aug. 26, 2014 — Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. Researchers can now see precisely where these substances are produced -- a discovery that ... full story

Protecting Brains of Very Preterm Infants

Aug. 26, 2014 — Premature babies are far more at risk than infants born at term of developing brain damage resulting in neurodevelopmental delay that may persist throughout their lives. A team of specialists in ... full story

New Estrogen-Based Compound Suppresses Binge-Like Eating Behavior in Female Mice

Aug. 26, 2014 — The hormone estrogen can specifically trigger brain serotonin neurons to inhibit binge eating in female mice, researchers report. They add that this result is consistent with data in humans. "We can ... full story

Marching in Unison May Increase Risk of Use of Excessive Force in Policing Protests

Aug. 27, 2014 — What if the simple act of marching in unison -- as riot police commonly do -- increases the likelihood that law enforcement will use excessive force in policing protests? That's the suggestion of a ... full story

Gamblers Are Greedy Bird-Brains, New Research Finds

Aug. 27, 2014 — Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions, new research has ... full story

The Evolutionary Roots of Human Altruism

Aug. 27, 2014 — Scientists have long been searching for the factor that determines why humans often behave so selflessly. It was known that humans share this tendency with species of small Latin American primates of ... full story

Alcoholics Have an Abnormal CD8 T Cell Response to the Influenza Virus

Aug. 26, 2014 — Chronic drinking is associated with an increased incidence and severity of respiratory infections. A reduced CD8 T cell response was previously implicated in increased disease severity due to ... full story

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated With Later Excess Weight/obesity During Adolescence

Aug. 26, 2014 — Growth deficiency is a defining feature of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). A new study has found that rates of excess weight/obesity are elevated in adolescents with partial fetal alcohol ... full story

Young Children's Sipping/tasting of Alcohol Reflects Parental Modeling

Aug. 26, 2014 — A new study examines antecedent predictors of childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol. Findings indicate that initiation of sipping/tasting was less related to psychosocial proneness for ... full story

Sleep Apnea Treatment Is Effective for Older People

Aug. 26, 2014 — Continuous positive airway pressure is effective at treating sleep apnoea in older people, a new study has found. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a condition where the walls of the throat relax and ... full story

Collaborative Care Intervention Improves Depression Among Teens

Aug. 26, 2014 — Among adolescents with depression seen in primary care, a collaborative care intervention that included patient and parent engagement and education resulted in greater improvement in depressive ... full story

Study Finds Less Domestic Violence Among Married Couples Who Smoke Pot

Aug. 26, 2014 — New research findings from a study of 634 couples found that the more often they smoked marijuana, the less likely they were to engage in domestic violence. "These findings suggest that marijuana use ... full story

How Parents Can Help Their Children Succeed, Stay in School

Aug. 26, 2014 — Students are back in school and now is the time for parents to develop routines to help their children succeed academically. A university professor says parental involvement, more than income or ... full story

Link Between Prenatal Antidepressant Exposure, Autism Risk Called Into Question

Aug. 26, 2014 — Previous studies that have suggested an increased risk of autism among children of women who took antidepressants during pregnancy may actually reflect the known increased risk associated with severe ... full story

Ever Growing Number of Women With Gestational Diabetes Suggests Future Will Be Filled With Children With Early Diabetes

Aug. 25, 2014 — Children exposed to gestational diabetes in the wombs of their mothers are themselves around six times more likely to develop diabetes or prediabetes than children not exposed, research shows. With ... full story

New Gluten-Free Ingredient May Cause Allergic Reaction, Expert Warns

Aug. 25, 2014 — A popular legume used in other countries is showing up in more U.S. gluten-free products. A food safety specialist explains why people with peanut and soybean allergies need to be cautious: "Lupin is ... full story

Expectant Parents' Play With Doll Predicts Later Parenting Behavior

Aug. 25, 2014 — Having expectant parents role-play interacting with an infant using a doll can help predict which couples may be headed for co-parenting conflicts when their baby arrives. Results showed that couples ... full story

Train Your Heart to Protect Your Mind

Aug. 25, 2014 — Exercising to improve our cardiovascular strength may protect us from cognitive impairment as we age, according to a new study. "Our body's arteries stiffen with age, and the vessel hardening is ... full story

Women With Severe, Chronic Health Issues Are Screened for Breast Cancer Less Often

Aug. 22, 2014 — Women with severe disabilities and multiple chronic conditions are screened for breast cancer less often than women with no disabilities or no chronic conditions, a new study has found. Worldwide, ... full story

In Our Digital World, Are Young People Losing the Ability to Read Emotions?

