Today's Science News

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Infant Solar System Shows Signs of Windy Weather

Sep. 22, 2014 — Astronomers have observed what may be the first-ever signs of windy weather around a T Tauri star, an infant analog of our own Sun. This may help explain why some T Tauri stars have disks that glow ... full story

Immune System of Newborn Babies Stronger Than Previously Thought

Sep. 21, 2014 — Contrary to what was previously thought, newborn immune T cells may have the ability to trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria, according to a new study. Although their immune system works very ... full story

Physicists Teleport Quantum State of Photon to Crystal Over 25 Kilometers

Sep. 21, 2014 — Physicists have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers of optical fiber. The experiment constitutes a first, and simply pulverizes the previous record ... full story

Hadrosaur With Huge Nose Discovered: Function of Dinosaur's Unusual Trait a Mystery

Sep. 19, 2014 — Call it the Jimmy Durante of dinosaurs -- a newly discovered hadrosaur with a truly distinctive nasal profile. The new dinosaur, named Rhinorex condrupus by paleontologists, lived in what is now Utah ... full story

No Sedative Necessary: Scientists Discover New 'Sleep Node' in the Brain

Sep. 18, 2014 — A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. This is only the second 'sleep node' identified in the mammalian brain whose ... full story

Directed Evolution: Bioengineered Decoy Protein May Stop Cancer from Spreading

Sep. 21, 2014 — A decoy protein has been designed by researcher to interrupt the signaling pathway that triggers the breakaway of cancerous cells; in other words the signal that initiates metastasis. Preliminary ... full story

Mown Grass Smell Sends SOS for Help in Resisting Insect Attacks

Sep. 22, 2014 — The smell of cut grass in recent years has been identified as the plant’s way of signalling distress, but new research says the aroma also summons beneficial insects to the rescue. Such findings ... full story

Dry Roasting Could Help Trigger Peanut Allergy

Sep. 21, 2014 — Dry roasted peanuts are more likely to trigger an allergy to peanuts than raw peanuts, suggests a study involving mice. The researchers say that specific chemical changes caused by the high ... full story

On/off Switch for Aging Cells Discovered by Scientists

Sep. 20, 2014 — An on-and-off “switch” has been discovered in cells that may hold the key to healthy aging. This switch points to a way to encourage healthy cells to keep dividing and generating, for example, ... full story

Smallest Possible Diamonds Form Ultra-Thin Nanothreads

Sep. 21, 2014 — For the first time, scientists have discovered how to produce ultra-thin 'diamond nanothreads' that promise extraordinary properties, including strength and stiffness greater than that of ... full story

Engineered Proteins Stick Like Glue -- Even in Water

Sep. 21, 2014 — Researchers have found new adhesives based on mussel proteins could be useful for naval or medical applications. To create their new waterproof adhesives, researchers engineered bacteria to produce a ... full story

Uncovering the Forbidden Side of Molecules: Infrared Spectrum of Charged Molecule Seen for First Time

Sep. 21, 2014 — Researchers have succeeded in observing the “forbidden” infrared spectrum of a charged molecule for the first time. These extremely weak spectra offer perspectives for extremely precise ... full story

A Breakthrough in Electron Microscopy: Scientists Reconstruct Third Dimension from a Single Image

Sep. 21, 2014 — Imagine that you want to find out from a single picture taken of the front of a house, what the building looks like from behind, whether it has any extensions or if the brickwork is damaged, and how ... full story

Climate Change: Dwindling Wind May Tip Predator-Prey Balance

Sep. 19, 2014 — Rising temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns may get the lion’s share of our climate change attention, but predators may want to give some thought to wind, according to a zoologist’s ... full story

NASA's Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit Around Red Planet

Sep. 22, 2014 — NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft successfully entered Mars' orbit at 7:24 p.m. PDT (10:24 p.m. EDT) Sunday, Sept. 21, where it now will prepare to study the ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

NASA's MAVEN Spacecraft Has Finally Reached Mars

NASA's MAVEN Spacecraft Has Finally Reached Mars

Newsy (Sep. 22, 2014) — After a 10-month voyage through space, NASA's MAVEN spacecraft is now orbiting the Red Planet. Video provided by Newsy
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What This MIT Sensor Could Mean For The Future Of Robotics

