Today's Science News

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Animals First Flex Their Muscles: Earliest Fossil Evidence for Animals With Muscles

Aug. 26, 2014 — A new fossil discovery identifies the earliest evidence for animals with muscles. An unusual new fossil discovery of one of the earliest animals on earth may also provide the oldest evidence of ... full story

Gut Bacteria That Protect Against Food Allergies Identified

Aug. 25, 2014 — The presence of Clostridia, a common class of gut bacteria, protects against food allergies, a new study in mice finds. The discovery points toward probiotic therapies for this so-far untreatable ... full story

Taung Child's Brain Development Not Human-Like? CT Scan Casts Doubt on Similarity to That of Modern Humans

Aug. 25, 2014 — By subjecting the skull of the famous Taung Child to the latest CT scan technology, researchers are now casting doubt on theories that Australopithecus africanus shows the same cranial adaptations ... full story

Natural Methane Seepage on U.S. Atlantic Ocean Margin Widespread

Aug. 25, 2014 — Natural methane leakage from the seafloor is far more widespread on the U.S. Atlantic margin than previously thought, according to a study by researchers from Mississippi State University, the U.S. ... full story

Scientists Grow an Organ in an Animal from Cells Created in Lab

Aug. 25, 2014 — Scientists have grown a fully functional organ from transplanted laboratory-created cells in a living animal for the first time. The researchers have created a thymus -- an organ next to the heart ... full story

Marching in Unison May Increase Risk of Use of Excessive Force in Policing Protests

Aug. 27, 2014 — What if the simple act of marching in unison -- as riot police commonly do -- increases the likelihood that law enforcement will use excessive force in policing protests? That's the suggestion ... full story

Measurement at Big Bang Conditions Confirms Lithium Problem

Aug. 27, 2014 — The field of astrophysics has a stubborn problem and it's called lithium. The quantities of lithium predicted to have resulted from the Big Bang are not actually present in stars. But the ... full story

What Lit Up the Universe?

Aug. 27, 2014 — New research shows we will soon uncover the origin of the ultraviolet light that bathes the cosmos, helping scientists understand how galaxies were built. The study by cosmologists shows how ... full story

The Evolutionary Roots of Human Altruism

Aug. 27, 2014 — Scientists have long been searching for the factor that determines why humans often behave so selflessly. It was known that humans share this tendency with species of small Latin American primates of ... full story

Fever's Origin Discovered by Researchers

Aug. 26, 2014 — Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. Researchers can now see precisely where these substances are produced -- a discovery that ... full story

Sheepdogs Use Simple Rules to Herd Sheep

Aug. 26, 2014 — Sheepdogs use just two simple rules to round up large herds of sheep, scientists have discovered. The findings could lead to the development of robots that can gather and herd livestock, crowd ... full story

Composition of Earth's Mantle Revisited

Aug. 26, 2014 — The makeup of Earth's lower mantle, which makes up the largest part of the Earth by volume, is significantly different than previously thought, research suggests. This should shed light on ... full story

Best View Yet of Merging Galaxies in Distant Universe

Aug. 26, 2014 — Astronomers have obtained the best view yet of a collision between two galaxies when the Universe was only half its current age. To make this observation, the team also enlisted the help of a ... full story

Trash Burning Worldwide Significantly Worsens Air Pollution

Aug. 26, 2014 — Unregulated trash burning around the globe is pumping far more pollution into the atmosphere than shown by official records. A new study estimates that more than 40 percent of the world's ... full story

Do We Live in a 2-D Hologram? Experiment Will Test the Nature of the Universe

Aug. 26, 2014 — A unique experiment called the Holometer has started collecting data that will answer some mind-bending questions about our universe -- including whether we live in a ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Reuters - Business Video Online (Aug. 22, 2014) — UK-based Malloy Aeronautics is preparing to test a manned quadcopter capable of out-manouvering a helicopter and presenting a new paradigm for aerial vehicles. A 1/3-sized scale model is already gaining popularity with drone enthusiasts around the world, with the full-sized manned model expected to take flight in the near future. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Neanderthals Probably Died Out Earlier Than We Thought

