Today's Science News

Monday, September 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Immune System of Newborn Babies Stronger Than Previously Thought

Sep. 21, 2014 — Contrary to what was previously thought, newborn immune T cells may have the ability to trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria, according to a new study. Although their immune system works very ... full story

Physicists Teleport Quantum State of Photon to Crystal Over 25 Kilometers

Sep. 21, 2014 — Physicists have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers of optical fiber. The experiment constitutes a first, and simply pulverizes the previous record ... full story

Hadrosaur With Huge Nose Discovered: Function of Dinosaur's Unusual Trait a Mystery

Sep. 19, 2014 — Call it the Jimmy Durante of dinosaurs -- a newly discovered hadrosaur with a truly distinctive nasal profile. The new dinosaur, named Rhinorex condrupus by paleontologists, lived in what is now Utah ... full story

No Sedative Necessary: Scientists Discover New 'Sleep Node' in the Brain

Sep. 18, 2014 — A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. This is only the second 'sleep node' identified in the mammalian brain whose ... full story

Monster Galaxies Gain Weight by Eating Smaller Neighbors

Sep. 19, 2014 — Massive galaxies in the universe have stopped making their own stars and are instead snacking on nearby galaxies. Astronomers looked at more than 22,000 galaxies and found that while smaller galaxies ... full story

Dry Roasting Could Help Trigger Peanut Allergy

Sep. 21, 2014 — Dry roasted peanuts are more likely to trigger an allergy to peanuts than raw peanuts, suggests a study involving mice. The researchers say that specific chemical changes caused by the high ... full story

On/off Switch for Aging Cells Discovered by Scientists

Sep. 20, 2014 — An on-and-off “switch” has been discovered in cells that may hold the key to healthy aging. This switch points to a way to encourage healthy cells to keep dividing and generating, for example, ... full story

Smallest Possible Diamonds Form Ultra-Thin Nanothreads

Sep. 21, 2014 — For the first time, scientists have discovered how to produce ultra-thin 'diamond nanothreads' that promise extraordinary properties, including strength and stiffness greater than that of ... full story

Engineered Proteins Stick Like Glue -- Even in Water

Sep. 21, 2014 — Researchers have found new adhesives based on mussel proteins could be useful for naval or medical applications. To create their new waterproof adhesives, researchers engineered bacteria to produce a ... full story

Uncovering the Forbidden Side of Molecules: Infrared Spectrum of Charged Molecule Seen for First Time

Sep. 21, 2014 — Researchers have succeeded in observing the “forbidden” infrared spectrum of a charged molecule for the first time. These extremely weak spectra offer perspectives for extremely precise ... full story

A Breakthrough in Electron Microscopy: Scientists Reconstruct Third Dimension from a Single Image

Sep. 21, 2014 — Imagine that you want to find out from a single picture taken of the front of a house, what the building looks like from behind, whether it has any extensions or if the brickwork is damaged, and how ... full story

Climate Change: Dwindling Wind May Tip Predator-Prey Balance

Sep. 19, 2014 — Rising temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns may get the lion’s share of our climate change attention, but predators may want to give some thought to wind, according to a zoologist’s ... full story

NASA's Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit Around Red Planet

Sep. 22, 2014 — NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft successfully entered Mars' orbit at 7:24 p.m. PDT (10:24 p.m. EDT) Sunday, Sept. 21, where it now will prepare to study the ... full story

Milestone in Chemical Studies of Superheavy Elements: Superheavy Element and Carbon Atom Bonded for First Time

Sep. 19, 2014 — A chemical bond between a superheavy element and a carbon atom has been established for the first time. This research opens new vistas for studying the effects of Einstein's relativity on the ... full story

Computers 1,000 Times Faster? Quick-Change Materials Break Silicon Speed Limit for Computers

Sep. 19, 2014 — Faster, smaller, greener computers, capable of processing information up to 1,000 times faster than currently available models, could be made possible by replacing silicon with materials that can ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

