Today's Science News

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Imagination, Reality Flow in Opposite Directions in the Brain

Nov. 20, 2014 — As real as that daydream may seem, its path through your brain runs opposite reality. Aiming to discern discrete neural circuits, researchers have tracked electrical activity in the brains of people ... full story

Geologists Discover Ancient Buried Canyon in South Tibet

Nov. 20, 2014 — Scientists have discovered an ancient, deep canyon buried along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in south Tibet, north of the eastern end of the Himalayas. The geologists say that the ancient canyon -- ... full story

Out of India: Finding the Origins of Horses, Rhinos

Nov. 20, 2014 — Working at the edge of a coal mine in India, a team of researchers has filled in a major gap in science’s understanding of the evolution of a group of animals that includes horses and rhinos. That ... full story

New View of Mouse Genome Finds Many Similarities, Striking Differences With Human Genome

Nov. 19, 2014 — Looking across the genomes of humans and mice, scientists have found that, in general, the systems that are used to control gene activity in both species have many similarities, along with crucial ... full story

Spooky Alignment of Quasars Across Billions of Light-Years

Nov. 19, 2014 — New observations with ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the ... full story

How to Estimate the Magnetic Field of an Exoplanet

Nov. 20, 2014 — Scientists developed a new method which allows to estimate the magnetic field of a distant exoplanet, i.e., a planet, which is located outside the Solar system and orbits a different star. Moreover, ... full story

Why Some People May Be Immune to HIV-1: Insight

Nov. 20, 2014 — Doctors have long been mystified as to why HIV-1 rapidly sickens some individuals, while in others the virus has difficulties gaining a foothold. Now, a study of genetic variation in HIV-1 and in the ... full story

Dizzying Heights: Prehistoric Farming on the 'Roof of the World'

Nov. 20, 2014 — Archaeological findings pose questions about genetic resistance in humans to altitude sickness and genetic response in crop plants to flowering times and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. ... full story

It's Filamentary: How Galaxies Evolve in the Cosmic Web

Nov. 20, 2014 — How do galaxies like our Milky Way form, and just how do they evolve? Are galaxies affected by their surrounding environment? Astronomers now propose some answers. The researchers highlight the role ... full story

Quantum Mechanical Calculations Reveal the Hidden States of Enzyme Active Sites

Nov. 20, 2014 — Enzymes carry out fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and respiration, with the help of clusters of metal atoms as 'active' sites. But scientists lack ... full story

Darwin 2.0: New Theory on Speciation, Diversity

Nov. 20, 2014 — It has long been thought that dramatic changes in a landscape like the formation of the Andes Mountain range or the Amazon River is the main driver that initiates species to diverge. However, a ... full story

Unwinding the Mysteries of the Cellular Clock

Nov. 20, 2014 — Underlying circadian rhythms is a clock built of transcription factors that control the oscillation of genes, serving as the wheels and springs of the clock. But, how does a single clock keep time in ... full story

Riddle of the Missing Stars: Hubble Observations Cast Further Doubt on How Globular Clusters Formed

Nov. 20, 2014 — Thanks to the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, some of the most mysterious cosmic residents have just become even more puzzling. New observations of globular clusters in a small galaxy show they are ... full story

Laser from a Plane Discovers Roman Goldmines in Spain

Nov. 20, 2014 — Hidden under the vegetation and crops of the Eria Valley, in Leσn (Spain), there is a gold mining network created by the Romans two thousand years ago, as well as complex hydraulic works, such as ... full story

Flu Virus Key Machine: First Complete View of Structure Revealed

Nov. 20, 2014 — Scientists looking to understand – and potentially thwart – the influenza virus now have a much more encompassing view, thanks to the first complete structure of one of the flu virus’ key ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Massive Die-Off of North American Starfish

Massive Die-Off of North American Starfish

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Nov. 18, 2014) — Scientists identify a deadly virus that has wiped out tens of thousands of starfish along North America's Pacific coast. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
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ESA Releases Images Of Philae's Kilometer-High 'Bounce'

ESA Releases Images Of Philae's Kilometer-High 'Bounce'

Newsy (Nov. 17, 2014) — ESA believes it's found the landing spot for Philae on Comet 67P/C-G, a location hundreds of meters from its first impact with the comet. Video provided by Newsy
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ESA: Probe on Comet After Safe Landing, Sending Data