What This MIT Sensor Could Mean For The Future Of Robotics

Newsy (Sep. 20, 2014) — MIT researchers developed a light-based sensor that gives robots 100 times the sensitivity of a human finger, allowing for "unprecedented dexterity." Video provided by Newsy
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MIT BioSuit A New Take On Traditional Spacesuits

MIT BioSuit A New Take On Traditional Spacesuits

Newsy (Sep. 19, 2014) — The MIT BioSuit could be an alternative to big, bulky traditional spacesuits, but the concept needs some work. Video provided by Newsy
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Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

AFP (Sep. 17, 2014) — NASA selected Boeing and SpaceX on Tuesday to build America's next spacecraft to carry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) by 2017, opening the way to a new chapter in human spaceflight. Duration: 01:13 Video provided by AFP
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last updated on 2014-09-23 at 8:23 am EDT

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Reversing the Effects of Pulmonary Fibrosis With a microRNA Mimic

Sep. 22, 2014 — A potential new treatment that reverses the effects of pulmonary fibrosis, a respiratory disease in which scars develop in the lungs and severely hamper breathing, is being studied by scientists. The ... full story

Best Exercise for Obese Youths Analyzed

Sep. 22, 2014 — What exercise program can best fight the 'epidemic' of teen obesity? According to a study, by combining aerobic exercise with resistance training. "Obesity is an epidemic among youth," says one ... full story

Maternal Breast Milk Is Risk Factor for Cytomegalovirus Transmission in Premature Infants

Sep. 22, 2014 — Premature infants, especially those born with very low-birth-weight, are particularly vulnerable to cytomegalovirus infection because of their immature immune systems. Maternal breast milk is a ... full story

Statin Use During Hospitalization for Hemorrhagic Stroke Associated With Improved Survival

Sep. 22, 2014 — Patients who were treated with a statin in the hospital after suffering from a hemorrhagic stroke were significantly more likely to survive than those who were not, according to a study. This study ... full story

Old Drug May Be Key to New Antibiotics

Sep. 22, 2014 — An anticonvulsant drug called lamotrigine is the first chemical inhibitor of the assembly of ribosomes in bacteria. he discovery is important as there is growing concern worldwide about how ... full story

Actions on Climate Change Bring Better Health, Study Says

Sep. 22, 2014 — The number of extremely hot days in Eastern and Midwestern U.S. cities is projected to triple by mid-century, according to a new study. In presenting their synthesis, the study authors seek to ... full story

Artificial Liver Tested as Potential Therapy for Patients With Alcohol-Related Organ Failure

Sep. 22, 2014 — A novel, human cell based, bioartificial liver support system is being tested for patients with acute liver failure, often a fatal diagnosis. The external organ support system is designed to perform ... full story

Gene Expression Patterns in Pancreatic Circulating Tumor Cells Revealed

Sep. 22, 2014 — Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer identified distinct patterns of gene expression in several groups of CTCs, including significant differences from the ... full story

Platelets Modulate Clotting Behavior by 'Feeling' Their Surroundings

Sep. 22, 2014 — Platelets respond to surfaces with greater stiffness by increasing their stickiness, the degree to which they "turn on" other platelets and other components of the clotting system, researchers have ... full story

Immune Response Turned Up, Not Down, by Flu During Pregnancy, Study Finds

Sep. 22, 2014 — Pregnant women have an unusually strong immune response to influenza, an unexpected finding that may explain why they get sicker from the flu than other healthy adults, new research has found. The ... full story

Firelight Talk of the Kalahari Bushmen

Sep. 22, 2014 — A study of Africa’s Kalahari Bushmen suggests that stories told over firelight helped human culture and thought evolve by reinforcing social traditions, promoting harmony and equality, and sparking ... full story

Compound from Hops Aids Cognitive Function in Young Animals

Sep. 22, 2014 — Xanthohumol, a type of flavonoid found in hops and beer, has been shown in a new study to improve cognitive function in young mice, but not in older animals. The findings are another step toward ... full story