Neanderthals Probably Died Out Earlier Than We Thought

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) — A new study is packed with interesting Neanderthal-related findings, including a "definitive answer" to when they went extinct. Video provided by Newsy
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Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — A U.S. team found nearly 4,000 species in a subglacial lake that hasn't seen sunlight in millennia, showing life can thrive even under the ice. Video provided by Newsy
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Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — Poachers have killed 100,000 elephants between 2010 and 2012, as the booming ivory trade takes its toll on the animals in Africa. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-08-27 at 5:13 pm EDT

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First Study of Brain Activation in MS Using fNIRS

Aug. 27, 2014 — Using functional near infrared spectroscopy, researchers showed differential brain activation patterns between people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. This is first MS study to ... full story

Encyclopedia of How Genomes Function Gets Much Bigger

Aug. 27, 2014 — A big step in understanding the mysteries of the human genome has been unveiled in the form of three analyses that provide the most detailed comparison yet of how the genomes of the fruit fly, ... full story

Junk Food Makes Rats Lose Appetite for Balanced Diet

Aug. 27, 2014 — A diet of junk food not only makes rats fat, but also reduces their appetite for novel foods, a preference that normally drives them to seek a balanced diet, reports a study. "The interesting thing ... full story

Marijuana Compound May Offer Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

Aug. 27, 2014 — Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a recent study from neuroscientists ... full story

Neuroscientists Reverse Memories' Emotional Associations: Brain Circuit That Links Feelings to Memories Manipulated

Aug. 27, 2014 — Most memories have some kind of emotion associated with them: Recalling the week you just spent at the beach probably makes you feel happy, while reflecting on being bullied provokes more negative ... full story

Educated Consumers More Likely to Use Potentially Unreliable Online Healthcare Information

Aug. 27, 2014 — Consumers are increasingly turning to forums, video-sharing sites, and peer support groups to gather anecdotal health-care information and advice, which may distract them from more reliable and ... full story

Impact of Cultural Diversity in Brain Injury Research

Aug. 27, 2014 — The implications for cultural diversity and cultural competence in brain injury research and rehabilitation has been the focus of recent study. Risk for brain injury is higher among minorities, as is ... full story

'Junk' Blood Tests May Offer Life-Saving Information

Aug. 27, 2014 — Thirty percent of all positive hospital blood culture samples are discarded every day because they reflect the presence of skin germs instead of specific disease-causing bacteria. Now research ... full story

New Smartphone App Can Detect Newborn Jaundice in Minutes

Aug. 27, 2014 — Engineers and physicians have developed a smartphone application that checks for jaundice in newborns and can deliver results to parents and pediatricians within minutes. Skin that turns yellow can ... full story

Promising New Cancer Therapy Uses Molecular 'Trash Man' to Exploit a Common Cancer Defense

Aug. 27, 2014 — While many scientists are trying to prevent the onset of a cancer defense mechanism known as autophagy, other researchers are leveraging it in a new therapy that causes the process to culminate in ... full story

Stop and Listen: Study Shows How Movement Affects Hearing

Aug. 27, 2014 — When we want to listen carefully to someone, the first thing we do is stop talking. The second thing we do is stop moving altogether. The interplay between movement and hearing has a counterpart deep ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 — Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

Stone-Tipped Spears Lethal, May Indicate Early Cognitive and Social Skills

Aug. 27, 2014 — Attaching a stone tip on to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and ... full story

Emotional Association of Memories Changed by Researchers

Aug. 27, 2014 — By manipulating neural circuits in the brain of mice, scientists have altered the emotional associations of specific memories. The research reveals that the connections between the part of the brain ... full story

Flexing the Brain: Why Learning Tasks Can Be Difficult

Aug. 27, 2014 — Learning a new skill is easier when it is related to an ability we already have. For example, a trained pianist can learn a new melody easier than learning how to hit a tennis serve. Scientists have ... full story

Parents, Listen Next Time Your Baby Babbles

Aug. 27, 2014 — Parents who try to understand their baby's babbling let their infants know they can communicate, which leads to children forming complex sounds and using language more quickly. The study's results ... full story