ESA: Probe on Comet After Safe Landing, Sending Data

AFP (Nov. 13, 2014) — Robot probe Philae bounced twice after its historic comet landing, probably ending up with one leg dangling in space, in the shadow of a cliff that could prevent it fully charging its battery, ground control said Thursday. Duration: 01:01 Video provided by AFP
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Images from Comet Craft Deemed 'spectacular'

Images from Comet Craft Deemed 'spectacular'

AP (Nov. 13, 2014) — Images from the surface of a speeding comet taken by the lander Philae are on Earth. The European Space Agency's mission to comet 67 is operating, but not without power and location issues. (Nov. 13) Video provided by AP
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last updated on 2014-11-20 at 9:48 pm EST

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Worldwide Action Needed to Address Hidden Crisis of Violence Against Women and Girls

Nov. 20, 2014 — Current efforts to prevent violence against women and girls are inadequate, according to a new Series published in The Lancet. Estimates suggest that globally, 1 in 3 women has experienced either ... full story

Tapeworm Found Living Inside a Patient's Brain: Worm Removed and Sequenced

Nov. 20, 2014 — A genome of a rare species of tapeworm found living inside a patient's brain has been sequenced for the first time. The study provides insights into potential drug targets within the genome for ... full story

New Device Reduces Scarring in Damaged Blood Vessels

Nov. 20, 2014 — A new device contains a form of vitamin A that controls inflammatory responses, preventing scar tissue formation and promoting wound healing. The soft, porous, and thin elastic material contains an ... full story

HIV/AIDS Drugs Could Be Repurposed to Treat AMD, Researchers Suggest

Nov. 20, 2014 — Drugs that have been used for the past 30 years to treat HIV/AIDS, could be repurposed to treat the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new study suggests. AMD is a progressive ... full story

Breakthrough in Managing Yellow Fever Disease

Nov. 20, 2014 — Found in South America and sub-Saharan Africa, each year yellow fever results in 200,000 new cases and kills 30,000 people. About 900 million people are at risk of contracting the disease. Now a ... full story

Epidemic Spreading and Neurodegenerative Progression

Nov. 20, 2014 — Researchers have used a model inspired by patterns of epidemic disease spreading to map how misfolded proteins propagate within the ... full story

An Ebola Virus Protein Can Cause Massive Inflammation and Leaky Blood Vessels

Nov. 20, 2014 — Ebola GP protein covers the virus' surface and is shed from infected cells during infection. Shed GP can trigger massive dysregulation of the immune response and affect the permeability of blood ... full story

Staying Ahead of the Game: Pre-Empting Flu Evolution May Make for Better Vaccines

Nov. 20, 2014 — An international team of researchers has shown that it may be possible to improve the effectiveness of the seasonal flu vaccine by 'pre-empting' the evolution of the influenza ... full story

Jogging Keeps You Young: Seniors Who Run Regularly Can Walk as Efficiently as 20-Somethings

Nov. 20, 2014 — A new study is shedding light on an unexpected benefit of jogging in older adults. The study looked at adults over the age of 65 -- some of whom walk for exercise and some who run for exercise. The ... full story

Exercise Regimens Offer Little Benefit for One in Five People With Type 2 Diabetes

Nov. 20, 2014 — As many as one in five people with Type 2 diabetes do not see any improvement in blood sugar management when they engage in a supervised exercise regimen, according to a new scientific ... full story

Research Finds Tooth Enamel Fast-Track in Humans

Nov. 20, 2014 — Researchers have discovered a link between prenatal enamel growth rates in teeth and weaning in human babies. The research found that incisor teeth grow quickly in the early stages of the second ... full story

Brain Training Using Sounds Can Help Aging Brain Ignore Distractions

Nov. 20, 2014 — As we age, we have an increasingly harder time ignoring distractions. But new research reveals that by learning to make discriminations of a sound amidst progressively more disruptive distractions, ... full story

Reprogramming 'Support Cells' Into Neurons Could Repair Injured Adult Brains

Nov. 20, 2014 — The cerebral cortex lacks the ability to replace neurons that die as a result of Alzheimer's, stroke, and other devastating diseases. A new study shows that a Sox2 protein, alone or in combination ... full story

Dominant People Can Be Surprisingly Social

Nov. 20, 2014 — In contrast to the lay stereotype, dominant people prove to be avid social learners, just like dominant individuals in the animal kingdom. Neuroscientists show this with a complex decision-making ... full story

Education Empowers Canadians, but Raises Risks of Overwork, Work-Family Stress

Nov. 20, 2014 — The higher your level of education, the greater your earnings and your sense of “personal mastery” or being in control of your fate, researchers say. But wait: there’s a downside. A new study ... full story

