Today's Science News

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Mystery Galaxies: Astronomers Discover Likely Precursors of Galaxy Clusters We See Today

Mar. 30, 2015 — Observations made with two space observatories, Herschel and Planck, reveal glimpses into how today's galaxies came to be. Using one-of-a-kind instrumentation, astronomers were able to study ... full story

Intelligent Neuroprostheses Mimic Natural Motor Control

Mar. 30, 2015 — Neuroscientists are taking inspiration from natural motor control to design new prosthetic devices that can better replace limb function. Researchers have tested a range of brain-controlled devices ... full story

Earthlike 'Star Wars' Tatooines May Be Common

Mar. 30, 2015 — Luke Skywalker's home in "Star Wars" is the desert planet Tatooine, with twin sunsets because it orbits two stars. So far, only uninhabitable gas-giant planets have been identified ... full story

Earliest Humans Had Diverse Range of Body Types, Just as We Do Today

Mar. 26, 2015 — New research harnessing fragmentary fossils suggests our genus has come in different shapes and sizes since its origins over two million years ago, and adds weight to the idea that humans began to ... full story

Dark Matter Even Darker Than Once Thought

Mar. 26, 2015 — Astronomers have studied how dark matter in clusters of galaxies behaves when the clusters collide. The results show that dark matter interacts with itself even less than previously thought, and ... full story

A Robot Prepared for Self-Awareness: Expanded Software Architecture for Walking Robot Hector

Mar. 31, 2015 — A year ago, researchers showed that their software endowed the walking robot Hector with a simple form of consciousness. Their new research goes one step further: they have now developed a software ... full story

In Alzheimer's Mice, Memory Restored With Cancer Drug

Mar. 31, 2015 — Memory and as well as connections between brain cells were restored in mice with a model of Alzheimer's given an experimental cancer drug, researchers report. "With this treatment, cells ... full story

The Rapid Rise of Human Language

Mar. 31, 2015 — Human language likely developed quite rapidly into a sophisticated system, a linguist contends. Instead of mumbles and grunts, people deployed syntax and structures resembling the ones we use today, ... full story

Non-Invasive Technique Allows Amputee to Use Bionic Hand, Powered by His Thoughts

Mar. 31, 2015 — Medical researchers have created an algorithm that allowed a man to grasp a bottle and other objects with a prosthetic hand, powered only by his ... full story

Scientists Discover Elusive Secret of How Continents Formed

Mar. 31, 2015 — Geoscientists have revealed information about how continents were generated on Earth more than 2.5 billion years ago -- and how those processes have continued within the last 70 million years to ... full story

Brain's 'Gender' May Be Quite Flexible: Mechanism That Plays Key Role in Sexual Differentiation of Brain Described

Mar. 31, 2015 — During prenatal development, the brains of most animals, including humans, develop specifically male or female characteristics. But scientists have known little about the details of how this ... full story

Secrets of the Seahorse Tail Revealed

Mar. 31, 2015 — A team of engineers and biologists reports new progress in using computer modeling and 3D shape analysis to understand how the unique grasping tails of seahorses evolved. These prehensile tails ... full story

Score! Video Gamers May Learn Visual Tasks More Quickly

Mar. 31, 2015 — Video games not only sharpen the visual processing skills of frequent players, they might also improve the brain's ability to learn those skills, according to a new study. Gamers showed faster ... full story

What 300,000 Year Old Eggshells Reveal About the Environment of the Paleolithic

Mar. 31, 2015 — In the 1990s the discovery of the oldest human made and completely preserved wooden hunting weapons made the Paleolithic excavation site in Schoningen internationally renowned. Contained within the ... full story

Five Years After Deepwater Horizon, Wildlife Still Struggling Dolphins Dying in High Numbers; Sea Turtles Failing to Nest

Mar. 31, 2015 — As the five-year anniversary of the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig approaches, a new report looks at how twenty species of wildlife are faring in the aftermath of the ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

7-Year-Old Girl Gets 3-D Printed 'robohand'

7-Year-Old Girl Gets 3-D Printed 'robohand'

AP (Mar. 31, 2015) — Although she never had much interest in prosthetic limbs before, Faith Lennox couldn't wait to slip on her new robohand. The 7-year-old, who lost part of her left arm when she was a baby, grabbed it as soon as it came off a 3-D printer. (March 31) Video provided by AP
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The Universe Could Be Full Of Tatooine Sunsets