Group Identity Emphasized More by Those Who Just Make the Cut

Aug. 27, 2014 — People and institutions who are marginal members of a high-status or well-esteemed group tend to emphasize their group membership more than those who are squarely entrenched members of the group, ... full story

Gamblers Are Greedy Bird-Brains, New Research Finds

Aug. 27, 2014 — Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions, new research has shown. Researchers conducted tests that found that both human gamblers and pigeons were 35% more likely ... full story

Fear, Safety and the Role of Sleep in Human PTDS

Aug. 27, 2014 — The effectiveness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment may hinge significantly upon sleep quality, report researchers. PTSD is an often difficult-to-treat mental health condition ... full story

Protecting Brains of Very Preterm Infants

Aug. 26, 2014 — Premature babies are far more at risk than infants born at term of developing brain damage resulting in neurodevelopmental delay that may persist throughout their lives. A team of specialists in ... full story

Fighting Prostate Cancer With Tomato-Rich Diet

Aug. 27, 2014 — Men who eat over 10 portions a week of tomatoes have an 18 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer, new research suggests. With 35,000 new cases every year in the UK, and around 10,000 ... full story

Eat Your Fruits, Vegetables for Skin With Sun-Kissed Glow

Aug. 27, 2014 — Forget sun beds, sunbathing and fake tanning lotions. The secret to a healthy glow lies in eating your five-a-day servings of fruit and vegetables, reveals new breakthrough research. This research is ... full story

New Estrogen-Based Compound Suppresses Binge-Like Eating Behavior in Female Mice

Aug. 26, 2014 — The hormone estrogen can specifically trigger brain serotonin neurons to inhibit binge eating in female mice, researchers report. They add that this result is consistent with data in humans. "We can ... full story

Study Finds Less Domestic Violence Among Married Couples Who Smoke Pot

Aug. 26, 2014 — New research findings from a study of 634 couples found that the more often they smoked marijuana, the less likely they were to engage in domestic violence. "These findings suggest that marijuana use ... full story

Link Between Prenatal Antidepressant Exposure, Autism Risk Called Into Question

Aug. 26, 2014 — Previous studies that have suggested an increased risk of autism among children of women who took antidepressants during pregnancy may actually reflect the known increased risk associated with severe ... full story

Ever Growing Number of Women With Gestational Diabetes Suggests Future Will Be Filled With Children With Early Diabetes

Aug. 25, 2014 — Children exposed to gestational diabetes in the wombs of their mothers are themselves around six times more likely to develop diabetes or prediabetes than children not exposed, research shows. With ... full story

New Gluten-Free Ingredient May Cause Allergic Reaction, Expert Warns

Aug. 25, 2014 — A popular legume used in other countries is showing up in more U.S. gluten-free products. A food safety specialist explains why people with peanut and soybean allergies need to be cautious: "Lupin is ... full story

Expectant Parents' Play With Doll Predicts Later Parenting Behavior

Aug. 25, 2014 — Having expectant parents role-play interacting with an infant using a doll can help predict which couples may be headed for co-parenting conflicts when their baby arrives. Results showed that couples ... full story

Train Your Heart to Protect Your Mind

Aug. 25, 2014 — Exercising to improve our cardiovascular strength may protect us from cognitive impairment as we age, according to a new study. "Our body's arteries stiffen with age, and the vessel hardening is ... full story

Women With Severe, Chronic Health Issues Are Screened for Breast Cancer Less Often

Aug. 22, 2014 — Women with severe disabilities and multiple chronic conditions are screened for breast cancer less often than women with no disabilities or no chronic conditions, a new study has found. Worldwide, ... full story

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Nanodiamonds Are Forever: Did Comet Collision Leave Layer of Nanodiamonds Across Earth?