The American Athletics Track Is Still a Man's World

Nov. 20, 2014 — The limited coverage that American female athletes get in the media is one of many subtle forms of gender biases they have to cope with. The little exposure they do get often focuses more on their ... full story

Weight, Eating Habits in Parkinson's Disease

Nov. 20, 2014 — A review of the scientific literature on Parkinson’s disease shows that even the non-motor symptoms associated with the disease can contribute to the changes in body weight seen in patients ... full story

What's Behind Our Music Tastes? Some Common Perceptions

Nov. 20, 2014 — Metal heads, jazz purists and folkies may have more in common musically than you imagined. A new study sheds light on the shared ways in which humans perceive ... full story

Only Half of Patients Take Their Medications as Prescribed: Are There Interventions That Will Help Them?

Nov. 20, 2014 — The cost of patients not taking their medications as prescribed can be substantial in terms of their health. Although a large amount of research evidence has tried to address this problem, there are ... full story

Job Authority Increases Depression Symptoms in Women, Decreases Them in Men

Nov. 20, 2014 — Having job authority increases symptoms of depression among women, but decreases them among men, a new study has ... full story

Scientists Study Effects of Sunlight to Reduce Number of Nearsighted Kids

Nov. 20, 2014 — Kids who spend more time outside are less likely to need glasses for nearsightedness – but scientists don’t know why. Researchers are now looking more closely at physical changes in the eye ... full story

Hand Dryers Can Spread Bacteria in Public Toilets, Research Finds

Nov. 20, 2014 — Modern hand dryers are much worse than paper towels when it comes to spreading germs, according to new research. Airborne germ counts were 27 times higher around jet air dryers in comparison with the ... full story

Oat Oil Preparation Makes You Feel Fuller

Nov. 20, 2014 — Oats contain more fat than other cereals, and oat oil has a unique composition. Researchers have now outlined why oat oil supplement makes you feel ... full story

Bad Marriage, Broken Heart?

Nov. 19, 2014 — Older couples in a bad marriage -- particularly female spouses -- have a higher risk for heart disease than those in a good marriage, finds the first nationally representative study of its ... full story

From Architect to Social Worker: Complex Jobs May Protect Memory and Thinking Later in Life

Nov. 19, 2014 — People whose jobs require more complex work with other people, such as social workers and lawyers, or with data, like architects or graphic designers, may end up having longer-lasting memory and ... full story

A New Test Measures Analytical Thinking Linked to Depression, Fueling the Idea That Depression May Be a Form of Adaptation

Nov. 19, 2014 — Researchers studying the roots of depression have developed a test to measure analytical thinking and rumination, that are hallmarks of the condition, leading them closer to the idea that depression ... full story

Many Older Brains Have Plasticity, but in a Different Place

Nov. 19, 2014 — Brain scientists have long believed that older people have less of the neural flexibility, or plasticity, required to learn new things. A new study shows that older people learned a visual task just ... full story

High Heels May Enhance a Man’s Instinct to Be Helpful

Nov. 19, 2014 — A French study is the first to investigate the effect of a woman’s shoe heels on men’s behavior. If it’s help a woman needs, maybe she should wear high heels. That’s the message from ... full story

It Pays to Have an Eye for Emotions

Nov. 19, 2014 — Attending to and caring about the emotions of employees and colleagues – that's for wimps, not for tough businesspeople and efficient performers, right? Wrong! An extensive international study has ... full story

Taking Antibiotics During Pregnancy Increases Risk for Child Becoming Obese

Nov. 18, 2014 — A study just released by Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health found that children who were exposed to antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy had a higher risk of ... full story

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Nuclear Reactor Fuel Behavior During a Severe Event

Nov. 20, 2014 — A new discovery about the atomic structure of uranium dioxide will help scientists select the best computational model to simulate severe nuclear reactor ... full story

Improved Nanomaterials: Understanding Surface Structure of Quantum Dots Will Aid Design of New Solar Devices

Nov. 20, 2014 — A potential path to identify imperfections and improve the quality of nanomaterials for use in next-generation solar cells has just ... full story

New Technique Allows Ultrasound to Penetrate Bone, Metal

Nov. 20, 2014 — Researchers have developed a technique that allows ultrasound to penetrate bone or metal, using customized structures that offset the distortion usually caused by these so-called 'aberrating ... full story