Aug. 22, 2014 — Are young people losing the ability to read emotions in our digital world? Scientists report that sixth-graders who went five days without even glancing at a smartphone, television or other screen ... full story

Scientists Map Risk of Premature Menopause After Cancer Treatment

Aug. 22, 2014 — Women treated for the cancer Hodgkin lymphoma will be able to better understand their risks of future infertility after researchers estimated their risk of premature menopause with different ... full story

Playing Hunger Games: Are Gamified Health Apps Putting Odds in Your Favor?

Aug. 22, 2014 — For many people, finding motivation to exercise is a challenge. Thankfully, there are Zombies chasing you. At least that's the approach of Zombies, Run! -- one of more than 31,000 health and fitness ... full story

Potential Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infections in Young Girls

Aug. 21, 2014 — Young girls with an intense, red, itchy rash on their outer genital organs may be at increased risk of developing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The treatment may be as simple as better hygiene and ... full story

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Atomically Seamless, Thinnest-Possible Semiconductor Junctions Crafted by Scientists

Aug. 26, 2014 — Two single-layer semiconductor materials can be connected in an atomically seamless fashion known as a heterojunction, researchers say. This result could be the basis for next-generation flexible and ... full story

New Technology May Identify Tiny Strains in Body Tissues Before Injuries Occur

Aug. 26, 2014 — Algorithms to identify weak spots in tendons, muscles and bones prone to tearing or breaking have been developed by researchers. The technology, which needs to be refined before it is used in ... full story

Glucose Meter of a Different Color Provides Continuous Monitoring

Aug. 26, 2014 — Engineers are bringing a touch of color to glucose monitoring. The researchers developed a new continuous glucose monitoring material that changes color as glucose levels fluctuate, and the ... full story

Competition for Graphene: Researchers Demonstrate Ultrafast Charge Transfer in New Family of 2-D Semiconductors

Aug. 26, 2014 — The first experimental observation of ultrafast charge transfer in photo-excited MX2 materials, the graphene-like two-dimensional semiconductors, has been conducted. Charge transfer time clocked in ... full story

Existing Power Plants Will Spew 300 Billion More Tons of Carbon Dioxide During Use

Aug. 26, 2014 — Existing power plants around the world will pump out more than 300 billion tons of carbon dioxide over their expected lifetimes, significantly adding to atmospheric levels of the climate-warming gas, ... full story

Symphony of Nanoplasmonic and Optical Resonators Produces Laser-Like Light Emission

Aug. 26, 2014 — By combining plasmonics and optical microresonators, researchers have created a new optical amplifier (or laser) design, paving the way for power-on-a-chip ... full story

Introducing the Multi-Tasking Nanoparticle

Aug. 26, 2014 — Dynamic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed that could provide an arsenal of applications to diagnose and treat cancer. Built on an easy-to-make polymer, these particles can be used as contrast ... full story

Key to Speed? Elite Sprinters Unlike Other Athletes, Deliver Forceful Punch to Ground

Aug. 26, 2014 — The world's fastest sprinters have a distinctive ability unlike other runners to attack the ground and attain faster speeds, according to new research. The new findings indicate that sprinters use a ... full story

Laser Pulse Turns Glass Into a Metal: New Effect Could Be Used for Ultra-Fast Logical Switches

Aug. 26, 2014 — For tiny fractions of a second, quartz glass can take on metallic properties, when it is illuminated be a laser pulse. This has been shown by new calculations. The effect could be used to build ... full story

Duality Principle Is 'Safe and Sound'

Aug. 26, 2014 — Decades of experiments have verified the quirky laws of quantum theory again and again. So when scientists in Germany announced in 2012 an apparent violation of a fundamental law of quantum ... full story

Orion Rocks! Pebble-Size Particles May Jump-Start Planet Formation

Aug. 27, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that filaments of star-forming gas near the Orion Nebula may be brimming with pebble-size particles -- planetary building blocks 100 to 1,000 times larger than the dust ... full story

Measurement at Big Bang Conditions Confirms Lithium Problem

Aug. 27, 2014 — The field of astrophysics has a stubborn problem and it's called lithium. The quantities of lithium predicted to have resulted from the Big Bang are not actually present in stars. But the ... full story

What Lit Up the Universe?