Aug. 27, 2014 — A comet collision with Earth caused abrupt environmental stress and degradation that contributed to the extinction of most large animal species then inhabiting the Americas, a group of scientists ... full story

Rubber Meets the Road With New Carbon, Battery Technologies

Aug. 27, 2014 — Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say researchers. By modifying the ... full story

Breaking Benzene Selectively, at Relatively Mild Temperatures

Aug. 27, 2014 — Scientists have demonstrated a way to use a metallic complex, trinuclear titanium hydride, to accomplish the task of activating benzene by breaking the aromatic carbon-carbon bonds at relatively mild ... full story

Detecting Neutrinos, Physicists Look Into the Heart of the Sun

Aug. 27, 2014 — Using one of the most sensitive neutrino detectors on the planet, physicists have directly detected neutrinos created by the 'keystone' proton-proton fusion process going on at the sun's core for the ... full story

Materials Other Than Silicon for Next Generation Electronic Devices

Aug. 27, 2014 — Silicon has been the most successful material of the 20th century, with major global industries and even a valley named after it. But silicon may be running out of steam for high performance/low ... full story

Leading Scientists Call for a Stop to Non-Essential Use of Fluorochemicals

Aug. 27, 2014 — A number of leading international researchers recommend that fluorochemicals are only used where they are absolutely essential, until better methods exist to measure the chemicals and more is known ... full story

Thunder God Vine, With Assists by Nanotechnology, Could Shake Up Future Cancer Treatment

Aug. 27, 2014 — Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. These regrettably poor prognoses are due to the difficulty in treating this cancer using conventional chemo ... full story

Sorting Cells With Sound Waves

Aug. 26, 2014 — Researchers have devised a new way to separate cells by exposing them to sound waves as they flow through a tiny channel. Their device, about the size of a dime, could be used to detect the extremely ... full story

Atomically Seamless, Thinnest-Possible Semiconductor Junctions Crafted by Scientists

Aug. 26, 2014 — Two single-layer semiconductor materials can be connected in an atomically seamless fashion known as a heterojunction, researchers say. This result could be the basis for next-generation flexible and ... full story

New Technology May Identify Tiny Strains in Body Tissues Before Injuries Occur

Aug. 26, 2014 — Algorithms to identify weak spots in tendons, muscles and bones prone to tearing or breaking have been developed by researchers. The technology, which needs to be refined before it is used in ... full story

Red Planet's Climate History Uncovered in Unique Meteorite

Aug. 27, 2014 — Was Mars — now a cold, dry place — once a warm, wet planet that sustained life? Research underway may one day answer those questions — and perhaps even help pave the way for future colonization ... full story

Early Growth of Giant Galaxy, Just 3 Billion Years After the Big Bang, Revealed

Aug. 27, 2014 — The birth of massive galaxies, according to galaxy formation theories, begins with the buildup of a dense, compact core that is ablaze with the glow of millions of newly formed stars. Evidence of ... full story

Orion Rocks! Pebble-Size Particles May Jump-Start Planet Formation

Aug. 27, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that filaments of star-forming gas near the Orion Nebula may be brimming with pebble-size particles -- planetary building blocks 100 to 1,000 times larger than the dust ... full story

World's First ZigBee-Based Inter-Satellite Comms System

Aug. 25, 2014 — Engineers have successfully piloted the world's first ZigBee-based inter-satellite communication system. Designed to evaluate the performance of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in space, the ... full story

Voyager Map Details Neptune's Strange Moon Triton

Aug. 22, 2014 — NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft gave humanity its first close-up look at Neptune and its moon Triton in the summer of 1989. Like an old film, Voyager's historic footage of Triton has been "restored" and ... full story

Spectacular Supernova's Mysteries Revealed

Aug. 22, 2014 — Astronomers are delving into the mystery of what caused a spectacular supernova in a galaxy 11 million light years away, seen earlier this year. The supernova, a giant explosion of a star and the ... full story

Electric Sparks May Alter Evolution of Lunar Soil

Aug. 21, 2014 — The moon appears to be a tranquil place, but new modeling suggests that, over the eons, periodic storms of solar energetic particles may have significantly altered the properties of the soil in the ... full story

Your Toothpaste's Fluorine Formed in the Stars

Aug. 21, 2014 — The fluorine that is found in products such as toothpaste was likely formed billions of years ago in now-dead stars of the same type as our sun, according to new research by ... full story

First LOFAR Observations of 'Whirlpool Galaxy'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Using a radio telescope with frequencies just above those of commercial FM radio stations, a European team of astronomers has obtained the most sensitive image of a galaxy below 1 ... full story