Scientists Discover Novel Metamaterial Properties Within Hexagonal Boron Nitride

Nov. 20, 2014 — Researchers have demonstrated that confined surface phonon polaritons within hexagonal boron nitride exhibit unique metamaterial properties that enable novel nanoscale optical ... full story

Versatile Bonding for Lightweight Components

Nov. 20, 2014 — New materials are making cars, planes and all sorts of other things lighter. The catch is that many of these materials can't be welded. Now there's an alternative joining method available -- gradient ... full story

A Path to Brighter Images and More Efficient LCD Displays

Nov. 20, 2014 — Engineers have developed a polarizing filter that allows in more light, leading the way for mobile device displays that last much longer on a single battery charge and cameras that can shoot in dim ... full story

Spiraling Light, Nanoparticles and Insights Into Life’s Structure

Nov. 19, 2014 — As hands come in left and right versions that are mirror images of each other, so do the amino acids and sugars within us. But unlike hands, only the left-oriented amino acids and the right-oriented ... full story

Physicists Discover New Subatomic Particles

Nov. 19, 2014 — Physicists have discovered two never-before-seen baryonic particles. The finding is expected to have a major impact on the study of quark ... full story

Thin Film Produces New Chemistry in 'Nanoreactor'

Nov. 19, 2014 — Physicists have discovered a new manganese compound that is produced by tension in the crystal structure of terbium manganese oxide. The technique they used to create this new material could open the ... full story

Giving LEDs a Cozy, Warm Glow

Nov. 19, 2014 — When the 2014 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded this October to three Japanese-born scientists for the invention of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs), the prize committee declared LED lamps would ... full story

Unravelling the Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts With Kilometer-Scale Microphones

Nov. 20, 2014 — A team of scientists hopes to trace the origins of gamma-ray bursts with the aid of giant space ‘microphones’. It's hoped the kilometer-scale microphones will detect gravitational waves created ... full story

NASA's Swift Mission Probes an Exotic Object: 'Kicked' Black Hole or Mega Star?

Nov. 19, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered an unusual source of light in a galaxy some 90 million light-years away. The dwarf galaxy Markarian 177 (center) and its unusual source SDSS1133 (blue) lie 90 million ... full story

Rosetta Continues Into Its Full Science Phase

Nov. 19, 2014 — With the Philae lander's mission complete, Rosetta will now continue its own extraordinary exploration, orbiting Comet 67P/Churymov-Gerasimenko during the coming year as the enigmatic body arcs ever ... full story

Geologic Maps of Vesta Asteroid from NASA's Dawn Mission

Nov. 18, 2014 — Images from NASA's Dawn Mission have been used to create a series of high-resolution geological maps of the large asteroid Vesta, revealing the variety of surface features in unprecedented ... full story

Physicists Suggest New Way to Detect Dark Matter

Nov. 18, 2014 — For years physicists have been looking for the universe's elusive dark matter, but so far no one has seen any trace of it. Maybe we are looking in the wrong place? Now physicists propose a new ... full story

Gravity May Have Saved the Universe After the Big Bang, Say Researchers

Nov. 18, 2014 — Physicists may now be able to explain why the universe did not collapse immediately after the Big Bang. Studies of the Higgs particle -- discovered at CERN in 2012 and responsible for giving mass to ... full story

Geologic Mapping of Asteroid Vesta Reveals History of Large Impacts

Nov. 17, 2014 — A project to map the impact sequence on the asteroid Vesta is helping scientists compare its history to other solar system ... full story

Hiding in Plain Sight: Elusive Dark Matter May Be Detected With GPS Satellites

Nov. 17, 2014 — The everyday use of a GPS device might be to find your way around town or even navigate a hiking trail, but for two physicists, the Global Positioning System might be a tool in directly detecting and ... full story

Warmth, Flowing Water on Early Mars Were Episodic

Nov. 17, 2014 — There is ample evidence that water once flowed on the surface of ancient Mars. But that evidence is difficult to reconcile with the latest generation of climate models that suggest Mars should have ... full story

Rosetta's OSIRIS Camera Spots Philae Lander Drifting Across the Comet

Nov. 17, 2014 — Incredible new images show the breathtaking journey of Rosetta's Philae lander as it approached and then rebounded from its first touchdown on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November ... full story

New Computer Model Predicts Gut Metabolites to Better Understand Gastrointestinal Disease

Nov. 20, 2014 — The first research to use computational modeling to predict and identify the metabolic products of gastrointestinal (GI) tract microorganisms has been published by researchers. Understanding these ... full story