Hold On, Tiger Mom: Punitive Parenting May Lead to Mental Health Risks

Sep. 22, 2014 — Less supportive and punitive parenting techniques used by some Chinese parents might lead to the development of low self-esteem and school adjustment difficulties in their children and leave them ... full story

Brainwave Test Could Improve Autism Diagnosis, Classification

Sep. 22, 2014 — Measuring how fast the brain responds to sights and sounds could help in objectively classifying people on the autism spectrum and may help diagnose the condition earlier, research suggests. ... full story

Blood Test May Help Determine Who Is at Risk for Psychosis

Sep. 22, 2014 — A blood test, when used in psychiatric patients experiencing symptoms that are considered to be indicators of a high risk for psychosis, identifies those who later went on to develop psychosis, ... full story

Lack of Thyroid Hormone Blocks Hearing Development

Sep. 22, 2014 — Fatigue, weight gain, chills, hair loss, anxiety, excessive perspiration -- these symptoms are a few of the signs that the thyroid gland has gone haywire. Harnessing electron microscopy to track the ... full story

Food Memory: Discovery Shows How We Remember Taste Experiences

Sep. 22, 2014 — A functional link between the brain region responsible for taste memory and the area responsible for encoding the time and place we experienced the taste had been found. The findings expose the ... full story

Evidence Supports Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Sep. 22, 2014 — Available research evidence supports the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who don't respond to other treatments, concludes a review. Despite ... full story

Brief Intervention May Prevent Increased Risk of Depression in Teens

Sep. 22, 2014 — A low-cost, one-time intervention that educates teens about the changeable nature of personality traits may prevent an increase in depressive symptoms often seen during the transition to high school, ... full story

E-Cigarettes Unhelpful in Smoking Cessation Among Cancer Patients, Study Shows

Sep. 22, 2014 — In a new study of cancer patients who smoke, those using e-cigarettes, in addition to traditional cigarettes, were more nicotine dependent and equally or less likely to have quit smoking traditional ... full story

Don’t Drink the (Warm) Water, Study Says

Sep. 22, 2014 — There's an old saying: "Don't drink the water." But a scientist warns Americans not to drink water from plastic bottles if it's been sitting in a warm environment for a long time. A research team ... full story

Mothers of Children With Autism Less Likely to Have Taken Iron Supplements in Pregnancy, Study Shows

Sep. 22, 2014 — Mothers of children with autism are significantly less likely to report taking iron supplements before and during their pregnancies than the mothers of children who are developing normally, a study ... full story

Sibling Bullying Linked to Later Depression, Self-Harm

Sep. 19, 2014 — A new study has found that children who revealed they had been bullied by their brothers or sisters several times a week or more during early adolescence were twice as likely to report being ... full story

Vitamin E, Selenium Supplements Unlikely to Affect Age-Related Cataracts in Men

Sep. 18, 2014 — Taking daily supplements of selenium or vitamin E appears to have no significant effect on the development of age-related cataracts in men. Some research, including animal studies, has suggested that ... full story

Pupil Size Shows Reliability of Decisions, Before Information on Decision Is Presented

Sep. 18, 2014 — The precision with which people make decisions can be predicted by measuring pupil size before they are presented with any information about the decision, according to a new ... full story

Flu Vaccine for Expectant Moms a Top Priority, Experts Say

Sep. 18, 2014 — All pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant should receive a flu shot because the normal changes to a pregnant woman's immune system, heart and lungs put moms-to-be at increased risk of ... full story

Dogs Can Be Pessimists, Too

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dogs generally seem to be cheerful, happy-go-lucky characters, so you might expect that most would have an optimistic outlook on life. In fact some dogs are distinctly more pessimistic than others, ... full story

Kids Eat Better If Their Parents Went to College

Sep. 18, 2014 — Children of college-educated parents eat more vegetables and drink less sugar, according to a new study. But it's still not enough, the study goes on to say, as all kids are falling short when it ... full story

Men Enjoy Competition, but So Do Women, Researchers Find

Sep. 18, 2014 — Common stereotypes would have us believe that men are more competitive and women more cooperative. Researchers studied the physiological responses to competitive and cooperative play, investigating ... full story