Aug. 27, 2014 — New research shows we will soon uncover the origin of the ultraviolet light that bathes the cosmos, helping scientists understand how galaxies were built. The study by cosmologists shows how ... full story

Best View Yet of Merging Galaxies in Distant Universe

Aug. 26, 2014 — Astronomers have obtained the best view yet of a collision between two galaxies when the Universe was only half its current age. To make this observation, the team also enlisted the help of a ... full story

World's First ZigBee-Based Inter-Satellite Comms System

Aug. 25, 2014 — Engineers have successfully piloted the world's first ZigBee-based inter-satellite communication system. Designed to evaluate the performance of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in space, the ... full story

Voyager Map Details Neptune's Strange Moon Triton

Aug. 22, 2014 — NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft gave humanity its first close-up look at Neptune and its moon Triton in the summer of 1989. Like an old film, Voyager's historic footage of Triton has been "restored" and ... full story

Spectacular Supernova's Mysteries Revealed

Aug. 22, 2014 — Astronomers are delving into the mystery of what caused a spectacular supernova in a galaxy 11 million light years away, seen earlier this year. The supernova, a giant explosion of a star and the ... full story

Electric Sparks May Alter Evolution of Lunar Soil

Aug. 21, 2014 — The moon appears to be a tranquil place, but new modeling suggests that, over the eons, periodic storms of solar energetic particles may have significantly altered the properties of the soil in the ... full story

Your Toothpaste's Fluorine Formed in the Stars

Aug. 21, 2014 — The fluorine that is found in products such as toothpaste was likely formed billions of years ago in now-dead stars of the same type as our sun, according to new research by ... full story

First LOFAR Observations of 'Whirlpool Galaxy'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Using a radio telescope with frequencies just above those of commercial FM radio stations, a European team of astronomers has obtained the most sensitive image of a galaxy below 1 ... full story

Eye Implant Could Lead to Better Glaucoma Treatments

Aug. 26, 2014 — Lowering internal eye pressure is currently the only way to treat glaucoma. A tiny eye implant recently developed could pair with a smartphone to improve the way doctors measure and lower a patient's ... full story

Wii Balance Board Induces Changes in Brains of People With Multiple Sclerosis

Aug. 26, 2014 — A balance board accessory for a popular video game console can help people with multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce their risk of accidental falls, according to new research. Magnetic resonance imaging ... full story

Razor-Sharp TV Images With 4K Definition

Aug. 26, 2014 — The future of movie, sports and concert broadcasting lies in 4K definition, which will bring cinema quality TV viewing into people’s homes. 4K Ultra HD has four times as many pixels as today’s ... full story

Better Than CAPTCHA: Improved Method to Let Computers Know You Are Human

Aug. 25, 2014 — Researchers are investigating game-based verification that may improve computer security and reduce user frustration compared to typical “type-what-you-see” CAPTCHA tools that use static ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 — The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

Physics Research Removes Outcome Unpredictability of Ultracold Atomic Reactions

Aug. 25, 2014 — A physics model helps scientists accurately predict the likely outcome of a chemical reaction as well as sheds new light on mysterious quantum states, including the Efimov ... full story

'Robo Brain' Will Teach Robots Everything from the Internet

Aug. 25, 2014 — Robo Brain -- a large-scale computational system that learns from publicly available Internet resources -- is currently downloading and processing about 1 billion images, 120,000 YouTube videos, and ... full story

Core Mechanism for Root Growth Identified

Aug. 25, 2014 — During plant growth, dividing cells in meristems must coordinate transitions from division to expansion and differentiation. Three distinct developmental zones are generated, while at the same time, ... full story

Neuroscience and Big Data: How to Find Simplicity in the Brain

Aug. 24, 2014 — Scientists can now monitor and record the activity of hundreds of neurons concurrently in the brain, and ongoing technology developments promise to increase this number. However, simply recording the ... full story

Online Screening for Rare Lung Cancer Mutation Opens Door to New Kind of Clinical Trial

Aug. 22, 2014 — Cancer subtypes are like rare diseases; a new kind of clinical trial uses Dr. Google to find enough needles in enough haystacks to test drug ponatinib against FGFR positive lung ... full story

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Southwest U.S. May Face 'Megadrought' This Century

Aug. 27, 2014 — Due to global warming, scientists say, the chances of the southwestern United States experiencing a decade long drought is at least 50 percent, and the chances of a “megadrought” – one that ... full story

Paleontologists Describe a Possible Dinosaur Nest and Young 'Babysitter'