Social Sensing Game Detects Classroom Bullies

Nov. 19, 2014 — Researchers have developed a computer game that can detect classroom bullies, victims and bystanders. The game's behavior analyses effectively identify classroom bullies, even revealing peer ... full story

Testing If a Computer Has Human-Level Intelligence: Alternative to 'Turing Test' Proposed

Nov. 19, 2014 — Researchers are offering an alternative to the celebrated “Turing Test” to determine whether a machine or computer program exhibits human-level ... full story

A 3-D, Talking Map for the Blind (and Everyone Else)

Nov. 19, 2014 — Developers have built and tested a new kind of interactive wayfinder: 3-D maps that vocalize building information and directions when ... full story

Computer Model Provides a New Portrait of Carbon Dioxide

Nov. 17, 2014 — An ultra-high-resolution computer model has given scientists a stunning new look at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe. Plumes of carbon dioxide in the simulation swirl and ... full story

Credit Score Can Also Describe Health Status

Nov. 17, 2014 — A credit score also says something about a person's health status, according to a new analysis from a long-term study of the physical and mental health of more than 1,000 New Zealanders. An ... full story

Engineers Efficiently 'Mix' Light at the Nanoscale

Nov. 17, 2014 — Researchers have engineered a nanowire system that could pave the way for photonic computing, combining two light waves to produce a third with a different frequency and using an optical cavity to ... full story

New Technique to Help Produce Next Generation Photonic Chips

Nov. 17, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new technique to help produce more reliable and robust next generation photonic chips. Photonic chips made from silicon will play a major role in future optical networks ... full story

Engineers Develop Innovative Process to Print Flexible Electronic Circuits

Nov. 17, 2014 — Engineers have successfully printed complex electronic circuits using a common t-shirt printer. The electronic circuits are printed using unique materials in layers on top of everyday flexible ... full story

Magic Tricks Created Using Artificial Intelligence for the First Time

Nov. 16, 2014 — Researchers working on artificial intelligence have taught a computer to create magic tricks. The researchers gave a computer program the outline of how a magic jigsaw puzzle and a mind reading card ... full story

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Deep-Earth Carbon Offers Clues on Origin of Life on Earth: New Organic Carbon Species Linked to Formation of Diamonds -- And Life Itself

Nov. 20, 2014 — Scientists reveal details about carbon deep beneath the Earth’s surface and suggest ways it might have influenced the history of life on the ... full story

Genetic Connivances of Digits and Genitals: Formation of These Embryonic Structures Involves Action of Very Similar Group of Genes

Nov. 20, 2014 — During the development of mammals, the growth and organization of digits are orchestrated by Hox genes, which are activated very early in precise regions of the embryo. These 'architect genes' are ... full story

Nitrogen Sensor Widespread in the Plant Kingdom

Nov. 20, 2014 — Quantitatively, nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for the growth of plant organisms – from simple green algae to highly developed flowering plants. Nitrogen supply is essential for ... full story

Bacterial Slime: It's What's for Dinner

Nov. 20, 2014 — If natural or humanmade disaster strikes, causing global crop failures, the world won't starve -- providing they are willing to eat bacterial slime and bugs. "People have been doing catastrophic risk ... full story

Unique Sense of 'Touch' Gives a Prolific Bacterium Its Ability to Infect Anything

Nov. 19, 2014 — One of the world's most prolific bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, manages to afflict humans, animals and even plants by way of a mechanism not before seen in any infectious microorganism -- a sense ... full story

Environmental Bleaching Impairs Long-Term Coral Reproduction

Nov. 19, 2014 — Bleaching -- a process where high water temperatures or UV light stresses the coral to the point where it loses its symbiotic algal partner that provides the coral with color -- is also affecting the ... full story

Boosts in Productivity of Corn and Other Crops Modify Northern Hemisphere Carbon Dioxide Cycle

Nov. 19, 2014 — In the Northern Hemisphere, there's a strong seasonal cycle of vegetation. Each year in the Northern Hemisphere, levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide drop in the summer as plants "inhale," then climb ... full story

'Green Revolution' Changes Breathing of the Biosphere: Stronger Seasonal Oscillations in Carbon Dioxide Linked to Intensive Agriculture

Nov. 19, 2014 — The intense farming practices of the 'Green Revolution' are powerful enough to alter Earth's atmosphere at an ever-increasing rate, boosting the seasonal amplitude in atmospheric carbon dioxide to ... full story

Natural Gut Viruses Join Bacterial Cousins in Maintaining Health and Fighting Infections

