Today's Science News

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

New Study Outlines 'Water World' Theory of Life's Origins

Apr. 15, 2014 — Life took root more than four billion years ago on our nascent Earth, a wetter and harsher place than now, bathed in sizzling ultraviolet rays. What started out as simple cells ultimately transformed ... full story

Brain Changes Associated With Casual Marijuana Use in Young Adults: More 'Joints' Equal More Damage

Apr. 15, 2014 — The size and shape of two brain regions involved in emotion and motivation may differ in young adults who smoke marijuana at least once a week, according to a new study. The findings suggest that ... full story

Astronomers: 'Tilt-a-Worlds' Could Harbor Life

Apr. 15, 2014 — A fluctuating tilt in a planet's orbit does not preclude the possibility of life, according to new research. In fact, sometimes it may help. That's because such "tilt-a-worlds," ... full story

Targeting Cancer With a Triple Threat: New Nanoparticles Can Deliver Three Drugs at Once

Apr. 15, 2014 — Chemists have designed nanoparticles that can deliver three cancer drugs at a time. Such particles could be designed to carry even more drugs, allowing researchers to develop new treatment regimens ... full story

Cosmic Slurp: Supercomputers Help Astronomers Understand and Predict How Black Holes Swallow Stars

Apr. 14, 2014 — A 'tidal disruption' occurs when a star orbits too close to a black hole and gets usurped. Researchers are using supercomputers to simulate tidal disruptions to better understand the ... full story

Functional Brain Imaging Reliably Predicts Which Vegetative Patients Have Potential to Recover Consciousness

Apr. 15, 2014 — A functional brain imaging technique known as positron emission tomography is a promising tool for determining which severely brain damaged individuals in vegetative states have the potential to ... full story

Gut Capacity Limits Bird's Ability to Adapt to Rapid Climate Change

Apr. 15, 2014 — An ornithologist has found that the capacity of a bird’s gut to change with environmental conditions is a primary limiting factor in their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing climate. And he ... full story

SSRI Use During Pregnancy Linked to Autism and Developmental Delays in Boys

Apr. 15, 2014 — In a study of nearly 1,000 mother-child pairs, researchers found that prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a frequently prescribed treatment for depression, anxiety ... full story

Hair from Infants Gives Clues About Life in Womb

Apr. 15, 2014 — Like rings of a tree, hair can reveal a lot of information about the past. And, as a team of researchers show in a study of rhesus monkeys, it can also reveal the womb environment in which an infant ... full story

Regenerated Esophagus Transplanted in Rats

Apr. 15, 2014 — Tissue engineering has been used to construct natural esophagi, which in combination with bone marrow stem cells have been safely and effectively transplanted in rats. The study shows that the ... full story

Tiger Beetle's Chase Highlights Mechanical Law

Apr. 15, 2014 — If an insect drew a line as it chased its next meal, the resulting pattern would be a tangled mess. But there’s method to that mess: It turns out the tiger beetle, known for its speed and agility, ... full story

New Method of Screening Children for Autism Spectrum Disorders Works at 9 Months Old

Apr. 15, 2014 — Researchers have identified head circumference and head tilting reflex as two reliable biomarkers in the identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children that are between 9 and 12 months ... full story

Lifestyle Determines Gut Microbes: Study With Modern Hunter-Gatherers Tells Tale of Bacteria Co-Evolution

Apr. 15, 2014 — The intestinal bacteria of present-day hunter-gatherers has for the first time been deciphered by an international team of researchers. Bacterial populations have co-evolved with humans over millions ... full story

Moth Study Suggests Hidden Climate Change Impacts

Apr. 15, 2014 — A 32-year study of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland suggests that scientists may be underestimating the impacts of climate change on animals and plants because much of the harm is hidden ... full story

We're Over the Hill at 24, Study Says

Apr. 14, 2014 — It's a hard pill to swallow, but if you're over 24 years of age you've already reached your peak in terms of your cognitive motor performance, according to a new study. In one of the ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Cognitive Function: Is It All Downhill From Age 24?