A Spectacular Landscape of Star Formation

Aug. 20, 2014 — A new image shows two dramatic star formation regions in the southern Milky Way. The first is of these, on the left, is dominated by the star cluster NGC 3603, located 20,000 light-years away, in the ... full story

More Accurate Twitter Analysis Tools Developed

Aug. 27, 2014 — 'Trending' topics on Twitter show the quantity of tweets associated with a specific event but trends only show the highest volume keywords and hashtags, and may not give information about the tweets ... full story

Symphony of Nanoplasmonic and Optical Resonators Produces Laser-Like Light Emission

Aug. 26, 2014 — By combining plasmonics and optical microresonators, researchers have created a new optical amplifier (or laser) design, paving the way for power-on-a-chip ... full story

Laser Pulse Turns Glass Into a Metal: New Effect Could Be Used for Ultra-Fast Logical Switches

Aug. 26, 2014 — For tiny fractions of a second, quartz glass can take on metallic properties, when it is illuminated be a laser pulse. This has been shown by new calculations. The effect could be used to build ... full story

Eye Implant Could Lead to Better Glaucoma Treatments

Aug. 26, 2014 — Lowering internal eye pressure is currently the only way to treat glaucoma. A tiny eye implant recently developed could pair with a smartphone to improve the way doctors measure and lower a patient's ... full story

Wii Balance Board Induces Changes in Brains of People With Multiple Sclerosis

Aug. 26, 2014 — A balance board accessory for a popular video game console can help people with multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce their risk of accidental falls, according to new research. Magnetic resonance imaging ... full story

Razor-Sharp TV Images With 4K Definition

Aug. 26, 2014 — The future of movie, sports and concert broadcasting lies in 4K definition, which will bring cinema quality TV viewing into people’s homes. 4K Ultra HD has four times as many pixels as today’s ... full story

Better Than CAPTCHA: Improved Method to Let Computers Know You Are Human

Aug. 25, 2014 — Researchers are investigating game-based verification that may improve computer security and reduce user frustration compared to typical “type-what-you-see” CAPTCHA tools that use static ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 — The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

Learning by Watching, Toddlers Show Intuitive Understanding of Probability

Aug. 25, 2014 — Most people know children learn many skills simply by watching people around them. Without explicit instructions youngsters know to do things like press a button to operate the television and twist a ... full story

Physics Research Removes Outcome Unpredictability of Ultracold Atomic Reactions

Aug. 25, 2014 — A physics model helps scientists accurately predict the likely outcome of a chemical reaction as well as sheds new light on mysterious quantum states, including the Efimov ... full story

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Water 'Thermostat' Could Help Engineer Drought-Resistant Crops

Aug. 27, 2014 — A gene that could help engineer drought-resistant crops has been identified by researchers. The gene, called OSCA1, encodes a protein in the cell membrane of plants that senses changes in water ... full story

Bronze Age Wine Cellar Found: Wine Residue, Herbal Additives Found in Palace Cellar Jars

Aug. 27, 2014 — A Bronze Age palace excavation reveals an ancient wine cellar. Wine production, distribution, and consumption are thought to have played a role in the lives of those living in the Mediterranean and ... full story

Wolves Susceptible to Yawn Contagion: Social Bonds May Increase Yawning Contagion Between Wolves

Aug. 27, 2014 — Wolves may be susceptible to yawn contagion, according to a new study. Researchers suggest that contagious yawning may be linked to human capacity for empathy, but little evidence apart from studies ... full story

More Wolf Spiders Feasting on American Toads Due to Invasive Grass, Study Shows

Aug. 27, 2014 — An invasive grass species frequently found in forests has created a thriving habitat for wolf spiders, who then feed on American toads, a new study has found. Japanese stiltgrass, which was ... full story

Shared Biology in Human, Fly and Worm Genomes: Powerful Commonalities in Biological Activity, Regulation

Aug. 27, 2014 — Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings offer insights into ... full story

Evolution Used Similar Molecular Toolkits to Shape Flies, Worms, and Humans

Aug. 27, 2014 — Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related ... full story