NASA's MAVEN Spacecraft Has Finally Reached Mars

NASA's MAVEN Spacecraft Has Finally Reached Mars

Newsy (Sep. 22, 2014) — After a 10-month voyage through space, NASA's MAVEN spacecraft is now orbiting the Red Planet. Video provided by Newsy
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What This MIT Sensor Could Mean For The Future Of Robotics

What This MIT Sensor Could Mean For The Future Of Robotics

Newsy (Sep. 20, 2014) — MIT researchers developed a light-based sensor that gives robots 100 times the sensitivity of a human finger, allowing for "unprecedented dexterity." Video provided by Newsy
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MIT BioSuit A New Take On Traditional Spacesuits

MIT BioSuit A New Take On Traditional Spacesuits

Newsy (Sep. 19, 2014) — The MIT BioSuit could be an alternative to big, bulky traditional spacesuits, but the concept needs some work. Video provided by Newsy
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Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

AFP (Sep. 17, 2014) — NASA selected Boeing and SpaceX on Tuesday to build America's next spacecraft to carry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) by 2017, opening the way to a new chapter in human spaceflight. Duration: 01:13 Video provided by AFP
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last updated on 2014-09-22 at 10:28 am EDT

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Battling Superbugs: Two New Technologies Could Enable Novel Strategies for Combating Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Sep. 21, 2014 — Two new technologies could enable novel strategies for combating drug-resistant bacteria, scientists report. Most antibiotics work by interfering with crucial functions such as cell division or ... full story

Program Predicts Placement of Chemical Tags That Control Gene Activity

Sep. 21, 2014 — Biochemists have developed a program that predicts the placement of chemical marks that control the activity of genes based on sequences of DNA. By comparing sequences with and without epigenomic ... full story

Cancer Cells Adapt Energy Needs to Spread Illness to Other Organs

Sep. 21, 2014 — Cancer cells traveling to other sites have different energy needs from their “stay-at-home” siblings, which continue to proliferate at the original tumor site, researchers have discovered. Given ... full story

Possible 6,800 New Ebola Cases This Month, Research Predicts

Sep. 19, 2014 — A possible 6,800 new Ebola cases this are predicted this month, as suggested by researchers who used modelling analysis to come up with their figures. The rate of new cases significantly increased in ... full story

Pathway That Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Revealed by Research

Sep. 19, 2014 — A defect in a key cell-signaling pathway has been discovered that researchers say contributes to both overproduction of toxic protein in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients as well as loss ... full story

Gene Responsible for Traits Involved in Diabetes Discovered

Sep. 19, 2014 — A new gene associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in rats, mice and in humans, has been discovered by researchers. 29 million Americans have diabetes -- more than nine percent of the ... full story

Simple Test Can Help Detect Alzheimer's Before Dementia Signs Show, Study Shows

Sep. 19, 2014 — A simple test that combines thinking and movement can help to detect heightened risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a person, even before there are any telltale behavioural signs of dementia, ... full story

Graphene Sensor Tracks Down Cancer Biomarkers

Sep. 19, 2014 — An ultrasensitive biosensor made from the wonder material graphene has been used to detect molecules that indicate an increased risk of developing cancer. The biosensor has been shown to be more than ... full story

Obesity in Pacific Islands 'a Colonial Legacy' of Settlers Trying to Civilize the Locals

Sep. 19, 2014 — Scientists have known for some time that Pacific islanders are more prone to obesity than people in other nations. Now a new study has examined why islanders on Nauru and in the Cook Islands in the ... full story

Sibling Bullying Linked to Later Depression, Self-Harm

Sep. 19, 2014 — A new study has found that children who revealed they had been bullied by their brothers or sisters several times a week or more during early adolescence were twice as likely to report being ... full story

Nerve Cells: Communication Without Detours

Sep. 22, 2014 — Certain nerve cells take a shortcut for the transmission of information: signals are not conducted via the cell`s center, but around it like on a bypass road. This is a previously unknown nerve cell ... full story

Brain Uses Three Perceptual Parameters to Recognize 'Gloss'

Sep. 19, 2014 — The brain uses three perceptual parameters, the contrast-of-highlight, sharpness-of-highlight, or brightness of the object, as parameters when the brain recognizes a variety of glosses, researchers ... full story