Fighting Parents Hurt Children's Ability to Recognize and Regulate Emotions

Sep. 17, 2014 — Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study. Exposure to conflict and violence in the ... full story

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Lego-Like Modular Components Make Building 3-D 'Labs-on-a-Chip' a Snap

Sep. 22, 2014 — Thanks to new Lego-like components, it is now possible to build a 3-D microfluidic system (or 'lab-on-a-chip') quickly and cheaply by simply snapping together small modules by ... full story

Plant Variants Point the Way to Improved Biofuel Production

Sep. 22, 2014 — Scientists have discovered variant plants with straw that are more easily digested for biofuel production. Critically, the plants are not significantly smaller or weaker than normal plants. The ... full story

Fine Line Between Breast Cancer, Normal Tissues

Sep. 22, 2014 — A tool has been successfully tested that will help surgeons better distinguish cancerous breast tissue from normal tissue, thereby decreasing the chances for repeat operations. The tool, known as ... full story

Engineers Unlock Potential for Faster Computing

Sep. 22, 2014 — Engineers discovered a way to create a special material -- a metal layer on top of a silicon semiconductor -- that could lead to cost-effective, superfast computers that perform lightning-fast ... full story

New Chip Promising for Tumor-Targeting Research

Sep. 22, 2014 — Researchers have developed a chip capable of simulating a tumor's 'microenvironment' and plan to use the new system to test the effectiveness of nanoparticles and drugs that target cancer. The new ... full story

Engineers Show Light Can Play Seesaw at the Nanoscale: Step Toward Faster and More Energy-Efficient Optical Devices

Sep. 22, 2014 — Electrical engineering researchers have developed a unique nanoscale device that for the first time demonstrates mechanical transportation of light. The discovery could have major implications for ... full story

Graphene Imperfections Key to Creating Hypersensitive 'Electronic Nose'

Sep. 22, 2014 — Researchers have discovered a way to create a highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the crystalline flaws in graphene sheets. The imperfections have unique electronic properties that the ... full story

New Bracelet Strengthens Computer Security

Sep. 22, 2014 — In a big step for securing critical information systems, such as medical records in clinical settings, researchers have created a new approach to computer security that authenticates users ... full story

New RFID Technology Helps Robots Find Household Objects

Sep. 22, 2014 — Researchers have created a new search algorithm that improves a robot's ability to find and navigate to tagged objects. The team has implemented their system on a PR2 robot, allowing it to travel ... full story

Magnetic Fields Make the Excitons Go 'Round: New Way to Improve Efficiency of Solar Cells

Sep. 21, 2014 — A major limitation in the performance of solar cells happens within the photovoltaic material itself: When photons strike the molecules of a solar cell, they transfer their energy, producing ... full story

Finding Hints of Gravitational Waves in the Stars

Sep. 22, 2014 — Scientists have shown how gravitational waves -- invisible ripples in the fabric of space and time that propagate through the universe -- might be 'seen' by looking at the stars. The new model ... full story

SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft Lifts Off With Scientific Cargo for International Space Station

Sep. 21, 2014 — An eruption of fire and smoke sent a SpaceX Dragon spacecraft skyward laden with 5,000 pounds of scientific equipment and supplies destined for use by the crew of the International Space ... full story

An Anomaly in Satellites' Flybys Confounds Scientists

Sep. 19, 2014 — When space probes, such as Rosetta and Cassini, fly over certain planets and moons, in order to gain momentum and travel long distances, their speed changes slightly for an unknown reason. A ... full story

Shrink-Wrapping Spacesuits: Spacesuits of the Future May Resemble a Streamlined Second Skin

Sep. 19, 2014 — For future astronauts, the process of suiting up may go something like this: Instead of climbing into a conventional, bulky, gas-pressurized suit, an astronaut may don a lightweight, stretchy ... full story

Latest Measurements from the AMS Experiment Unveil New Territories in the Flux of Cosmic Rays

Sep. 19, 2014 — The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer collaboration has just presented its latest results. These are based on the analysis of 41 billion particles detected with the space-based AMS detector aboard the ... full story