Walking Fish Reveal How Our Ancestors Evolved Onto Land

Aug. 27, 2014 — About 400 million years ago a group of fish began exploring land and evolved into tetrapods – today's amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. But just how these ancient fish used their fishy ... full story

Southwest U. S. May Face 'Megadrought' This Century

Aug. 27, 2014 — Due to global warming, scientists say, the chances of the southwestern United States experiencing a decade long drought is at least 50 percent, and the chances of a “megadrought” – one that ... full story

NOAA's Marine Debris Program Reports on National Issue of Derelict Fishing Traps

Aug. 27, 2014 — Thousands of fishing traps are lost or abandoned each year in US waters. A new NOAA report is the first of its kind to examine the derelict fish trap problem, nationally, and recommends actions to ... full story

Paleontologists Describe a Possible Dinosaur Nest and Young 'Babysitter'

Aug. 27, 2014 — A new examination of a rock slab containing fossils of 24 very young dinosaurs and one older individual is suggestive of a group of hatchlings overseen by a caretaker, according to a new ... full story

Snowfall in a Warmer World

Aug. 27, 2014 — Big snowstorms will still occur in the Northern Hemisphere following global warming, a study shows. While most areas in the Northern Hemisphere will likely experience less snowfall throughout a ... full story

Yellowstone Supereruption Would Send Ash Across North America

Aug. 27, 2014 — In the unlikely event of a volcanic supereruption at Yellowstone National Park, the northern Rocky Mountains would be blanketed in meters of ash, and millimeters would be deposited as far away as New ... full story

Pacific Plate Shrinking as It Cools

Aug. 27, 2014 — The Pacific tectonic plate is not as rigid as scientists believe, according to new calculations. Scientists have determined that cooling of the lithosphere -- the outermost layer of Earth -- makes ... full story

Greenhouse Gases: New Group of Soil Micro-Organisms Can Contribute to Their Elimination

Aug. 27, 2014 — The ability of soils to eliminate N2O can mainly be explained by the diversity and abundance of a new group of micro-organisms that are capable of transforming it into atmospheric nitrogen ... full story

Museum Specimens, Modern Cities Show How an Insect Pest Will Respond to Climate Change

Aug. 27, 2014 — Century-old museum specimens hold clues to how global climate change will affect a common insect pest that can weaken and kill trees -- and the news is not good. "Recent studies found that scale ... full story

Potential Influences on Recent UK Winter Floods Investigated by New Scientific Review

Aug. 26, 2014 — A comprehensive review of all potential factors behind the 2013/2014 UK winter floods has been published by researchers. The paper does not definitively answer whether human activity played a role in ... full story

Everest Expedition Provides First Evidence of Effects of Altitude on Blood Pressure Monitored Over a 24-Hour Period

Aug. 26, 2014 — An expedition to Mount Everest has shown for the first time that blood pressure monitored over a 24-hour period rises progressively as people climb to higher altitudes. The researchers also found ... full story

What Can 14th Century Venice Teach Us About Ebola, Other Emerging Threats?

Aug. 26, 2014 — The way in which the Italian city of Venice dealt with the outbreak of the plague in the 14th century holds lessons on how to even mitigate the consequences of today's emerging threats, like climate ... full story

Existing Power Plants Will Spew 300 Billion More Tons of Carbon Dioxide During Use

Aug. 26, 2014 — Existing power plants around the world will pump out more than 300 billion tons of carbon dioxide over their expected lifetimes, significantly adding to atmospheric levels of the climate-warming gas, ... full story

Earth Can Sustain More Terrestrial Plant Growth Than Previously Thought, Analysis Shows

Aug. 26, 2014 — A new analysis suggests the planet can produce much more land-plant biomass -- the total material in leaves, stems, roots, fruits, grains and other terrestrial plant parts -- than previously thought. ... full story

Cold Snap in the Tropics: How Tropical Glaciers Respond to Cooling Periods

Aug. 25, 2014 — Tropical glaciers have responded to episodes of cooling in Greenland and the Antarctic over the past 20,000 years, according to a study that covers 21 Andean glaciers. As elsewhere on the planet, ... full story