Aug. 27, 2014 — A new examination of a rock slab containing fossils of 24 very young dinosaurs and one older individual is suggestive of a group of hatchlings overseen by a caretaker, according to a new ... full story

Museum Specimens, Modern Cities Show How an Insect Pest Will Respond to Climate Change

Aug. 27, 2014 — Century-old museum specimens hold clues to how global climate change will affect a common insect pest that can weaken and kill trees -- and the news is not good. "Recent studies found that scale ... full story

Specialization: Choosy Wasps Survive Better, Study Shows

Aug. 27, 2014 — Specialized parasitic wasps, such as those using only a few host species, have a greater chance of establishing stable populations than generalist species, a new study shows. These results help with ... full story

Piglet Weaning Age No Bar to Litter Frequency

Aug. 27, 2014 — Piglets can be weaned later with no negative effects on sow birthing frequency, research has shown. "Sows don't usually start their oestrous cycles again during lactation, only coming on heat after ... full story

Sheepdogs Use Simple Rules to Herd Sheep

Aug. 26, 2014 — Sheepdogs use just two simple rules to round up large herds of sheep, scientists have discovered. The findings could lead to the development of robots that can gather and herd livestock, crowd ... full story

Animals First Flex Their Muscles: Earliest Fossil Evidence for Animals With Muscles

Aug. 26, 2014 — A new fossil discovery identifies the earliest evidence for animals with muscles. An unusual new fossil discovery of one of the earliest animals on earth may also provide the oldest evidence of ... full story

Attacking a Rare Disease at Its Source With Gene Therapy

Aug. 26, 2014 — The two main treatments for MPS I are bone marrow transplantation and intravenous enzyme replacement therapy, but these are only marginally effective or clinically impractical, especially when the ... full story

Cancer Leaves Common Fingerprint on DNA

Aug. 26, 2014 — Regardless of their stage or type, cancers appear to share a telltale signature of widespread changes to the so-called epigenome, according to a team of researchers. In a study, the investigators say ... full story

RNA Sequence Could Help Doctors to Tailor Unique Prostate Cancer Treatment Programs

Aug. 26, 2014 — Sequencing RNA, not just DNA, could help doctors predict how prostate cancer tumors will respond to treatment, according to research. Because a tumor's RNA shows the real time changes a treatment is ... full story

Climate Impacts of Changing Aerosol Emissions Since 1996

Aug. 27, 2014 — The re-distribution of anthropogenic aerosol emissions from Europe and North America towards China and India between 1996 and 2010 has surprisingly warmed rather than cooled the global climate. This ... full story

Potential Influences on Recent UK Winter Floods Investigated by New Scientific Review

Aug. 26, 2014 — A comprehensive review of all potential factors behind the 2013/2014 UK winter floods has been published by researchers. The paper does not definitively answer whether human activity played a role in ... full story

What Can 14th Century Venice Teach Us About Ebola, Other Emerging Threats?

Aug. 26, 2014 — The way in which the Italian city of Venice dealt with the outbreak of the plague in the 14th century holds lessons on how to even mitigate the consequences of today's emerging threats, like climate ... full story

Composition of Earth's Mantle Revisited

Aug. 26, 2014 — The makeup of Earth's lower mantle, which makes up the largest part of the Earth by volume, is significantly different than previously thought, research suggests. This should shed light on ... full story

Cannibalism May Contribute to Successful Invasion by Harlequin Ladybirds of New Habitats

Aug. 26, 2014 — The cannibalistic behavior of native and invasive populations of the Harmonia axyridis ladybird have been the focus of recent study. The researchers' findings suggest that this behavior may procure ... full story

Boron Facilitates Stem Cell Growth, Development in Corn

Aug. 25, 2014 — The eastern half of the United States is plagued by boron deficient soil and corn and soybean farmers are required to supplement their soil with boron; however, little is known about the ways in ... full story

Lignin: New Process Helps Overcome Obstacles to Produce Renewable Fuels and Chemicals

Aug. 25, 2014 — There's an old saying in the biofuels industry: 'You can make anything from lignin except money.' But now, a new study may pave the way to challenging that adage. The study demonstrates a concept ... full story

Black Carbon: Major Climate Pollutant Linked to Cardiovascular Health

Aug. 25, 2014 — Black carbon pollutants from wood smoke are known to trap heat near the earth’s surface and warm the climate. A new study suggests that black carbon may also increase women’s risk of ... full story