Cognitive Function: Is It All Downhill From Age 24?

Newsy (Apr. 15, 2014) — A new study out of Canada says cognitive motor performance begins deteriorating around age 24. Video provided by Newsy
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Carpenter's Injury Leads To Hundreds Of 3-D-Printed Hands

Carpenter's Injury Leads To Hundreds Of 3-D-Printed Hands

Newsy (Apr. 14, 2014) — Richard van As lost all fingers on his right hand in a woodworking accident. Now, he's used the incident to create a prosthetic to help hundreds. Video provided by Newsy
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California's Ancient Redwood Trees Under Attack

California's Ancient Redwood Trees Under Attack

AP (Apr. 13, 2014) — California forest managers are trying to stop chainsaw-wielding poachers who are targeting ancient redwood trees in national and state parks. The thieves are cutting off the trees' burls - knobby growths prized for their rich wood grains. (April 14) Video provided by AP
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'Blood Moon' Attracts Stargazers, Conspiracy Theories

'Blood Moon' Attracts Stargazers, Conspiracy Theories

Newsy (Apr. 13, 2014) — Tuesday's total lunar eclipse will bring out both stargazers and conspiracy theorists alike as the blood red moon fills up the early morning sky. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-04-16 at 9:48 am EDT

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Antibiotics Improve Growth in Children in Developing Countries

Apr. 15, 2014 — Antibiotics improve growth in children at risk of undernourishment in low and middle income countries, according to researchers who have just conducted a research literature review on the subject. ... full story

Prolonged, Heavy Bleeding During Menopause Is Common

Apr. 15, 2014 — Women going through menopause most likely think of it as the time for an end to predictable monthly periods. Researchers say it's normal, however, for the majority of them to experience an increase ... full story

Mouse Model Would Have Predicted Toxicity of Drug That Killed 5 in 1993 Clinical Trial

Apr. 15, 2014 — Over 20 years after the fatal fialuridine trial, a new study demonstrates that mice with humanized livers recapitulate the drug's toxicity. The work suggests that this mouse model should be added to ... full story

Potent, Puzzling and (Now Less) Toxic: Team Discovers How Antifungal Drug Works

Apr. 15, 2014 — Scientists have solved a decades-old medical mystery -- and in the process have found a potentially less toxic way to fight invasive fungal infections, which kill about 1.5 million people a year. The ... full story

Pre-Diabetes, Diabetes Nearly Double Over the Past Two Decades

Apr. 15, 2014 — Cases of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States have nearly doubled since 1988, suggests new research, with obesity apparently to blame for the surge. The researchers also found that the ... full story

Real-Time Audio of Corporal Punishment Shows Kids Misbehave Within 10 Minutes of Spanking

Apr. 15, 2014 — Real-time audio recordings of children being spanked showed parents responded impulsively or emotionally, rather than being intentional with their discipline, says a psychologist and parenting ... full story

Breaking Bad Mitochondria: How Hepatitis C Survives for So Long

Apr. 15, 2014 — A mechanism has been discovered that explains why people with the hepatitis C virus get liver disease and why the virus is able to persist in the body for so long. The hard-to-kill pathogen, which ... full story

How Mothers Help Children Explore Right and Wrong

Apr. 15, 2014 — Moms want their kids to grow up to be good people -- but how do they actually help their offspring sort out different types of moral issues? A new study shows many moms talk to their kids in ways ... full story

Osteoporosis Risk Heightened Among Sleep Apnea Patients

Apr. 15, 2014 — A diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea may raise the risk of osteoporosis, particularly among women or older individuals, according to a new study. Sleep apnea is a condition that causes brief ... full story

Genetic Pre-Disposition Toward Exercise, Mental Development May Be Linked

Apr. 15, 2014 — A potential link between the genetic pre-disposition for high levels of exercise motivation and the speed at which mental maturation occurs has been found by researchers. These scientists studied the ... full story

Brain Anatomy Differences Between Deaf, Hearing Depend on First Language Learned

Apr. 15, 2014 — In the first known study of its kind, researchers have shown that the language we learn as children affects brain structure, as does hearing status. 'What we've learned to date about differences in ... full story

Neuroscientists Disprove Important Idea About Brain-Eye Coordination

Apr. 15, 2014 — By predicting our eye movements, our brain creates a stable world for us. Researchers used to think that those predictions had so much influence that they could cause us to make errors in estimating ... full story

Chrono, the Last Piece of the Circadian Clock Puzzle?