Mitochondria's Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases Clearer Thanks to Mouse Study

Sep. 19, 2014 — A new study sheds light on a longstanding question about the role of mitochondria in debilitating and fatal motor neuron diseases and resulted in a new mouse model to study such illnesses. ... full story

Multiple Sclerosis Drug Candidate Shows New Promise

Sep. 19, 2014 — Positive new data have been released on a drug candidate, RPC1063, for relapsing multiple sclerosis. According to the results from a six-month Phase 2 study of 258 multiple sclerosis patients, the ... full story

Cooling of Dialysis Fluids Protects Against Brain Damage

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dialysis drives progressive white matter brain injury due to blood pressure instability, however, patients who dialyzed at 0.5 degrees Celcius below body temperature were completely protected against ... full story

Sensing Neuronal Activity With Light: New Way of Mapping Neural Networks in a Living Organism

Sep. 18, 2014 — For years, neuroscientists have been trying to develop tools that would allow them to clearly view the brain's circuitry in action -- from the first moment a neuron fires to the resulting behavior in ... full story

Down Syndrome Helps Researchers Understand Alzheimer's Disease

Sep. 18, 2014 — The link between a protein typically associated with Alzheimer’s disease and its impact on memory and cognition may not be as clear as once thought, according to a new study. Researchers looked at ... full story

A New Quality Control Pathway in the Cell

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have described a new protein quality control system in the inner nuclear membrane. The new system has two main functions, to eliminate misfolded proteins and to protect the nucleus from ... full story

Pupil Size Shows Reliability of Decisions, Before Information on Decision Is Presented

Sep. 18, 2014 — The precision with which people make decisions can be predicted by measuring pupil size before they are presented with any information about the decision, according to a new ... full story

How Epigenetic Memory Is Passed Through Generations: Sperm and Eggs Transmit Memory of Gene Repression to Embryos

Sep. 18, 2014 — A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental stresses can cause changes in gene expression that are transmitted from parents to their offspring, making 'epigenetics' a hot topic. Epigenetic ... full story

Vitamin E, Selenium Supplements Unlikely to Affect Age-Related Cataracts in Men

Sep. 18, 2014 — Taking daily supplements of selenium or vitamin E appears to have no significant effect on the development of age-related cataracts in men. Some research, including animal studies, has suggested that ... full story

Flu Vaccine for Expectant Moms a Top Priority, Experts Say

Sep. 18, 2014 — All pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant should receive a flu shot because the normal changes to a pregnant woman's immune system, heart and lungs put moms-to-be at increased risk of ... full story

Dogs Can Be Pessimists, Too

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dogs generally seem to be cheerful, happy-go-lucky characters, so you might expect that most would have an optimistic outlook on life. In fact some dogs are distinctly more pessimistic than others, ... full story

Kids Eat Better If Their Parents Went to College

Sep. 18, 2014 — Children of college-educated parents eat more vegetables and drink less sugar, according to a new study. But it's still not enough, the study goes on to say, as all kids are falling short when it ... full story

Men Enjoy Competition, but So Do Women, Researchers Find

Sep. 18, 2014 — Common stereotypes would have us believe that men are more competitive and women more cooperative. Researchers studied the physiological responses to competitive and cooperative play, investigating ... full story

Fighting Parents Hurt Children's Ability to Recognize and Regulate Emotions

Sep. 17, 2014 — Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study. Exposure to conflict and violence in the ... full story

Asian Americans Lower Insulin Resistance on Traditional Diet

Sep. 17, 2014 — Asian Americans have been shown to lower insulin resistance on a traditional diet, researchers report. One part of this puzzle may lie in the transition from traditional high-fiber, low-fat Asian ... full story

Babies Learn Words Differently as They Age, Researcher Finds

Sep. 17, 2014 — Researcher has found that toddlers learn words differently as they age, and a limit exists as to how many words they can learn each day. These findings could help parents enhance their children's ... full story

Physical Activity in Older Adults Linked to Brain White-Matter Integrity

Sep. 17, 2014 — Like everything else in the body, the white-matter fibers that allow communication between brain regions also decline with age. In a new study, researchers found a strong association between the ... full story