The Universe Could Be Full Of Tatooine Sunsets

Newsy (Mar. 30, 2015) — University of Utah researchers say mathematical simulations show small, rocky planets, like Tatooine from "Star Wars," can form in dual-star systems. Video provided by Newsy
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Ancient Egyptian Beer Making Vessels Discovered in Israel

Ancient Egyptian Beer Making Vessels Discovered in Israel

AFP (Mar. 30, 2015) — Fragments of pottery used by Egyptians to make beer and dating back 5,000 years have been discovered on a building site in Tel Aviv, the Israeli Antiquities Authority said on Sunday. Duration: 00:51 Video provided by AFP
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WH Plan to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

WH Plan to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

AP (Mar. 27, 2015) — The White House on Friday announced a five-year plan to fight the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria amid fears that once-treatable germs could become deadly. (March 27) Video provided by AP
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last updated on 2015-03-31 at 11:28 pm EDT

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Chronic Loneliness in Older Adults Leads to More Doctors' Office Visits, Study Finds

Mar. 31, 2015 — Experiences of loneliness and social isolation can lead to increased health care use among older adults, according to new research. The study found that the frequency of physician visits was ... full story

Folic Acid May Help Elderly Weather Heat Waves

Mar. 31, 2015 — Supplemental folic acid can enhance blood vessel dilation in older adults, according to researchers, suggesting that folic acid supplements may be an inexpensive alternative for helping older adults ... full story

Protein May Improve Liver Regeneration: GF21 Boosts Regenerative Ability in Mice Carrying Human PPAR Alpha Protein

Mar. 31, 2015 — Researchers have illuminated an important distinction between mice and humans: how human livers heal. The difference centers on a protein called PPAR alpha which activates liver ... full story

Skin Tough: Why Skin Is Resistant to Tearing

Mar. 31, 2015 — Researchers have recorded the first direct observations of the micro-scale mechanisms behind the ability of skin to resist tearing. The results could be applied to the improvement of artificial skin, ... full story

Scientists One Step Closer to Finding How to Repair Damaged Nerve Cells

Mar. 31, 2015 — A team of researchers has uncovered a new kind of synergy in the development of the nervous system, which explains an important mechanism required for neural circuits to form properly. This ... full story

Exercise Largely Absent from US Medical School Curriculum, Study Shows

Mar. 31, 2015 — Fewer than half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received formal education or training on the subject of exercise, according to new research. "There are immense medical benefits ... full story

Significant Reduction in Fatal Car Crashes After Increase in Alcohol Taxes

Mar. 31, 2015 — Increasing state alcohol taxes could prevent thousands of deaths a year from car crashes, say researchers, who found alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes decreased after taxes on beer, wine and ... full story

Restoring IL-17 May Treat Skin Infections Related to Chronic Alcohol Consumption

Mar. 31, 2015 — Alcoholism takes a toll on every aspect of a person's life, including skin problems. Now, a new research report helps explain why this happens and what might be done to address it. "The clinical ... full story

Memory Immune Cells That Screen Intruders as They Enter Lymph Nodes

Mar. 31, 2015 — A new population of 'memory' immune cells has been discovered by scientists, throwing light on what the body does when it sees a microbe for the second time. This insight, and others like it, will ... full story

Genetic Variability in the Platelet Linked to Increased Risk for Clotting

Mar. 31, 2015 — Coronary heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death in the United States, are diseases associated with heightened platelet reactivity. A new study in humans suggests an underlying ... full story

Cultivating Timeflow: Can Consumers Shape How They Experience Time?

Mar. 31, 2015 — Why does time seem to crawl if you're waiting in line at the post office, but hours can fly by in minutes when you're doing something fun? A new study examines the factors that determine how ... full story

Criminologist Challenges Effectiveness of Solitary Confinement

Mar. 31, 2015 — A criminologist finds that solitary confinement does not deter inmates from committing further violence in prison. The prisoners in the study who received solitary confinement were no more -- or less ... full story

Age Matters: Discovering Why Antidepressants Don't Work Well for Kids

Mar. 31, 2015 — A new study had researchers seeking answers to why the therapeutic benefit afforded by SSRIs was so limited in children and teenagers. If researchers can uncover the biological mechanisms preventing ... full story

Early Education Narrows the Achievement Gap With Younger Starts and Longer Stays

Mar. 31, 2015 — New research reveals high-quality early education is especially advantageous for children when they start younger and continue longer. Not only does more high-quality early education significantly ... full story

Wobbly No More: Work on Analogical Processing Helps Children Learn Key Engineering Principle