Nov. 19, 2014 — Microbiologists say they have what may be the first strong evidence that the natural presence of viruses in the gut — or what they call the ‘virome’ — plays a health-maintenance and ... full story

'Aquatic Osteoporosis' Jellifying Lakes

Nov. 19, 2014 — A plague of “aquatic osteoporosis” is spreading throughout many North American soft-water lakes due to declining calcium levels in the water and hindering the survival of some organisms. The ... full story

Time-Lapse Photos and Synched Weather Data Unlock Antarctic Secrets

Nov. 20, 2014 — Researchers are using time-lapse photography, linked to weather data, to study climate and geological change in the Antarctic Dry ... full story

China's New 'Great Wall' Not So Great, Experts Say

Nov. 20, 2014 — China's second great wall, a vast seawall covering more than half of the country's mainland coastline, is a foundation for financial gain -- and also a dyke holding a swelling rush of ecological ... full story

Salinity Counts When It Comes to Sea Level

Nov. 20, 2014 — Using ocean observations and a large suite of climate models, scientists have found that long-term salinity changes have a stronger influence on regional sea level changes than previously ... full story

Mediterranean Meteorological Tide Has Increased by Over a Millimeter a Year Since 1989

Nov. 20, 2014 — A new database provides data on sea level variation due to atmospheric changes in the south of Europe between 1948 and 2009. Over the last two decades sea levels have increased in the Mediterranean ... full story

Opinion Poll: Canada’s Climate Change Consensus Confronts Keystone

Nov. 20, 2014 — Despite the fact that 81% of Canadians accept that temperature on Earth is increasing, researchers have revealed that Canadians are generally misinformed about the science of climate change and are ... full story

Permafrost Soil: Possible Source of Abrupt Rise in Greenhouse Gases at End of Last Ice Age

Nov. 20, 2014 — Scientists have identified a possible source of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that were abruptly released to the atmosphere in large quantities around 14,600 years ... full story

Wild Weather in the Arctic Causes Problems for People and Wildlife

Nov. 19, 2014 — The residents of Longyearbyen, the largest town on the Norwegian arctic island archipelago of Svalbard, remember it as the week that the weather gods caused trouble.  Temperatures were ridiculously ... full story

Little Ice Age Was Global: Implications for Current Global Warming

Nov. 19, 2014 — Researchers have shed new light on the climate of the Little Ice Age, and rekindled debate over the role of the sun in climate change. The new study, which involved detailed scientific examination of ... full story

Geologists Shed Light on Formation of Alaska Range

Nov. 19, 2014 — Geologists have recently figured out what has caused the Alaska Range to form the way it has and why the range boasts such an enigmatic topographic signature. The narrow mountain range is home to ... full story

Prehistoric Landslide Discovery Rivals Largest Known on Surface of Earth

Nov. 19, 2014 — A catastrophic landslide that rivals in size the largest known gravity slide on the surface of the Earth has been mapped in southwestern Utah by geologists. The Markagunt gravity slide, the size of ... full story

Seed Dormancy, a Property That Prevents Germination, Already Existed 360 Million Years Ago

Nov. 19, 2014 — Scientists have found that seed dormancy (a property that prevents germination under non-favorable conditions) was a feature already present in the first seeds, 360 million years ... full story

Ancient Genetic Program Employed in More Than Just Fins and Limbs: Hox Genes Provide Blueprint for a Diversity of Body Plan Features

Nov. 19, 2014 — Researchers have found that the Hox gene program, responsible for directing the development of fins and limbs, is also utilized to develop other body part features of vertebrates, such as barbels and ... full story

Ancient New Zealand 'Dawn Whale' Identified

Nov. 18, 2014 — Palaeontologists are rewriting the history of New Zealand's ancient whales by describing a previously unknown genus of fossil baleen whales and two species within it. The two whales, which lived ... full story

Surviving an Ice Age: Mammals Didn't Play by the Rules of Modeling on Where They Migrated to Survive Last Ice Age

Nov. 18, 2014 — Leave it to long-dead short-tailed shrew and flying squirrels to outfox climate-modelers trying to predict future habitats. Evidence from the fossil record shows that gluttonous insect-eating shrew ... full story

Were Neanderthals a Sub-Species of Modern Humans? New Research Says No

Nov. 18, 2014 — Researchers have identified new evidence supporting the growing belief that Neanderthals were a distinct species separate from modern humans (Homo sapiens), and not a subspecies of modern ... full story