Monster Galaxies Gain Weight by Eating Smaller Neighbors

Sep. 19, 2014 — Massive galaxies in the universe have stopped making their own stars and are instead snacking on nearby galaxies. Astronomers looked at more than 22,000 galaxies and found that while smaller galaxies ... full story

Miranda: An Icy Moon Deformed by Tidal Heating

Sep. 18, 2014 — Miranda, a small, icy moon of Uranus, is one of the most visually striking and enigmatic bodies in the solar system. Despite its relatively small size, Miranda appears to have experienced an episode ... full story

Pulse of a Dead Star Powers Intense Gamma Rays

Sep. 18, 2014 — NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, is helping to untangle the mystery of what powers high-energy gamma rays emanating from supernova. The observatory's high-energy X-ray eyes ... full story

Comet Landing Mission: 'J' Marks the Spot for Rosetta's Lander

Sep. 18, 2014 — The European Space Agency's Rosetta's lander, Philae, will target Site J, an intriguing region on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that offers unique scientific potential, with hints of activity ... full story

NASA Releases IRIS Footage of X-Class Flare

Sep. 17, 2014 — On Sept. 10, 2014, NASA's newest solar observatory, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS, joined other telescopes to witness an X-class flare -- an example of one of the strongest solar ... full story

Fingertip Sensor Gives Robot Unprecedented Dexterity

Sep. 19, 2014 — Researchers have equipped a robot with a novel tactile sensor that lets it grasp a USB cable draped freely over a hook and insert it into a USB ... full story

Soft Robotics 'Toolkit' Features Everything a Robot-Maker Needs

Sep. 19, 2014 — A new resource provides both experienced and aspiring researchers with the intellectual raw materials needed to design, build, and operate robots made from soft, flexible materials. With the advent ... full story

Reflected Smartphone Transmissions Enable Gesture Control

Sep. 19, 2014 — Engineers have developed a new form of low-power wireless sensing technology that lets users "train" their smartphones to recognize and respond to specific hand gestures near the ... full story

Computers 1,000 Times Faster? Quick-Change Materials Break Silicon Speed Limit for Computers

Sep. 19, 2014 — Faster, smaller, greener computers, capable of processing information up to 1,000 times faster than currently available models, could be made possible by replacing silicon with materials that can ... full story

Toward Optical Chips: Promising Light Source for Optoelectronic Chips Can Be Tuned to Different Frequencies

Sep. 19, 2014 — Chips that use light, rather than electricity, to move data would consume much less power -- and energy efficiency is a growing concern as chips' transistor counts rise. Scientists have developed a ... full story

World Population to Keep Growing This Century, Hit 11 Billion by 2100

Sep. 18, 2014 — The chance that world population in 2100 will be between 9.6 billion and 12.3 billion people is 80 percent, according to the first such United Nations forecast to incorporate modern statistical ... full story

New Insights Into the World of Quantum Materials

Sep. 18, 2014 — A team of physicists has experimentally observed how the anisotropic properties of particles deform the Fermi surface in a quantum gas. The work provides the basis for future studies on how the ... full story

Toward Quantum Computing, Spintronic Memory, Better Displays: Nuclear Spins Control Current in Plastic LED

Sep. 18, 2014 — Physicists read “spins” in hydrogen nuclei and used the data to control current in a cheap, plastic LED – at room temperature and without strong magnetic fields. The study brings physics a step ... full story

Germanium Tin Could Mean Better and Cheaper Infrared Cameras in Smartphones, and Faster Computer Chips

Sep. 18, 2014 — Researchers have fabricated a new semiconductor material that can be used to build better and less expensive infrared cameras for smartphone and ... full story

'Honeybee' Robots Replicate Swarm Behavior

Sep. 18, 2014 — Computer scientists have created a low-cost, autonomous micro-robot which in large numbers can replicate the behavior of swarming ... full story

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Answer to Restoring Lost Island Biodiversity Found in Fossils

Sep. 22, 2014 — Many native species have vanished from tropical islands because of human impact, but scientists have discovered how fossils can be used to restore lost biodiversity. The key lies in organic materials ... full story

Genetic Switch Regulates a Plant's Internal Clock Based on Temperature

Sep. 22, 2014 — Scientists have found the molecular cog in a plant's biological clock that modulates its speed based on temperature. "Temperature helps keep the hands of the biological clock in the right place," ... full story