Mar. 31, 2015 — Children love to build things. Often half the fun for them is building something and then knocking it down. But in a new study children had just as much fun learning how to keep their masterpieces ... full story

History of Depression Puts Women at Risk for Diabetes During Pregnancy, Study Finds

Mar. 31, 2015 — A history of depression may put women at risk for developing diabetes during pregnancy, according to research. This study also pointed to how common depression is during pregnancy and the need for ... full story

Domestic Violence Deters Contraception

Mar. 31, 2015 — Women who are abused by their partner or ex-partner are much less likely to use contraception; this exposes them to sexually transmitted diseases and leads to more frequent unintended pregnancies and ... full story

Poor Behavior Linked to Time Spent Playing Video Games, Not the Games Played

Mar. 31, 2015 — Children who play video games for more than three hours a day are more likely to be hyperactive, get involved in fights and not be interested in school, says a new study. It examined the effects of ... full story

What Makes a Child Feel Unsafe in Their Neighborhood?

Mar. 31, 2015 — Differences in the way children and adults perceive the world extend to their sense of safety in their social and physical environments and this in turn can impact their health, say researchers. ... full story

Using Twitter to Probe Political Polarization

Mar. 31, 2015 — Most often on Twitter, those we engage with are like-minded, and the ensuing electronic maelstrom of 140-character missives serves to reinforce, pulling us and them further along in the direction we ... full story

Internet Searches Create Illusion of Personal Knowledge, Research Finds

Mar. 31, 2015 — Searching the Internet for information may make people feel smarter than they actually are, according to new research. In a series of experiments, participants who searched for information on the ... full story

New Clues to Why Poor Nutrition in the Womb Leads to Obesity Later in Life

Mar. 31, 2015 — Babies receiving poor nutrition in the womb tend to be smaller at birth, which has been linked to the development of obesity and other health problems later in life. Researchers continue to discover ... full story

Kids Allowed to 'Sip' Alcohol May Start Drinking Earlier

Mar. 31, 2015 — Children who get a taste of their parents' wine now and then may be more likely than their peers to start drinking by high school, according to a new report. The findings are based on 561 Rhode ... full story

Pesticides in Fruit and Vegetables Linked to Semen Quality

Mar. 30, 2015 — The first study to investigate the relationship between eating fruit and vegetables containing pesticide residues and the quality of men's semen has shown a link with lower sperm counts and ... full story

Wearable Technology Can Help With Public Speaking

Mar. 30, 2015 — Speaking in public is the top fear for many people. Now, researchers have developed an intelligent user interface for 'smart glasses' that gives real-time feedback to the speaker on volume modulation ... full story

Stop Blaming the Moon: Intelligent People Can Develop Strong Entirely Incorrect Beliefs

Mar. 30, 2015 — The moon does not influence the timing of human births or hospital admissions, a new study finds, confirming what astronomers have known for decades. The study illustrates how intelligent people ... full story

Hormone Known for Mother's Milk Also Fosters Bond Between Parents

Mar. 30, 2015 — Research has discovered a role for prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production in nursing mothers, in the bond between parents. The study on cotton-top tamarins found a link between ... full story

Marketing of Energy Drinks Placed on TV Channels That Appeal to Teens

Mar. 30, 2015 — Though the Academy of Pediatrics advises against the consumption of energy drinks by teens, research finds that manufacturers market the bulk of their products on TV channels that likely appeal to ... full story

Goodbye, Range Anxiety? Electric Vehicles May Be More Useful Than Previously Thought

Mar. 30, 2015 — In the first study of its kind, scientists quantitatively show that electric vehicles will meet the daily travel needs of drivers longer than commonly assumed. They found that batteries that have ... full story

How's My Driving? Using Smartphones to Take Distracted-Driving Research on the Road

Mar. 30, 2015 — One researcher has developed a clever solution to gather naturalistic driving data. For several years, she has been using a detailed driving simulator to study how participants respond to ... full story

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Daily Dam Releases on Massachusetts' Deerfield River Reduce Downstream Flows

Mar. 31, 2015 — In the first-of-its-kind study of the environmental effects of hydropeaking, that is releasing water at hydropower dams to meet peak daily electricity demand, two researchers say their unexpected ... full story

Soft, Energy-Efficient Robotic Wings

Mar. 31, 2015 — Researchers have discovered a new resonance phenomenon in a dielectric elastomer rotary joint that can make the artificial joint bend up and down, like a flapping ... full story