Smart Teens Rub Off on Teammates, Study Shows

Sep. 17, 2014 — Having smart teammates can double a high school student's odds of going to college, research shows, and the type of or club does not appear to matter. Participating in more than one extra-curricular ... full story

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Magnetic Fields Make the Excitons Go 'Round: New Way to Improve Efficiency of Solar Cells

Sep. 21, 2014 — A major limitation in the performance of solar cells happens within the photovoltaic material itself: When photons strike the molecules of a solar cell, they transfer their energy, producing ... full story

New 'Star' Shaped Molecule Breakthrough

Sep. 21, 2014 — Scientists have generated a new star-shaped molecule made up of interlocking rings, which is the most complex of its kind ever created. Known as a 'Star of David' molecule, scientists have been ... full story

Fracking's Environmental Impacts Scrutinized

Sep. 21, 2014 — Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of shale gas would be comparable to conventional natural gas, but the controversial energy source actually fared better than renewables on some ... full story

Nanosized Hydrogen Generator Uses Light and Two-Dimensional Graphene

Sep. 19, 2014 — Researchers have created a small scale “hydrogen generator” that uses light and a two-dimensional graphene platform to boost production of the hard-to-make element. The research also unveiled a ... full story

Solar-Cell Efficiency Improved With New Polymer Devices

Sep. 19, 2014 — New light has been shed on solar power generation using devices made with polymers. Researchers identified a new polymer -- a type of large molecule that forms plastics and other familiar materials ... full story

Fingertip Sensor Gives Robot Unprecedented Dexterity

Sep. 19, 2014 — Researchers have equipped a robot with a novel tactile sensor that lets it grasp a USB cable draped freely over a hook and insert it into a USB ... full story

Soft Robotics 'Toolkit' Features Everything a Robot-Maker Needs

Sep. 19, 2014 — A new resource provides both experienced and aspiring researchers with the intellectual raw materials needed to design, build, and operate robots made from soft, flexible materials. With the advent ... full story

Reflected Smartphone Transmissions Enable Gesture Control

Sep. 19, 2014 — Engineers have developed a new form of low-power wireless sensing technology that lets users "train" their smartphones to recognize and respond to specific hand gestures near the ... full story

Superabsorbing Ring Could Make Light Work of Snaps, Be Ultimate Camera Pixel

Sep. 19, 2014 — A quantum effect in which excited atoms team up to emit an enhanced pulse of light can be turned on its head to create 'superabsorbing' systems that could make the 'ultimate camera ... full story

Shrink-Wrapping Spacesuits: Spacesuits of the Future May Resemble a Streamlined Second Skin

Sep. 19, 2014 — For future astronauts, the process of suiting up may go something like this: Instead of climbing into a conventional, bulky, gas-pressurized suit, an astronaut may don a lightweight, stretchy ... full story

Finding Hints of Gravitational Waves in the Stars

Sep. 22, 2014 — Scientists have shown how gravitational waves -- invisible ripples in the fabric of space and time that propagate through the universe -- might be 'seen' by looking at the stars. The new model ... full story

SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft Lifts Off With Scientific Cargo for International Space Station

Sep. 21, 2014 — An eruption of fire and smoke sent a SpaceX Dragon spacecraft skyward laden with 5,000 pounds of scientific equipment and supplies destined for use by the crew of the International Space ... full story

An Anomaly in Satellites' Flybys Confounds Scientists

Sep. 19, 2014 — When space probes, such as Rosetta and Cassini, fly over certain planets and moons, in order to gain momentum and travel long distances, their speed changes slightly for an unknown reason. A ... full story

Latest Measurements from the AMS Experiment Unveil New Territories in the Flux of Cosmic Rays

Sep. 19, 2014 — The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer collaboration has just presented its latest results. These are based on the analysis of 41 billion particles detected with the space-based AMS detector aboard the ... full story

Miranda: An Icy Moon Deformed by Tidal Heating

Sep. 18, 2014 — Miranda, a small, icy moon of Uranus, is one of the most visually striking and enigmatic bodies in the solar system. Despite its relatively small size, Miranda appears to have experienced an episode ... full story