Cold Snap in the Tropics: How Tropical Glaciers Respond to Cooling Periods

Aug. 25, 2014 — Tropical glaciers have responded to episodes of cooling in Greenland and the Antarctic over the past 20,000 years, according to a study that covers 21 Andean glaciers. As elsewhere on the planet, ... full story

'Just Right' Plant Growth May Make River Deltas Resilient

Aug. 24, 2014 — Geologists suggest that an intermediate amount of vegetation -- not too little and not too much -- is most effective at stabilizing freshwater river deltas. Vegetation on marsh surfaces in river ... full story

Fossil Arthropod Went on the Hunt for Its Prey

Aug. 22, 2014 — A new species of carnivorous crustacean has been identified, which roamed the seas 435 million years ago, grasping its prey with spiny limbs before devouring ... full story

How Hummingbirds Evolved to Detect Sweetness

Aug. 21, 2014 — Hummingbirds' ability to detect sweetness evolved from an ancestral savory taste receptor that is mostly tuned to flavors in amino acids. Feasting on nectar and the occasional insect, the tiny birds ... full story

Alternate Mechanism of Species Formation Picks Up Support, Thanks to a South American Ant

Aug. 21, 2014 — A newly discovered species of ant supports a controversial theory of species formation. The ant, only found in a single patch of eucalyptus trees on the São Paulo State University campus in Brazil, ... full story

Neanderthals 'Overlapped' With Modern Humans for Up to 5,400 Years

Aug. 21, 2014 — Neanderthals and modern humans were both living in Europe for between 2,600 and 5,400 years, according to a new article. For the first time, scientists have constructed a robust timeline showing when ... full story

Arctic Sea Ice Influenced Force of Gulf Stream

Aug. 21, 2014 — The force of the Gulf Stream was significantly influenced by the sea ice situation in the Fram Strait in the past 30,000 years. On the basis of biomarkers in deposits on the seafloor, geologists ... full story

One of Oldest Metal Objects Found to Date in Middle East

Aug. 21, 2014 — A copper awl, one of the oldest metal objects found to date in the Middle East, has been discovered during the excavations at Tel Tsaf. The awl dates back to the late 6th millennium or the early 5th ... full story

Paleolithic Diet May Have Included Snails 10,000 Years Earlier Than Previously Thought

Aug. 20, 2014 — Paleolithic inhabitants of modern-day Spain may have eaten snails 10,000 years earlier than their Mediterranean neighbors. Snails were widespread in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, but it is still ... full story

Seals and Sea Lions Likely Spread Tuberculosis to Humans

Aug. 20, 2014 — Scientists who study tuberculosis have long debated its origins. New research shows that tuberculosis likely spread from humans in Africa to seals and sea lions that brought the disease to South ... full story

Jurassic Mammals Were Picky Eaters, New Study Finds

Aug. 20, 2014 — New analyses of tiny fossil mammals from Glamorgan, South Wales are shedding light on the function and diets of our earliest ancestors, a team reports. Mammals and their immediate ancestors from the ... full story

Neither Too Hot nor Too Cold: Evolution of Marine Crocodilians Constrained by Ocean Temperatures

Aug. 19, 2014 — The ancestors of today's crocodiles colonized the seas during warm phases and became extinct during cold phases, according to a new Anglo-French study which establishes a link between marine ... full story

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Young Driver's Gender Linked to Crash Type, Injury Severity

Aug. 26, 2014 — Gender differences do exist in young drivers when it comes to safety, a study finds. Gender is often related to what type of severe or fatal crash a young male or young female driver will be involved ... full story

25 Percent Fewer Opioid-Related Deaths in States Allowing Medical Marijuana

Aug. 25, 2014 — On average, states allowing the medical use of marijuana have lower rates of deaths resulting from opioid analgesic overdoses than states without such laws. Opioid analgesics, such as OxyContin, ... full story

Fortifying Condiments, Seasonings for Use in Countries With Widespread Micronutrient Deficiencies

Aug. 25, 2014 — Researchers are working to fortify condiments and seasonings for use in countries with widespread micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrient deficiencies affect the health and cognitive development of ... full story

Cutting Emissions Pays for Itself, Study Concludes

Aug. 24, 2014 — Health care savings can greatly defray costs of carbon-reduction policies, experts report. But just how large are the health benefits of cleaner air in comparison to the costs of reducing carbon ... full story

Fish and Coral Smell a Bad Neighborhood: Marine Protected Areas Might Not Be Enough to Help Overfished Reefs Recover