Antifreeze Proteins in Antarctic Fishes Prevent Freezing…and Melting

Sep. 22, 2014 — Antarctic fishes that manufacture their own 'antifreeze' proteins to survive in the icy Southern Ocean also suffer an unfortunate side effect, researchers report: The protein-bound ice crystals that ... full story

How Gene Expression Affects Facial Expressions

Sep. 22, 2014 — A person's face is the first thing that others see, and much remains unknown about how it forms -- or malforms -- during early development. Recently, researchers have begun to unwind these ... full story

Environment Plays Bigger Role Than Genetics in Food Allergic Disease

Sep. 22, 2014 — Environment has a much stronger role than genetics in eosinophilic esophagitis, a severe, often painful food allergy that renders children unable to eat a wide variety of foods, researchers have ... full story

Influenza A Potentiates Pneumococcal Co-Infection: New Details Emerge

Sep. 22, 2014 — Influenza infection can enhance the ability of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause ear and throat infections, according to research. "As with most pneumococcal infections, it should be ... full story

Battling Superbugs: Two New Technologies Could Enable Novel Strategies for Combating Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Sep. 21, 2014 — Two new technologies could enable novel strategies for combating drug-resistant bacteria, scientists report. Most antibiotics work by interfering with crucial functions such as cell division or ... full story

Program Predicts Placement of Chemical Tags That Control Gene Activity

Sep. 21, 2014 — Biochemists have developed a program that predicts the placement of chemical marks that control the activity of genes based on sequences of DNA. By comparing sequences with and without epigenomic ... full story

Possible 6,800 New Ebola Cases This Month, Research Predicts

Sep. 19, 2014 — A possible 6,800 new Ebola cases this are predicted this month, as suggested by researchers who used modelling analysis to come up with their figures. The rate of new cases significantly increased in ... full story

Genetically Driven 'Gut Feelings' Help Female Flies Choose a Mate

Sep. 19, 2014 — Even among flies, mating is a complicated ritual. Their elaborate, and entirely innate, courtship dance combines multiple motor skills with advanced sensory cues. Now, researchers have determined ... full story

Arctic Sea Ice Helps Remove Carbon Dioxide from Atmosphere, Study Shows

Sep. 22, 2014 — Climate change is a fact, and most of the warming is caused by human activity. The Arctic is now so warm that the extent of sea ice has decreased by about 30 percent in summer and in winter, sea ice ... full story

Global Warming: Dwindling Chances to Stay Below 2 Degrees Celsius Warming

Sep. 21, 2014 — Carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, eroding the chances to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, and placing increased pressure on world leaders ... full story

Fracking's Environmental Impacts Scrutinized

Sep. 21, 2014 — Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of shale gas would be comparable to conventional natural gas, but the controversial energy source actually fared better than renewables on some ... full story

NASA Launches RapidScat Wind Watcher to Space Station

Sep. 20, 2014 — A new NASA mission that will boost global monitoring of ocean winds for improved weather forecasting and climate studies is among about 5,000 pounds (2,270 kilograms) of NASA science investigations ... full story

Environmental Pollutants Make Worms Susceptible to Cold

Sep. 19, 2014 — Some pollutants are more harmful in a cold climate than in a hot, because they affect the temperature sensitivity of certain organisms. Now researchers have demonstrated how this happens, and it can ... full story

Seeding Plant Diversity for Future Generations

Sep. 19, 2014 — Researchers have constructed a 'hit list' of the plant species most needed to boost the overall diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank, which is storing seeds in its vaults for future ... full story

Climate Change Report Identifies 'the Most Vulnerable' Sections of the Population

Sep. 19, 2014 — A report has looked at which sections of the population are left most exposed to food shortages after extreme weather events. Extreme weather events leave populations with not enough food both in the ... full story

Unique Waste Cleanup for Rural Areas Developed

Sep. 18, 2014 — A unique method has been developed to use microbes buried in pond sediment to power waste cleanup in rural areas. The first microbe-powered, self-sustaining wastewater treatment system could lead to ... full story