Pulse of a Dead Star Powers Intense Gamma Rays

Sep. 18, 2014 — NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, is helping to untangle the mystery of what powers high-energy gamma rays emanating from supernova. The observatory's high-energy X-ray eyes ... full story

Comet Landing Mission: 'J' Marks the Spot for Rosetta's Lander

Sep. 18, 2014 — The European Space Agency's Rosetta's lander, Philae, will target Site J, an intriguing region on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that offers unique scientific potential, with hints of activity ... full story

NASA Releases IRIS Footage of X-Class Flare

Sep. 17, 2014 — On Sept. 10, 2014, NASA's newest solar observatory, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS, joined other telescopes to witness an X-class flare -- an example of one of the strongest solar ... full story

Smallest Known Galaxy With a Supermassive Black Hole

Sep. 17, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that an ultracompact dwarf galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole – the smallest galaxy known to contain such a massive light-sucking object. The finding suggests huge ... full story

NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station

Sep. 17, 2014 — U.S. astronauts once again will travel to and from the International Space Station from the United States on American spacecraft under groundbreaking contracts NASA announced Tuesday. The agency ... full story

Toward Optical Chips: Promising Light Source for Optoelectronic Chips Can Be Tuned to Different Frequencies

Sep. 19, 2014 — Chips that use light, rather than electricity, to move data would consume much less power -- and energy efficiency is a growing concern as chips' transistor counts rise. Scientists have developed a ... full story

World Population to Keep Growing This Century, Hit 11 Billion by 2100

Sep. 18, 2014 — The chance that world population in 2100 will be between 9.6 billion and 12.3 billion people is 80 percent, according to the first such United Nations forecast to incorporate modern statistical ... full story

New Insights Into the World of Quantum Materials

Sep. 18, 2014 — A team of physicists has experimentally observed how the anisotropic properties of particles deform the Fermi surface in a quantum gas. The work provides the basis for future studies on how the ... full story

Toward Quantum Computing, Spintronic Memory, Better Displays: Nuclear Spins Control Current in Plastic LED

Sep. 18, 2014 — Physicists read “spins” in hydrogen nuclei and used the data to control current in a cheap, plastic LED – at room temperature and without strong magnetic fields. The study brings physics a step ... full story

Germanium Tin Could Mean Better and Cheaper Infrared Cameras in Smartphones, and Faster Computer Chips

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have fabricated a new semiconductor material that can be used to build better and less expensive infrared cameras for smartphone and ... full story

'Honeybee' Robots Replicate Swarm Behavior

Sep. 18, 2014 — Computer scientists have created a low-cost, autonomous micro-robot which in large numbers can replicate the behavior of swarming ... full story

Oxides Could Advance Memory Devices

Sep. 17, 2014 — The quest for the ultimate memory device for computing may have just taken an encouraging step forward. Researchers have discovered new complex oxides that exhibit both magnetic and ferroelectric ... full story

Math Model Designed to Replace Invasive Kidney Biopsy for Lupus Patients

Sep. 17, 2014 — Mathematics might be able to reduce the need for invasive biopsies in patients suffering kidney damage related to the autoimmune disease lupus. The model could also be used to monitor the ... full story

Physicists Heat Freestanding Graphene to Control Curvature of Ripples

Sep. 17, 2014 — Physicists have discovered that heating can be used to control the curvature of ripples in freestanding graphene. The finding provides fundamental insight into understanding the influence temperature ... full story

'Smart Material' Chin Strap Harvests Energy from Chewing

Sep. 17, 2014 — A chin strap that can harvest energy from jaw movements has been created by a group of researchers in Canada. It is hoped that the device can generate electricity from eating, chewing and talking, ... full story

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Genetically Driven 'Gut Feelings' Help Female Flies Choose a Mate

Sep. 19, 2014 — Even among flies, mating is a complicated ritual. Their elaborate, and entirely innate, courtship dance combines multiple motor skills with advanced sensory cues. Now, researchers have determined ... full story