Aug. 21, 2014 — Pacific corals and fish can both smell a bad neighborhood, and use that ability to avoid settling in damaged reefs. Damaged coral reefs emit chemical cues that repulse young coral and fish, ... full story

Reading 'Fifty Shades' Linked to Unhealthy Behaviors

Aug. 21, 2014 — Young adult women who read 'Fifty Shades of Grey' are more likely than nonreaders to exhibit signs of eating disorders and have a verbally abusive partner, finds a new study. Further, women who read ... full story

Influenced by Self-Interest, Humans Less Concerned About Inequity to Others, Researchers Find

Aug. 21, 2014 — Strongly influenced by their self-interest, humans do not protest being overcompensated, even when there are no consequences, researchers have found. This could imply that humans are less concerned ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Experts Question Value of Common Superbug Control Practices

Aug. 21, 2014 — The jury is still out on the effectiveness of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) superbug control policies in hospitals, according to leading infectious disease experts. In particular, ... full story

'Suicide Tourism' to Switzerland Has Doubled Within Four Years

Aug. 21, 2014 — The numbers of 'suicide tourists' going to Switzerland to take their own lives has doubled within the space of four years, reports a study. In all, residents from 31 different countries were helped ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Study Measures Steep Coastal Costs of China's GDP Growth

Aug. 8, 2014 — Economic reforms declared in 1978 led to a surge of growth in China, but resulting increases in human impact activities are seriously degrading the nation's coastal ecosystems, according to a newly ... full story

Geography Matters: Model Predicts How Local 'Shocks' Influence U.S. Economy

Aug. 6, 2014 — Hurricanes. Foreclosures. Factory shutdowns. How do these local industry 'shocks' influence the country as a whole? A new model measures the power of industry dips and boosts nationwide. Overall, ... full story

All-in-One Energy System Offers Greener Power for Off–grid Homes, Farms and Businesses

July 30, 2014 — An innovative ‘trigeneration’ system fuelled entirely by raw plant oils could have great potential for isolated homes and businesses operating outside grid ... full story

Kill Switch in Cell Phones Could Save Consumers More Than $3.4 Billion Annually

July 29, 2014 — A new study shows consumer savings from the Kill Switch legislation exceed initial projections and now points to well over $3 billion. This savings to consumers comes at the expense of insurance and ... full story

Google Searches May Hold Key to Future Market Crashes, Researchers Find

July 28, 2014 — A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market ... full story

It Takes More Than Practice to Excel

July 28, 2014 — Psychologists have overturned a 20-year-old theory that people who excel in their fields are those who practiced the ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

Children's Drawings Indicate Later Intelligence, Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — How 4-year-old children draw pictures of a child is an indicator of intelligence at age 14, according to a new study. The researchers studied 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical twins and ... full story

How Children's Brains Memorize Math Facts

Aug. 17, 2014 — As children learn basic arithmetic, they gradually switch from solving problems by counting on their fingers to pulling facts from memory. The shift comes more easily for some kids than for others, ... full story

Expecting to Teach Enhances Learning, Recall

Aug. 8, 2014 — People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that ... full story

Musical Training Offsets Some Academic Achievement Gaps, Research Says

Aug. 8, 2014 — Learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills, according to research. The findings, which involved hundreds of kids ... full story

New Insights Into How Young and Developing Readers Make Sense of Words

Aug. 7, 2014 — Skilled readers are often able to make sense of words suffering from 'typos' and jumbled up letter orders as long as the beginning and end letters of the words are ... full story

Video-Game Playing for Less Than an Hour a Day Is Linked With Better-Adjusted Children, Study Finds

Aug. 4, 2014 — A new study suggests video game-playing for less than an hour a day is linked with better-adjusted children and teenagers. The research found that young people who indulged in a little video ... full story

Removing Vending Machines from Schools Is Not Enough to Reduce Soda Consumption

Aug. 1, 2014 — Banning vending machines from schools can actually increase soda and fast food consumption among students if it’s the only school food policy change implemented, according to new ... full story

Preterm Children Do Not Have an Increased Risk for Dyscalculia, New Research Suggests

Aug. 1, 2014 — Preterm children do not suffer from dyscalculia more often than healthy full-term children, experts say, contrary to previous studies. Unlike most other studies, the researchers took the children’s ... full story

Numerical Learning Disability: Dyscalculia Linked to Difficulties in Reading and Spelling

July 30, 2014 — Between three and six percent of schoolchildren suffer from an arithmetic-related learning disability. Researchers now show that these children are also more likely to exhibit deficits in reading and ... full story

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