How to Make a Profit from Rotting Garbage

Mar. 31, 2015 — Landfills can make a profit from all their rotting waste and a new patent explains exactly how to make the most out of the stinky garbage sites. Decomposing trash produces methane, a landfill gas ... full story

Rodeo in Liquid Crystal: Unprecedented Level of Control Over Defects

Mar. 31, 2015 — Scientists have achieved an unprecedented level of control over defects in liquid crystals that can be engineered for applications in liquid matter photonics. Sitting with a joystick in the comfort ... full story

An Efficient Path from Carbon to Renewable Fuel Production

Mar. 31, 2015 — Earth-abundant materials based primarily on carbon, nitrogen and transition metal oxides can be combined into highly efficient energy conversion devices. These devices can be used in fuel cells as ... full story

Mist-Collecting Plants May ‘bioinspire’ Technology to Help Alleviate Global Water Shortages

Mar. 30, 2015 — By studying the morphology and physiology of plants with tiny conical "hairs" or microfibers on the surface of their leaves, such as tomatoes, balsam pears and the flowers Berkheya purpea and Lychnis ... full story

Wrapping Carbon Nanotubes in Polymers Enhances Their Performance

Mar. 30, 2015 — Scientists say polymer-wrapped carbon nanotubes hold much promise in biotechnology and energy ... full story

Thin Transparent Flexible Screens: Roll Up Your Screen and Stow It Away?

Mar. 30, 2015 — As the demand for instant, constant communication grows, so too does the urgency for more convenient portable devices -- especially computer displays that can be easily rolled up and stored or ... full story

Super Sensitive Measurement of Magnetic Fields

Mar. 30, 2015 — There are electrical signals in the nervous system, the brain and throughout the human body and there are tiny magnetic fields associated with these signals that could be important for medical ... full story

Physicists Report Technology With Potential for Sub-Micron Optical Switches

Mar. 30, 2015 — New technology could result in optical switches with sub-square-micron footprints, potentially allowing densely packed switching fabrics on a ... full story

ALMA Disentangles Complex Birth of Giant Stars

Mar. 31, 2015 — Astronomers have conducted observations of the massive-star forming region IRAS 16547-4247. The observation results shows the presence of multiple, or at least two, gas outflows from a protostar, ... full story

As Stars Form, Magnetic Fields Influence Regions Big and Small

Mar. 30, 2015 — Stars form when gravity pulls together material within giant clouds of gas and dust. But gravity isn't the only force at work. Both turbulence and magnetic fields battle gravity, either by stirring ... full story

Comet Dust: Planet Mercury's 'Invisible Paint'

Mar. 30, 2015 — Scientists have long puzzled over the planet Mercury's excessively dark surface. New research suggests that carbon from passing comets could be the planet's mystery darkening ... full story

More Evidence for Groundwater on Mars: Conditions Would Be Conducive for Microbial Colonization If on Earth

Mar. 27, 2015 — Scientists investigated the Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) of Arabia Terra in Firsoff crater area, Mars, to understand their formation and potential habitability. On the plateau, ELDs consist of ... full story

Best View Yet of Dusty Cloud Passing Galactic Center Black Hole

Mar. 26, 2015 — The best observations so far of the dusty gas cloud G2 confirm that it made its closest approach to the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way in May 2014 and has survived the ... full story

Ancient Martian Lake System Records Two Water-Related Events

Mar. 25, 2015 — Researchers have completed a new analysis of an ancient Martian lake system in Jezero Crater, near the planet's equator. The study finds that the onslaught of water that filled the crater was one of ... full story

A New Spin on Saturn's Peculiar Rotation

Mar. 25, 2015 — The precise measurement of Saturn's rotation has presented a great challenge to scientists, as different parts of this sweltering ball of hydrogen and helium rotate at different speeds whereas its ... full story

Supermassive Black Hole Clears Star-Making Gas from Galaxy's Core

Mar. 25, 2015 — A new study provides the first observational evidence that a supermassive black hole at the center of a large galaxy can power huge, wide-angled outpourings of material from deep inside the galaxy's ... full story

Unexplained Warm Layer Discovered in Venus' Atmosphere

Mar. 25, 2015 — Scientists have found a warm layer in Venus' atmosphere, the nature of which is still unknown. The researchers made the discovery when compiling a temperature map of the upper atmosphere on the ... full story

Explosions of Jupiter's Aurora Linked to Extraordinary Planet-Moon Interaction

Mar. 25, 2015 — New observations of the planet's extreme ultraviolet emissions show that bright explosions of Jupiter's aurora likely also get kicked off by the planet-moon interaction, not by solar ... full story