Environmental Pollutants Make Worms Susceptible to Cold

Sep. 19, 2014 — Some pollutants are more harmful in a cold climate than in a hot, because they affect the temperature sensitivity of certain organisms. Now researchers have demonstrated how this happens, and it can ... full story

Seeding Plant Diversity for Future Generations

Sep. 19, 2014 — Researchers have constructed a 'hit list' of the plant species most needed to boost the overall diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank, which is storing seeds in its vaults for future ... full story

For Legume Plants, a New Route from Shoot to Root

Sep. 19, 2014 — Legume plants regulate their symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria by using cytokinins—signaling molecules that are transmitted through the plant structure from leaves into the roots to control ... full story

New Biomedical Implants Heal Bones Faster, Focus on Personalized Medicine

Sep. 18, 2014 — A major success in developing new biomedical implants with the ability to accelerate bone healing has been reported by a group of scientists, which suggests a move toward a future of personalized ... full story

Unique Waste Cleanup for Rural Areas Developed

Sep. 18, 2014 — A unique method has been developed to use microbes buried in pond sediment to power waste cleanup in rural areas. The first microbe-powered, self-sustaining wastewater treatment system could lead to ... full story

Quorum-Sensing Signals Control When Bacteria Turn Deadly

Sep. 18, 2014 — No matter how many times it’s demonstrated, it’s still hard to envision bacteria as social, communicating creatures. But by using a signaling system called “quorum sensing,” these ... full story

Research Milestone in CCHF Virus Could Help Identify New Treatments

Sep. 18, 2014 — New research into the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus which causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans similar to that caused by Ebolavirus, has identified new ... full story

Curcumin, Special Peptides Boost Cancer-Blocking PIAS3 to Neutralize Cancer-Activating STAT3 in Mesothelioma

Sep. 18, 2014 — A common Asian spice and cancer-hampering molecules show promise in slowing mesothelioma, cancer of the lung lining linked to asbestos. Scientists demonstrate curcumin and cancer-inhibiting peptides ... full story

New Insights on an Ancient Plague Could Improve Treatments for Infections

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dangerous new pathogens such as the Ebola virus invoke scary scenarios of deadly epidemics, but even ancient scourges such as the bubonic plague are still providing researchers with new insights on ... full story

Global Warming: Dwindling Chances to Stay Below 2 Degrees Celsius Warming

Sep. 21, 2014 — Carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, eroding the chances to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, and placing increased pressure on world leaders ... full story

NASA Launches RapidScat Wind Watcher to Space Station

Sep. 20, 2014 — A new NASA mission that will boost global monitoring of ocean winds for improved weather forecasting and climate studies is among about 5,000 pounds (2,270 kilograms) of NASA science investigations ... full story

Climate Change Report Identifies 'the Most Vulnerable' Sections of the Population

Sep. 19, 2014 — A report has looked at which sections of the population are left most exposed to food shortages after extreme weather events. Extreme weather events leave populations with not enough food both in the ... full story

Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments

Sep. 18, 2014 — Microplastics have been discovered widely distributed across the bottom of the St. Lawrence River, the first time such pollutants have been found in freshwater sediments. The microbeads likely ... full story

Small, Fast, and Crowded: Mammal Traits Amplify Tick-Borne Illness

Sep. 18, 2014 — In the U.S., some 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease annually. Thousands also suffer from babesiosis and anaplasmosis, tick-borne ailments that can occur alone or as co-infections with ... full story

A More Efficient, Lightweight and Low-Cost Organic Solar Cell: Researchers Broke the 'Electrode Barrier'

Sep. 18, 2014 — For decades, polymer scientists and synthetic chemists working to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells were hampered by the inherent drawbacks of commonly used metal ... full story

Changes in Coastal Upwelling Linked to Temporary Declines in Marine Ecosystem

Sep. 18, 2014 — In findings of relevance to both conservationists and the fishing industry, new research links short-term reductions in growth and reproduction of marine animals off the California Coast to ... full story

Fall Foliage Season May Be Later, but Longer on Warmer Earth

Sep. 18, 2014 — The fall foliage season in some areas of the United States could come much later and possibly last a little longer by the end of the century as climate change causes summer temperatures to linger ... full story