Simply Complex: The Origin of Our Body Axes

Aug. 24, 2014 — One fundamental question in biology is what constitutes the basic type of the animal body plan and how did all the more complex forms, including that of humans, evolve from it. At the simplest level, ... full story

Fossil Arthropod Went on the Hunt for Its Prey

Aug. 22, 2014 — A new species of carnivorous crustacean has been identified, which roamed the seas 435 million years ago, grasping its prey with spiny limbs before devouring ... full story

How Hummingbirds Evolved to Detect Sweetness

Aug. 21, 2014 — Hummingbirds' ability to detect sweetness evolved from an ancestral savory taste receptor that is mostly tuned to flavors in amino acids. Feasting on nectar and the occasional insect, the tiny birds ... full story

Alternate Mechanism of Species Formation Picks Up Support, Thanks to a South American Ant

Aug. 21, 2014 — A newly discovered species of ant supports a controversial theory of species formation. The ant, only found in a single patch of eucalyptus trees on the São Paulo State University campus in Brazil, ... full story

Neanderthals 'Overlapped' With Modern Humans for Up to 5,400 Years

Aug. 21, 2014 — Neanderthals and modern humans were both living in Europe for between 2,600 and 5,400 years, according to a new article. For the first time, scientists have constructed a robust timeline showing when ... full story

Arctic Sea Ice Influenced Force of Gulf Stream

Aug. 21, 2014 — The force of the Gulf Stream was significantly influenced by the sea ice situation in the Fram Strait in the past 30,000 years. On the basis of biomarkers in deposits on the seafloor, geologists ... full story

One of Oldest Metal Objects Found to Date in Middle East

Aug. 21, 2014 — A copper awl, one of the oldest metal objects found to date in the Middle East, has been discovered during the excavations at Tel Tsaf. The awl dates back to the late 6th millennium or the early 5th ... full story

Paleolithic Diet May Have Included Snails 10,000 Years Earlier Than Previously Thought

Aug. 20, 2014 — Paleolithic inhabitants of modern-day Spain may have eaten snails 10,000 years earlier than their Mediterranean neighbors. Snails were widespread in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, but it is still ... full story

Seals and Sea Lions Likely Spread Tuberculosis to Humans

Aug. 20, 2014 — Scientists who study tuberculosis have long debated its origins. New research shows that tuberculosis likely spread from humans in Africa to seals and sea lions that brought the disease to South ... full story

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Young Driver's Gender Linked to Crash Type, Injury Severity

Aug. 26, 2014 — Gender differences do exist in young drivers when it comes to safety, a study finds. Gender is often related to what type of severe or fatal crash a young male or young female driver will be involved ... full story

Key to Speed? Elite Sprinters Unlike Other Athletes, Deliver Forceful Punch to Ground

Aug. 26, 2014 — The world's fastest sprinters have a distinctive ability unlike other runners to attack the ground and attain faster speeds, according to new research. The new findings indicate that sprinters use a ... full story

25 Percent Fewer Opioid-Related Deaths in States Allowing Medical Marijuana

Aug. 25, 2014 — On average, states allowing the medical use of marijuana have lower rates of deaths resulting from opioid analgesic overdoses than states without such laws. Opioid analgesics, such as OxyContin, ... full story

Fortifying Condiments, Seasonings for Use in Countries With Widespread Micronutrient Deficiencies

Aug. 25, 2014 — Researchers are working to fortify condiments and seasonings for use in countries with widespread micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrient deficiencies affect the health and cognitive development of ... full story

Cutting Emissions Pays for Itself, Study Concludes

Aug. 24, 2014 — Health care savings can greatly defray costs of carbon-reduction policies, experts report. But just how large are the health benefits of cleaner air in comparison to the costs of reducing carbon ... full story

In Our Digital World, Are Young People Losing the Ability to Read Emotions?