Researchers Map Seasonal Greening in US Forests, Fields, and Urban Areas

Mar. 31, 2015 — Using the assessment tool ForWarn, US Forest Service researchers can monitor the growth and development of vegetation that signals winter's end and the awakening of a new growing season. Now these ... full story

'Wikipedia' for Neurons Created

Mar. 30, 2015 — To help scientists make sense of 'brain big data,' researchers have used data mining to create, a publicly available website that acts like Wikipedia, indexing physiological ... full story

Crowdsourced Tool for Depression

Mar. 30, 2015 — A new peer-to-peer networking tool has been developed that enables sufferers of anxiety and depression to build online support communities and practice therapeutic ... full story

System Clusters Similar Student Computer Programs Together, So Instructors Can Identify Broad Trends

Mar. 30, 2015 — Computer scientists have developed a new system that automatically compares students' solutions to programming assignments, lumping together those that use the same ... full story

Secure Payment on Internet?

Mar. 30, 2015 — Now that it has become a common feature on the news to hear about cyber-attacks on an international scale, cybersecurity is seen as a first priority by Internet users. There can be no doubt that the ... full story

Adolescents' Riskier Online Behavior Suggests Need for Age-Based Warnings

Mar. 30, 2015 — Adolescents who have engaged in past risky online behavior such as providing personal information and befriending strangers are much more likely to repeat such behavior in the future, according to ... full story

Citizen Scientists Map Global Forests

Mar. 30, 2015 — New global forest maps combine citizen science with multiple data sources, for an unprecedented level of accuracy about the location and extent of forestland worldwide. "The new maps rely on a ... full story

Computational Model Simulates Bacterial Behavior

Mar. 27, 2015 — Applied mathematicians and environmental biotechnologists have developed a new computational model that effectively simulates the mechanical behavior of biofilms. Their model may lead to new ... full story

Nanoscale Worms Provide New Route to Nano-Necklace Structures

Mar. 27, 2015 — Researchers have developed a novel technique for crafting nanometer-scale necklaces based on tiny star-like structures threaded onto a polymeric backbone. The technique could provide a new way to ... full story

Mira Supercomputer Use to Peer Inside High-Temperature Superconductors

Mar. 27, 2015 — Researchers are using supercomputers to shed light on the mysterious nature of high-temperature ... full story

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Worm Lizards Dispersed by 'Rafting' Over Oceans, Not Continental Drift

Mar. 31, 2015 — Tiny, burrowing reptiles known as worm lizards became widespread long after the breakup of the continents, leading scientists to conclude that they must have dispersed by rafting across oceans soon ... full story

Tiny Songbird Discovered to Migrate Non-Stop, 1,500 Miles Over the Atlantic

Mar. 31, 2015 — For the first time biologists report 'irrefutable evidence' that tiny blackpoll warblers complete a nonstop flight from about 1,410 to 1,721 miles (2,270 to 2,770 km) in just two to three days. For ... full story

Discovering Missing Body Parts of Ancient Fossils: Waves and Storms Lifted Fossils Off the Seafloor 550 Million Years Ago

Mar. 31, 2015 — Certain specimens of the fossil Dickinsonia are incomplete because ancient currents lifted them from the sea floor, a team of paleontologists has found. Sand then got deposited beneath the lifted ... full story

Soil Organic Matter Susceptible to Climate Change

Mar. 31, 2015 — Soil organic matter, long thought to be a semi-permanent storehouse for ancient carbon, may be much more vulnerable to climate change than previously thought. Scientists have found that the common ... full story

Keeping Hungry Elephants at Bay

Mar. 31, 2015 — Until now electric fences and trenches have proved to be the most effective way of protecting farms and villages from night time raids by hungry elephants. But researchers think they may have come up ... full story

On the Edge of Extinction: Tiny Pupfish Go Without Breathing to Survive Their Harsh Environment

Mar. 31, 2015 — The endangered desert pupfish has made itself at home in the harsh, hot environment of Death Valley hot springs by using a surprising evolutionary adaptation: They can go for up to five hours without ... full story

Travelling Pollution: East Asian Human Activities Affect Air Quality in Remote Tropical Forests

Mar. 31, 2015 — Researchers have detected a human fingerprint deep in the Borneo rainforest in Southeast Asia. Cold winds blowing from the north carry industrial pollutants from East Asia to the equator, with ... full story

The 100 Million Year-Old Piggyback: Amber Reveals Earliest Example of Maternal Care in Insects