August and June-August Global Temperatures Each Reach Record High, Driven Largely by Record Warm Global Oceans

Sep. 18, 2014 — According to NOAA scientists, the globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for August 2014 was the highest for August since record keeping began in 1880. It also marked the 38th ... full story

Mysterious Volcanic Eruption of 1808 Described

Sep. 18, 2014 — New light has been shed on one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in the last 500 years -- the so-called 'Unknown eruption' -- thanks to an unusual collaboration between a historian and a team of ... full story

New High-Resolution Satellite Image Analysis: 5 of 6 Syrian World Heritage Sites 'Exhibit Significant Damage'

Sep. 18, 2014 — In war-torn Syria, five of six World Heritage sites now 'exhibit significant damage' and some structures have been 'reduced to rubble,' according to new high-resolution satellite image analysis by ... full story

'Lost Chapel' Skeletons Found Holding Hands After 700 Years

Sep. 18, 2014 — Archaeologists have uncovered a trove of relics and remains at Chapel of St Morrell in Leicestershire. Some relationships last a lifetime -- and archaeologists have discovered that they can last even ... full story

New Branch Added to European Family Tree: Europeans Descended from at Least 3, Not 2, Groups of Ancient Humans

Sep. 17, 2014 — Previous work suggested that Europeans descended from two ancestral groups: indigenous hunter-gatherers and early European farmers. This new study shows that there was also a third ancestral group, ... full story

Counting Fish Teeth Reveals Regulatory DNA Changes Behind Rapid Evolution, Adaptation

Sep. 17, 2014 — Threespine sticklebacks, small fish found around the globe, undergo rapid evolutionary change when they move from the ocean to freshwater lakes, losing their armor and gaining more teeth in as little ... full story

Iberian Pig Genome Remains Unchanged After Five Centuries

Sep. 17, 2014 — A team of Spanish researchers have obtained the first partial genome sequence of an ancient pig. Extracted from a sixteenth century pig found at the site of the Montsoriu Castle in Girona, the data ... full story

Modern Forensic Techniques Identify Most Likely Cause of King Richard III’s Death

Sep. 17, 2014 — The remains of King Richard III -- the last English monarch to die in battle -- were found under a car park in Leicester by archaeologists. The forensic imaging team used whole body CT scans and ... full story

Impact That Doomed the Dinosaurs Helped the Forests Bloom

Sep. 16, 2014 — Some 66 million years ago, a 10-km diameter chunk of rock hit the Yucatan peninsula with the force of 100 teratons of TNT. It left a crater more than 150 km across, and the resulting megatsunami, ... full story

Study on Global Carbon Cycle May Require Reappraisal of Climate Events in Earth's History

Sep. 16, 2014 — A recent study of the global carbon cycle offers a new perspective of Earth's climate records through time. Scientists suggest that one of the current methods for interpreting ancient changes in the ... full story

Forgotten Ghost Ships Off Golden Gate Revealed

Sep. 16, 2014 — Researchers confirmed the discovery just outside San Francisco's Golden Gate strait of the 1910 shipwreck SS Selja and an unidentified early steam tugboat wreck tagged the 'mystery wreck.' The ... full story

Human Faces Are So Variable Because We Evolved to Look Unique

Sep. 16, 2014 — Why are human faces so variable compared to other animals, from lizards and penguins to dogs and monkeys? Scientists analyzed human faces and the genes that code for facial features and found a high ... full story

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Premature Deaths Could Be Reduced by 40% Over Next 20 Years, Researchers Say

Sep. 19, 2014 — With sustained international efforts, the number of premature deaths could be reduced by 40% over the next two decades (2010-2030), researchers say, halving under–50 mortality and preventing a ... full story

Human Sense of Fairness Evolved to Favor Long-Term Cooperation, Primate Study Suggests

Sep. 18, 2014 — The human response to unfairness evolved in order to support long-term cooperation, according to a new research. Fairness is a social ideal that cannot be measured, so to understand the evolution of ... full story