A Bird's-Eye View of the Protein Universe: First Global Picture of the Evolutionary Origins of Proteins

Nov. 18, 2014 — How exactly did proteins first come to be? Do they all share a single common ancestor, or did proteins evolve from many different origins? Forming a global picture of the protein universe is crucial ... full story

Jurassic Climate of Large Swath of Western U.S. Was More Complex Than Previously Known: Unexpected Abrupt Change from Arid to Wet

Nov. 18, 2014 — Climate over a large swath of the western US was more complex during the Jurassic than previously known, according to new research. Instead of a gradual transition from dry to wetter, chemical ... full story

Viking Fortress Discovery: Archaeological Dating Results

Nov. 18, 2014 — In September 2014, archaeologists announced the discovery of a Viking fortress in a field belonging to Vallψ Manor, located west of Kψge on the east coast of Sealand. This was the first discovery ... full story

Climate Change Was Not to Blame for the Collapse of the Bronze Age

Nov. 17, 2014 — Scientists will have to find alternative explanations for a huge population collapse in Europe at the end of the Bronze Age as researchers prove definitively that climate change -- commonly assumed ... full story

Evolutionary Constraints Revealed in Diversity of Fish Skulls

Nov. 17, 2014 — In the aquatic environment, suction feeding is far more common than biting as a way to capture prey. A new study shows that the evolution of biting behavior in eels led to a remarkable ... full story

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Identifying Onset of Local Influenza Outbreaks: New Tool

Nov. 20, 2014 — Hospital epidemiologists and others responsible for public health decisions do not declare the start of flu season lightly. All the extra precautions cost time and money, so they do not want to ... full story

Terrorist Attacks Decrease Fertility Levels, Says New Research

Nov. 19, 2014 — On average, terrorist attacks decrease fertility, reducing both the expected number of children a woman has over her lifetime and the number of live births occurring during each year, a new study has ... full story

Why We Need to Fund Newer Blood-Thinning Agents to Prevent Strokes

Nov. 19, 2014 — Care gaps are emerging due to disharmony between healthcare reimbursement policies and evidence-based clinical guideline recommendations, cautions a group of Canadian physicians. They use the example ... full story

Global Surge in ADHD Diagnosis Has More to Do With Marketing Than Medicine, Expert Suggests

Nov. 18, 2014 — A new article attributes ADHD's global growth to five trends: expanded, overseas lobbying efforts by drug companies; the growth of biological psychiatry; the adaptation of the American-based ... full story

History's Lesson Reveals Depth of Fish Catch Decline

Nov. 18, 2014 — Scientists in Australia have used historic media to measure the decline in Queensland's pink snapper fishery, highlighting a drop of almost 90 percent in catch rates since the 19th ... full story

Being Poor Is Not the Same Everywhere

Nov. 18, 2014 — Young people growing up in impoverished neighborhoods who perceive their poor communities in a positive light report better health and well-being than those with worse perceptions of where they live, ... full story

Alcohol Taxes Can Improve Health, Lead to More Jobs

Nov. 18, 2014 — Alcohol tax increases reduce the harms resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, and may lead to a small net increase in the number of jobs, according to new ... full story

Businesses Can Help Preserve Endangered Species With Small Landscape Changes

Nov. 17, 2014 — Businesses can contribute to raptor preservation efforts by engaging in less development of lawn areas and increased planting or preservation of native grasslands and woodlots. As more businesses are ... full story

Worldwide Ship Traffic Up 300 Percent Since 1992

Nov. 17, 2014 — Maritime traffic on the world's oceans has increased four-fold over the past 20 years, likely causing more water, air and noise pollution on the open seas, according to a new study quantifying global ... full story

Adjusting Earth’s Thermostat, With Caution

Nov. 17, 2014 — A vast majority of scientists believe that the Earth is warming at an unprecedented rate and that human activity is almost certainly the dominant cause. But on the topics of response and mitigation, ... full story

Verbal Abuse in the Workplace: Are Men or Women Most at Risk?