Mar. 31, 2015 — Scientists have uncovered the earliest fossilized evidence of an insect caring for its young. The findings push back the earliest direct evidence of insect brood care by more than 50 million years, ... full story

How a Deadly Fungus Evades the Immune System

Mar. 31, 2015 — New research has scientists re-thinking how a lethal fungus grows and kills immune cells. The study hints at a new approach to therapy for Candida albicans, one of the most common causes of ... full story

Pig-Borne Disease Most Likely Jumped Into Humans When Rearing Practices Changed

Mar. 31, 2015 — The most virulent strains of Streptococcus suis, the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans in parts of southeast Asia and in pigs around the world, are likely to have evolved and ... full story

Better Method for Forecasting Hurricane Season

Mar. 31, 2015 — A better method for predicting the number of hurricanes in an upcoming season has been developed by atmospheric scientists. The team's new model improves the accuracy of seasonal hurricane forecasts ... full story

Model Helps City Planners Prepare to Weather Large Storms

Mar. 31, 2015 — Researchers have developed a modeling tool to help local communities better understand their vulnerabilities to large storms stoked by climate ... full story

Bacteria Play an Important Role in Long Term Storage of Carbon in the Ocean

Mar. 31, 2015 — The ocean is a large reservoir of dissolved organic molecules, and many of these molecules are stable against microbial utilization for hundreds to thousands of years. They contain a similar amount ... full story

200th Anniversary of Tambora Eruption a Reminder of Volcanic Perils

Mar. 31, 2015 — The volcanologist Stephen Self, an expert on super-eruptions, was the first modern-day scientist to visit Tambora in Indonesia, the site of the largest volcanic eruption in 1,000 years. On the 200th ... full story

Typhoons and Hurricanes Rain Away Wrath: Important Factor Missed in Predicting Hurricane Intensity

Mar. 31, 2015 — Accurately anticipating an approaching typhoon's destructive force makes all the difference in advance preparations and as a consequence, the cost in lives. But over the decades, climate scientists ... full story

Why Flowers Bloom Earlier in a Warming Climate

Mar. 31, 2015 — Scientists have discovered why the first buds of spring come increasingly earlier as the climate changes. As the climate changes the sweet spot for seeds comes earlier in the year, so first flowers ... full story

Particulate Air Pollution: Exposure to Ultrafine Particles Influences Cardiac Function

Mar. 31, 2015 — The adverse health effects caused by fine particles have been known for some time. In addition, ultrafine particles appear to play a significant role in cardiac function -- even if an individual is ... full story

New Source of Methane for Gas Hydrates in Arctic Discovered

Mar. 30, 2015 — Researchers have identified a new source of methane for gas hydrates -- ice-like substances found in sediment that trap methane within the crystal structure of frozen water -- in the Arctic Ocean. ... full story

Climate-Related Disruptions of Marine Ecosystems: Decades to Destroy, Millennia to Recover

Mar. 30, 2015 — A new study reports that marine ecosystems can take thousands, rather than hundreds, of years to recover from climate-related upheavals. The study's authors analyzed thousands of invertebrate fossils ... full story

Research Links Two Millennia of Cyclones, Floods, El Niρo

Mar. 30, 2015 — Scientists have created a 2,200-year-long record of extreme rainfall events that might also help predict future climate ... full story

Discovery of Two New Species of Primitive Fishes

Mar. 31, 2015 — Paleontologists have discovered two new species of Saurichthys. The ~242 million year old predatory fishes were found in the fossil Lagerstδtte Monte San Giorgio, in Ticino. They are distinct from ... full story

New Lobster-Like Predator Found in 508 Million-Year-Old Fossil-Rich Site

Mar. 27, 2015 — What do butterflies, spiders and lobsters have in common? They are all surviving relatives of a newly identified species called Yawunik kootenayi, a marine creature with two pairs of eyes and ... full story

The Stapes in the Middle Ear of a Neanderthal Child Shows Anatomical Differences from Humans

Mar. 27, 2015 — Scientists have produced a 3-D reconstruction of the remains of a two-year-old Neanderthal recovered from an excavation carried out back in the 1970s at La Ferrassie (Dordogne, France). The work ... full story

Study Underscores Complexity of Geopolitics in the Age of the Aztec Empire

Mar. 25, 2015 — New findings from an international team of archaeological researchers highlight the complexity of geopolitics in Aztec era Mesoamerica and illustrate how the relationships among ancient states ... full story