Microplastic Pollution Discovered in St. Lawrence River Sediments

Sep. 18, 2014 — Microplastics have been discovered widely distributed across the bottom of the St. Lawrence River, the first time such pollutants have been found in freshwater sediments. The microbeads likely ... full story

Small, Fast, and Crowded: Mammal Traits Amplify Tick-Borne Illness

Sep. 18, 2014 — In the U.S., some 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease annually. Thousands also suffer from babesiosis and anaplasmosis, tick-borne ailments that can occur alone or as co-infections with ... full story

New Insights on an Ancient Plague Could Improve Treatments for Infections

Sep. 18, 2014 — Dangerous new pathogens such as the Ebola virus invoke scary scenarios of deadly epidemics, but even ancient scourges such as the bubonic plague are still providing researchers with new insights on ... full story

New High-Resolution Satellite Image Analysis: 5 of 6 Syrian World Heritage Sites 'Exhibit Significant Damage'

Sep. 18, 2014 — In war-torn Syria, five of six World Heritage sites now 'exhibit significant damage' and some structures have been 'reduced to rubble,' according to new high-resolution satellite image analysis by ... full story

Mysterious Volcanic Eruption of 1808 Described

Sep. 18, 2014 — New light has been shed on one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in the last 500 years -- the so-called 'Unknown eruption' -- thanks to an unusual collaboration between a historian and a team of ... full story

'Lost Chapel' Skeletons Found Holding Hands After 700 Years

Sep. 18, 2014 — Archaeologists have uncovered a trove of relics and remains at Chapel of St Morrell in Leicestershire. Some relationships last a lifetime -- and archaeologists have discovered that they can last even ... full story

New Branch Added to European Family Tree: Europeans Descended from at Least 3, Not 2, Groups of Ancient Humans

Sep. 17, 2014 — Previous work suggested that Europeans descended from two ancestral groups: indigenous hunter-gatherers and early European farmers. This new study shows that there was also a third ancestral group, ... full story

Counting Fish Teeth Reveals Regulatory DNA Changes Behind Rapid Evolution, Adaptation

Sep. 17, 2014 — Threespine sticklebacks, small fish found around the globe, undergo rapid evolutionary change when they move from the ocean to freshwater lakes, losing their armor and gaining more teeth in as little ... full story

Iberian Pig Genome Remains Unchanged After Five Centuries

Sep. 17, 2014 — A team of Spanish researchers have obtained the first partial genome sequence of an ancient pig. Extracted from a sixteenth century pig found at the site of the Montsoriu Castle in Girona, the data ... full story

Modern Forensic Techniques Identify Most Likely Cause of King Richard III’s Death

Sep. 17, 2014 — The remains of King Richard III -- the last English monarch to die in battle -- were found under a car park in Leicester by archaeologists. The forensic imaging team used whole body CT scans and ... full story

Impact That Doomed the Dinosaurs Helped the Forests Bloom

Sep. 16, 2014 — Some 66 million years ago, a 10-km diameter chunk of rock hit the Yucatan peninsula with the force of 100 teratons of TNT. It left a crater more than 150 km across, and the resulting megatsunami, ... full story

Study on Global Carbon Cycle May Require Reappraisal of Climate Events in Earth's History

Sep. 16, 2014 — A recent study of the global carbon cycle offers a new perspective of Earth's climate records through time. Scientists suggest that one of the current methods for interpreting ancient changes in the ... full story

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One out of Three Severely Injured Patients Undertriaged in the United States

Sep. 22, 2014 — Patients with severe injuries should be treated at level I or level II trauma centers, experts say. Those centers have the resources to provide the best care for those patients. But one out of three ... full story

Obesity in Pacific Islands 'a Colonial Legacy' of Settlers Trying to Civilize the Locals

Sep. 19, 2014 — Scientists have known for some time that Pacific islanders are more prone to obesity than people in other nations. Now a new study has examined why islanders on Nauru and in the Cook Islands in the ... full story

Premature Deaths Could Be Reduced by 40% Over Next 20 Years, Researchers Say

Sep. 19, 2014 — With sustained international efforts, the number of premature deaths could be reduced by 40% over the next two decades (2010-2030), researchers say, halving under–50 mortality and preventing a ... full story