Nile River Monitoring Influences Northeast Africa's Future

Sep. 18, 2014 — Research that monitors the volume of water in the Nile River Basin will help to level the playing field for more than 200 million northeast Africans who rely on the river's water supply. "Water ... full story

Reduce Traffic Congestion: Wirelessly Route Drivers Around Congested Roadways

Sep. 17, 2014 — At the Intelligent Transportation Systems World Congress last week, MIT researchers received one of the best-paper awards for a new system, dubbed RoadRunner, that uses GPS-style turn-by-turn ... full story

Global Shift Away from Cars Would Save US$100 Trillion, Eliminate 1,700 Megatons of Carbon Dioxide Pollution

Sep. 17, 2014 — More than $100 trillion in cumulative public and private spending, and 1,700 megatons of annual carbon dioxide -- a 40 percent reduction of urban passenger transport emissions -- could be eliminated ... full story

Waistlines of U.S. Adults Continue to Increase

Sep. 16, 2014 — The prevalence of abdominal obesity and average waist circumference increased among U.S. adults from 1999 to 2012, according to a study. Waist circumference is a simple measure of total and ... full story

Evidence of Genetic Link to PTSD in Soldiers Exposed to Childhood Trauma

Sep. 16, 2014 — While abnormalities in the adrenergic and noradrenergic systems, both integral in the fight-or-flight response, are thought to play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, until ... full story

Ebola Outbreak 'out of All Proportion' and Severity Cannot Be Predicted, Expert Says

Sep. 16, 2014 — A mathematical model that replicates Ebola outbreaks can no longer be used to ascertain the eventual scale of the current epidemic, finds new ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Dental, Nutrition Experts Call for Radical Rethink on Free Sugars Intake

Sep. 15, 2014 — Sugars in the diet should make up no more than 3 percent of total energy intake to reduce the significant financial and social burdens of tooth decay, finds new research. Free sugars are defined by ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Working During Depression Can Offer Health Benefits to Employees

Sep. 10, 2014 — Attending work while suffering a depressive illness could help employees better manage their depression more than taking a sickness absence from work, a new study has found. The study is the first ... full story

There Could Be Increased Numbers of Psychopaths in Senior Managerial Positions, High Levels of Business, Research Shows

Sep. 8, 2014 — For the first time, it has been demonstrated that people with psychopathic tendencies who have high IQs can mask their symptoms by manipulating tests designed to reveal their personalities. It raises ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 — Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Brain Scans Used to Forecast Early Reading Difficulties

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience ... full story

3-D Printing of Rocks and Fossils

Sep. 15, 2014 — Geologists are using 3-D printing to study the pores within limestone reservoir rocks. A better understanding of the pore networks within the rocks could help industry get at more ... full story

Brain Differences: Sometimes, Adolescents Just Can't Resist

Sep. 11, 2014 — A new study finds teenagers are far more sensitive than adults to the immediate effect or reward of their behaviors. Even when a behavior is no longer in a teenager’s best interest to continue, ... full story

High Levels of Physical Activity Linked to Better Academic Performance in Boys

Sep. 11, 2014 — Higher levels of physical activity are related to better academic achievement during the first three school years, particularly in boys, research shows. For instance, boys with higher levels of ... full story

Binge Drinking in Pregnancy Can Affect Child's Mental Health, School Results

Sep. 10, 2014 — Binge drinking during pregnancy can increase the risk of mental health problems (particularly hyperactivity and inattention) in children aged 11 and can have a negative effect on their school ... full story

Cellphone Addiction Harming Academic Performance Is 'an Increasingly Realistic Possibility'

Aug. 28, 2014 — Women college students spend an average of 10 hours a day on their cellphones, with men college students spending nearly eight hours, according to a study on cellphone activity. "As cellphone ... full story

Readers With Dyslexia Have Disrupted Network Connections in the Brain, Map the Circuitry of Dyslexia Shows

Aug. 28, 2014 — Dyslexia, the most commonly diagnosed learning disability in the United States, is a neurological reading disability that occurs when the regions of the brain that process written language don't ... full story

Social Class Makes a Difference in How Children Tackle Classroom Problems

Aug. 27, 2014 — Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 — The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

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