Prehistoric Super Salamander Was Top Predator, Fossils Suggest

Mar. 24, 2015 — A previously undiscovered species of crocodile-like amphibian that lived during the rise of dinosaurs was among Earth's top predators more than 200 million years ago, a study shows. Palaeontologists ... full story

Archaeologists Discover Maya 'Melting Pot'

Mar. 23, 2015 — Archaeologists working in Guatemala has unearthed new information about the Maya civilization's transition from a mobile, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary way of life. They have found ... full story

Ascension of Marine Diatoms Linked to Vast Increase in Continental Weathering

Mar. 23, 2015 — A team of researcher has used mathematical modeling to show that continental erosion over the last 40 million years has contributed to the success of diatoms, a group of tiny marine algae that plays ... full story

Key to the Long-Term Storage of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Deep Ocean

Mar. 23, 2015 — Researchers have made strides in the understanding of the mechanisms governing the persistence of dissolved organic carbon for hundreds or thousands of years in the deep ocean. Most of this material ... full story

World's Largest Asteroid Impacts Found in Central Australia

Mar. 23, 2015 — A 400-kilometer-wide impact zone from a huge meteorite that broke in two moments before it slammed into the Earth has been found in Central Australia. The crater from the impact millions of years ago ... full story

Archivists Unearth Rare First Edition of the 1815 'Map That Changed the World'

Mar. 23, 2015 — A rare early copy of William Smith’s 1815 Geological Map of England and Wales, previously thought lost, has been uncovered by Geological Society archivists. The new map has been digitized and made ... full story

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Innovative Strategies Needed to Address US Transplant Organ Shortage

Mar. 31, 2015 — As the United States faces transplant waiting lists that continue to grow longer over time, there is increasing debate about the proper way to incentivize living donations. Due to organ shortages, ... full story

New Canadian Guidelines to Prevent, Manage Obesity in Children Must Focus on Family

Mar. 30, 2015 — New Canadian guidelines to help prevent and manage obesity in children and youth recommend regular growth monitoring at routine health care visits as well as a focus on family lifestyles and health ... full story

Family Income, Parental Education Related to Brain Structure in Children, Adolescents

Mar. 30, 2015 — Characterizing associations between socioeconomic factors and children's brain development, a team of investigators reports correlative links between family income and brain structure. Relationships ... full story

Major Increase in Bowel Cancer Screening Uptake Shown With New Screening Test

Mar. 30, 2015 — A large pilot study of a new bowel cancer screening test has demonstrated a major increase in participation rates across population groups. The new test is called a Fecal Immunochemical Test or FIT ... full story

Only One of 32 Hockey Helmets Tested Earn 3-Star Rating

Mar. 30, 2015 — The five-star ratings of hockey helmets, judging their abilities to help prevent concussions, have been released by experts. The findings so far: Only one of 32 tested hockey helmets earned three ... full story

Gap Between Parental Perceptions of Child's Weight and Official Classifications

Mar. 30, 2015 — New study reveals a gap between parental perceptions of their child's weight and official classifications of obesity. The work finds that parents are additionally more likely to underestimate their ... full story

Do Biofuel Policies Seek to Cut Emissions by Cutting Food?

Mar. 27, 2015 — A new study found that government biofuel policies rely on reductions in food consumption to generate greenhouse gas ... full story

We Don’t Notice Much of What We See: 85 College Students Tried to Draw the Apple Logo from Memory; 84 Failed

Mar. 27, 2015 — Of 85 UCLA undergraduate students, only one correctly recalled the Apple logo when asked to draw it on a blank sheet of paper, psychologists found. Fewer than half correctly identified the logo when ... full story

Two Degree Celsius Climate Change Target 'Utterly Inadequate', Expert Argues

Mar. 27, 2015 — The official global target of a two degree Celsius temperature rise is 'utterly inadequate' for protecting those at most risk from climate change, says an expert. The commentary presents a rare ... full story

Greener Industry If Environmental Authorities Change Strategy

Mar. 27, 2015 — Fewer industrial firms would violate environmental legislation and a higher number would adopt cleaner technologies if environmental authorities would focus their monitoring efforts on companies with ... full story

The Brain in the Supermarket: Index Strategy Informs Decision-Making

Mar. 26, 2015 — Researchers suggest that your brain is most likely deploying an 'index strategy,' a straightforward ranking of products, when you shop. It may not be an absolutely perfect calculation, given all the ... full story

Work Site Wellness Centers Equate to Weight Loss and Health Care Savings, Expert Says

Mar. 25, 2015 — As employees and employers face higher health care costs, work site wellness are becoming increasingly more important to help control the costs of health care and encourage healthy lifestyle ... full story

Study Provides Academic Support for New Steve Jobs Portrayal

Mar. 24, 2015 — The new Steve Jobs biopic, 'Becoming Steve Jobs,' paints a picture of a less arrogant, humbler leader than previously thought. It portrays a softer side of Jobs that executives at Apple say is more ... full story

High-Energy TV Commercials: Too Much Stress for Consumers?