Aug. 22, 2014 — Are young people losing the ability to read emotions in our digital world? Scientists report that sixth-graders who went five days without even glancing at a smartphone, television or other screen ... full story

Fish and Coral Smell a Bad Neighborhood: Marine Protected Areas Might Not Be Enough to Help Overfished Reefs Recover

Aug. 21, 2014 — Pacific corals and fish can both smell a bad neighborhood, and use that ability to avoid settling in damaged reefs. Damaged coral reefs emit chemical cues that repulse young coral and fish, ... full story

Reading 'Fifty Shades' Linked to Unhealthy Behaviors

Aug. 21, 2014 — Young adult women who read 'Fifty Shades of Grey' are more likely than nonreaders to exhibit signs of eating disorders and have a verbally abusive partner, finds a new study. Further, women who read ... full story

Influenced by Self-Interest, Humans Less Concerned About Inequity to Others, Researchers Find

Aug. 21, 2014 — Strongly influenced by their self-interest, humans do not protest being overcompensated, even when there are no consequences, researchers have found. This could imply that humans are less concerned ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Study Measures Steep Coastal Costs of China's GDP Growth

Aug. 8, 2014 — Economic reforms declared in 1978 led to a surge of growth in China, but resulting increases in human impact activities are seriously degrading the nation's coastal ecosystems, according to a newly ... full story

Geography Matters: Model Predicts How Local 'Shocks' Influence U.S. Economy

Aug. 6, 2014 — Hurricanes. Foreclosures. Factory shutdowns. How do these local industry 'shocks' influence the country as a whole? A new model measures the power of industry dips and boosts nationwide. Overall, ... full story

All-in-One Energy System Offers Greener Power for Off–grid Homes, Farms and Businesses

July 30, 2014 — An innovative ‘trigeneration’ system fuelled entirely by raw plant oils could have great potential for isolated homes and businesses operating outside grid ... full story

Kill Switch in Cell Phones Could Save Consumers More Than $3.4 Billion Annually

July 29, 2014 — A new study shows consumer savings from the Kill Switch legislation exceed initial projections and now points to well over $3 billion. This savings to consumers comes at the expense of insurance and ... full story

Google Searches May Hold Key to Future Market Crashes, Researchers Find

July 28, 2014 — A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market ... full story

It Takes More Than Practice to Excel

July 28, 2014 — Psychologists have overturned a 20-year-old theory that people who excel in their fields are those who practiced the ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

Children's Drawings Indicate Later Intelligence, Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — How 4-year-old children draw pictures of a child is an indicator of intelligence at age 14, according to a new study. The researchers studied 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical twins and ... full story

How Children's Brains Memorize Math Facts

Aug. 17, 2014 — As children learn basic arithmetic, they gradually switch from solving problems by counting on their fingers to pulling facts from memory. The shift comes more easily for some kids than for others, ... full story

Expecting to Teach Enhances Learning, Recall

Aug. 8, 2014 — People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that ... full story

Musical Training Offsets Some Academic Achievement Gaps, Research Says

Aug. 8, 2014 — Learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills, according to research. The findings, which involved hundreds of kids ... full story

New Insights Into How Young and Developing Readers Make Sense of Words

Aug. 7, 2014 — Skilled readers are often able to make sense of words suffering from 'typos' and jumbled up letter orders as long as the beginning and end letters of the words are ... full story

Video-Game Playing for Less Than an Hour a Day Is Linked With Better-Adjusted Children, Study Finds

Aug. 4, 2014 — A new study suggests video game-playing for less than an hour a day is linked with better-adjusted children and teenagers. The research found that young people who indulged in a little video ... full story

Removing Vending Machines from Schools Is Not Enough to Reduce Soda Consumption

Aug. 1, 2014 — Banning vending machines from schools can actually increase soda and fast food consumption among students if it’s the only school food policy change implemented, according to new ... full story

Preterm Children Do Not Have an Increased Risk for Dyscalculia, New Research Suggests

Aug. 1, 2014 — Preterm children do not suffer from dyscalculia more often than healthy full-term children, experts say, contrary to previous studies. Unlike most other studies, the researchers took the children’s ... full story

Numerical Learning Disability: Dyscalculia Linked to Difficulties in Reading and Spelling

July 30, 2014 — Between three and six percent of schoolchildren suffer from an arithmetic-related learning disability. Researchers now show that these children are also more likely to exhibit deficits in reading and ... full story

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