Human Sense of Fairness Evolved to Favor Long-Term Cooperation, Primate Study Suggests

Sep. 18, 2014 — The human response to unfairness evolved in order to support long-term cooperation, according to a new research. Fairness is a social ideal that cannot be measured, so to understand the evolution of ... full story

Nile River Monitoring Influences Northeast Africa's Future

Sep. 18, 2014 — Research that monitors the volume of water in the Nile River Basin will help to level the playing field for more than 200 million northeast Africans who rely on the river's water supply. "Water ... full story

Reduce Traffic Congestion: Wirelessly Route Drivers Around Congested Roadways

Sep. 17, 2014 — At the Intelligent Transportation Systems World Congress last week, MIT researchers received one of the best-paper awards for a new system, dubbed RoadRunner, that uses GPS-style turn-by-turn ... full story

NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station

Sep. 17, 2014 — U.S. astronauts once again will travel to and from the International Space Station from the United States on American spacecraft under groundbreaking contracts NASA announced Tuesday. The agency ... full story

Global Shift Away from Cars Would Save US$100 Trillion, Eliminate 1,700 Megatons of Carbon Dioxide Pollution

Sep. 17, 2014 — More than $100 trillion in cumulative public and private spending, and 1,700 megatons of annual carbon dioxide -- a 40 percent reduction of urban passenger transport emissions -- could be eliminated ... full story

Waistlines of U.S. Adults Continue to Increase

Sep. 16, 2014 — The prevalence of abdominal obesity and average waist circumference increased among U.S. adults from 1999 to 2012, according to a study. Waist circumference is a simple measure of total and ... full story

Evidence of Genetic Link to PTSD in Soldiers Exposed to Childhood Trauma

Sep. 16, 2014 — While abnormalities in the adrenergic and noradrenergic systems, both integral in the fight-or-flight response, are thought to play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, until ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Working During Depression Can Offer Health Benefits to Employees

Sep. 10, 2014 — Attending work while suffering a depressive illness could help employees better manage their depression more than taking a sickness absence from work, a new study has found. The study is the first ... full story

There Could Be Increased Numbers of Psychopaths in Senior Managerial Positions, High Levels of Business, Research Shows

Sep. 8, 2014 — For the first time, it has been demonstrated that people with psychopathic tendencies who have high IQs can mask their symptoms by manipulating tests designed to reveal their personalities. It raises ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 — Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Brain Scans Used to Forecast Early Reading Difficulties

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience ... full story

3-D Printing of Rocks and Fossils

Sep. 15, 2014 — Geologists are using 3-D printing to study the pores within limestone reservoir rocks. A better understanding of the pore networks within the rocks could help industry get at more ... full story

Brain Differences: Sometimes, Adolescents Just Can't Resist

Sep. 11, 2014 — A new study finds teenagers are far more sensitive than adults to the immediate effect or reward of their behaviors. Even when a behavior is no longer in a teenager’s best interest to continue, ... full story

High Levels of Physical Activity Linked to Better Academic Performance in Boys

Sep. 11, 2014 — Higher levels of physical activity are related to better academic achievement during the first three school years, particularly in boys, research shows. For instance, boys with higher levels of ... full story

Binge Drinking in Pregnancy Can Affect Child's Mental Health, School Results

Sep. 10, 2014 — Binge drinking during pregnancy can increase the risk of mental health problems (particularly hyperactivity and inattention) in children aged 11 and can have a negative effect on their school ... full story

Cellphone Addiction Harming Academic Performance Is 'an Increasingly Realistic Possibility'

Aug. 28, 2014 — Women college students spend an average of 10 hours a day on their cellphones, with men college students spending nearly eight hours, according to a study on cellphone activity. "As cellphone ... full story

Readers With Dyslexia Have Disrupted Network Connections in the Brain, Map the Circuitry of Dyslexia Shows

Aug. 28, 2014 — Dyslexia, the most commonly diagnosed learning disability in the United States, is a neurological reading disability that occurs when the regions of the brain that process written language don't ... full story

Social Class Makes a Difference in How Children Tackle Classroom Problems

Aug. 27, 2014 — Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 — The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

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