Nov. 18, 2014 — There is no significant difference in the prevalence of verbal abuse in the workplace between men and women, according to a systematic review of the literature. Verbal abuse is the most common form ... full story

Model for Evaluating Product-Recommendation Algorithms Suggests That Trial and Error Get It Right

Nov. 14, 2014 — A model for evaluating product-recommendation algorithms suggests that trial and error get it right. Researchers will present a paper that applies their model to the recommendation engines that are ... full story

Obesity-Related Work Absences Are 'Financial Drain' for States

Nov. 13, 2014 — Obese workers miss more work days, and those absences carry high costs at the state and national level, according to a study. "Obesity-attributable absenteeism among American workers costs the nation ... full story

Disease Could Cost Black Walnut Industry Millions, Forest Specialist Warns

Nov. 13, 2014 — Thousand cankers disease, which kills black walnut trees, has been confirmed in 15 states. Now experts are warning people to avoid moving firewood or lumber this winter to prevent spreading the ... full story

Mothers Nurture Emotions in Girls Over Boys, New Study Finds

Nov. 12, 2014 — Conversations mothers have with their daughters tend to contain more emotional words and content, than the conversations they have with their sons, new research has found. "This inevitably leads to ... full story

For Leaders, Looking Intelligent Is Less Important Than Looking Healthy

Nov. 5, 2014 — People look for candidates with a healthy complexion when choosing a leader, but don't favor the most intelligent-looking candidates except for positions that require negotiation between groups or ... full story

This Just In: Political Correctness Pumps Up Productivity on the Job

Nov. 4, 2014 — Political correctness, loathed by some as censorship awash in leftist philosophy, actually boosts the creativity of mixed-sex work teams. These results highlight a paradoxical consequence: A term ... full story

Where'd You Get That Great Idea?

Nov. 4, 2014 — Is it better to 'think outside the box,' or to build on something more closely related to the problem one is trying to solve? Researchers have collected surprising evidence that nearer is ... full story

Long Term Shift Work Linked to Impaired Brain Power

Nov. 3, 2014 — Long term shift work is linked to impaired brain power, finds research. The impact (for rotating shift patterns, at least) was stronger after a period of 10 or more years of exposure. And although ... full story

Walking Workstations Improve Physical, Mental Health, Builds Healthier Workplace

Oct. 29, 2014 — Walking workstations can improve not only physical, but also mental health during the workday, a new study has found. With growing concerns regarding obesity in the United States, the author hopes ... full story

Training Can Lead to Synesthetic Experiences: Does Learning the 'Color Of' Specific Letters Boost IQ?

Nov. 18, 2014 — A new study has shown for the first time how people can be trained to 'see' letters of the alphabet as colors in a way that simulates how those with synesthesia experience their ... full story

‘Smart’ Drugs Won’t Make Smart People Smarter, Research Concludes

Nov. 12, 2014 — It is claimed one in five students have taken the ‘smart’ drug Modafinil to boost their ability to study and improve their chances of exam success. But new research into the effects of Modafinil ... full story

Self-Inflation Harms Kids' Relationships at School

Nov. 12, 2014 — 'I am the smartest kid in class.' We all want our kids to be self-confident, but unrealistic perceptions of their academic abilities can be harmful. These unrealistic views, a new study of ... full story

Sleep Starts Later as Teens Age, but School Still Starts Early

Nov. 7, 2014 — By following dozens of younger and older adolescents for more than two years, researchers in a new study were able to determine that the children fell asleep later and their circadian rhythms shifted ... full story

School Lunches Offer Better Average Nutrition Than Packed Lunches, U.S. Study Finds

Nov. 7, 2014 — Approximately 60% of the more than 50 million public elementary and secondary education students obtain a substantial portion of their daily calories from school lunches. The 2012–2013 National ... full story

Transitions Between States of Matter: It’s More Complicated, Scientists Find

Nov. 6, 2014 — The seemingly simple process of phase changes -- those transitions between states of matter -- is more complex than previously known. New work reveals the need to rethink one of science's building ... full story

Links Between Grammar, Rhythm Explored by Researchers

Nov. 5, 2014 — A child's ability to distinguish musical rhythm is related to his or her capacity for understanding grammar, according to a recent study. The study is the first of its kind to show an association ... full story

Dance Choreography Improves Girls' Computational Skills

Nov. 3, 2014 — Blending movement and computer programming supports girls in building computational thinking skills, according to an ongoing study. This is important research, as even with increasing demands for ... full story

Fun and Games Make for Better Learners

Oct. 31, 2014 — Four minutes of physical activity can improve behavior in the classroom for primary school students, according to new research. A brief, high-intensity interval exercise, or a 'FUNterval,' for Grade ... full story

Availability of Tanning Beds On, Near College Campuses

Oct. 29, 2014 — Among the top 125 colleges on a list compiled by US News & World Report, 48 percent have indoor tanning facilities either on campus or in off-campus housing despite evidence that tanning is a risk ... full story

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