Mar. 24, 2015 — Consumers are tuning out TV commercials, making advertisers run louder, higher-energy ads to force their attention. This may be backfiring critically when consumers are watching sad or relaxing ... full story

Apple of the Mind's Eye: How Good Is Our Memory of Everyday Visual Stimuli?

Mar. 20, 2015 — In our world of branding and repetitive advertising, it is feasible that we dutifully soak up visuals and messages and store them accurately in our mind’s eye. New research tests this theory by ... full story

The Cost of Dominance: Aggressively Pursuing Higher Social Status May Exact a Toll on Health

Mar. 19, 2015 — Researchers conducted four studies to gauge the health effects of the hostile-dominant personality style compared with the warm-dominant style. Their findings are bad news for aggressive ... full story

New Optical Materials Break Digital Connectivity Barriers

Mar. 18, 2015 — In our increasingly networked world, we need much faster computer components to support enormous amounts of data transfer and data processing. A new study finds that new optical materials could serve ... full story

New Work Schedule Could Cure Your 'Social Jetlag'

Mar. 12, 2015 — Many of us are walking around all the time in a fog caused by 'social jetlag.' That's what happens when we lose sleep because our daily schedules don't match our bodies' natural rhythms. The ... full story

'Sugar Papers' Reveal Industry Role in 1970s U.S. National Caries Program, Analysis Shows

Mar. 10, 2015 — A newly discovered cache of industry documents reveals that the sugar industry worked closely with the National Institutes of Health in the 1960s and '70s to develop a federal research program ... full story

New Model of Cybercrime Factors in Perishability of Stolen Data

Mar. 10, 2015 — A new model examining cybercrimes adds an important way of examining the perishable value of stolen data so policy makers can plan against future hacks like the recent Anthem data breach, according ... full story

'Lightning Bolts' in Brain Show Learning in Action

Mar. 30, 2015 — Researchers have captured images of the underlying biological activity within brain cells and their tree-like extensions, or dendrites, in mice that show how their brains sort, store and make sense ... full story

Classroom Behaviour and Dyslexia Research

Mar. 30, 2015 — The significance of copying and note-taking in the classroom has been studied by researchers including a view on how it affects the learning of Dyslexic children. "Classroom learning is the bedrock ... full story

Why Good Solutions Make Us Oblivious to Better Ones

Mar. 26, 2015 — Psychologists have known about the so-called Einstellung effect since the 1940s. Now researchers are developing a solid understanding of how the phenomenon ... full story

Pre-K Children Outpace Normal Expectations Through Kindergarten

Mar. 25, 2015 — Students who were enrolled in the NC Pre-K Program are making significant gains across all areas of learning through the end of kindergarten, according to a new ... full story

Education May Not Improve Our Life Chances of Happiness

Mar. 25, 2015 — Getting a good education may not improve your life chances of happiness, according to new mental health ... full story

After Learning New Words, Brain Sees Them as Pictures

Mar. 24, 2015 — When we look at a known word, our brain sees it like a picture, not a group of letters needing to be processed. That's the finding from a new study that shows the brain learns words quickly by tuning ... full story

Are Our Schools Damaging Children's Eyes?

Mar. 24, 2015 — Shockingly, research has shown a dramatic increase in the number of students leaving secondary school with short-sightedness, or myopia, and a new study suggests lighting in schools could be a ... full story

More Schools, More Challenging Assignments Add Up to Higher IQ Scores

Mar. 24, 2015 — More schooling -- and the more mentally challenging problems tackled in those schools -- may be the best explanation for the dramatic rise in IQ scores during the past century, often referred to as ... full story

IQ of Children in Better-Educated Households Is Higher

Mar. 24, 2015 — A study comparing the IQs of male siblings in which one member was reared by biological parents and the other by adoptive parents found that the children adopted by parents with more education had ... full story

Supercomputers Give Universities a Competitive Edge

Mar. 23, 2015 — Researchers have long believed that supercomputers give universities a competitive edge in scientific research, but now they have some hard data showing it's true. Scientists have found that ... full story

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