Apr. 15, 2014 — All organisms, from mammals to fungi, have daily cycles controlled by a tightly regulated internal clock, called the circadian clock. The whole-body circadian clock, influenced by the exposure to ... full story

Kids' Earliest Memories Might Be Earlier Than They Think

Apr. 15, 2014 — The very earliest childhood memories might begin even earlier than anyone realized -- including the one remembering, his or her parents and memory researchers. Four- to 13-year-olds in upstate New ... full story

Cultivating Happiness Often Misunderstood

Apr. 15, 2014 — The concept of maximizing happiness has been explored by researchers, who have found that pursuing concrete 'giving' goals rather than abstract ones leads to greater satisfaction. One path to ... full story

New Insight Into SIDS Deaths Points to Lack of Oxygen

Apr. 15, 2014 — Researchers have shed new light onto the possible causes of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which could help to prevent future loss of children's lives. In a world-first study, researchers have ... full story

Vitamin D Deficiency, Cognition Appear to Be Linked in Older Adults

Apr. 15, 2014 — A study that looks at Vitamin D deficiency and cognition relationship in older adults adds to the existing literature on the subject. "This study provides increasing evidence that suggests there is ... full story

Outgoing Behavior Makes for Happier Humans: Across Cultures, Extroverts Have More Fun

Apr. 15, 2014 — Happy is as happy does, apparently -- for human beings all over the world. Not only does acting extroverted lead to more positive feelings across several cultures, but people also report more upbeat ... full story

MRI Pinpoints Region of Brain Injury in Some Concussion Patients

Apr. 15, 2014 — Researchers using information provided by a magnetic resonance imaging technique have identified regional white matter damage in the brains of people who experience chronic dizziness and other ... full story

New Therapy Helps to Improve Stereoscopic Vision in Stroke Patients

Apr. 15, 2014 — Humans view the world through two eyes, but it is our brain that combines the images from each eye to form a single composite picture. If this function becomes damaged, impaired sight can be the ... full story

Harsh Winters in Eastern US and Heat and Drought in Western US May Persist Due to 4,000-Year Pattern, and Climate Change

Apr. 16, 2014 — Last winter’s curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A new study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, and ... full story

Obesity: Are Lipids Hard Drugs for the Brain?

Apr. 15, 2014 — Why can we get up for a piece of chocolate, but never because we fancy a carrot? Research has demonstrated part of the answer: triglycerides, fatty substances from food, may act in our brains ... full story

Exams in Cold Auditoriums? Better Memory at Ideal Temperature

Apr. 15, 2014 — People’s working memory functions better if they are working in an ambient temperature where they feel most comfortable. The conjecture is that working in one's preferred temperature counteracts ... full story

Brand/type of Helmet, Mouthguard May Not Significantly Reduce Risk of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

Apr. 14, 2014 — A sports medicine physician has concluded the the brand or type of helmet or mouthguard does not significantly reduce concussion risk among high school football players. While helmet brand or age did ... full story

Lashing out at Your Spouse? Check Your Blood Sugar

Apr. 14, 2014 — Lower levels of blood sugar may make married people angrier at their spouses and even more likely to lash out aggressively, new research reveals. Researchers found that levels of blood glucose in ... full story

Babies Prefer Fairness -- But Only If It Benefits Them -- In Choosing a Playmate

Apr. 14, 2014 — Babies as young as 15 months preferred people with the same ethnicity as themselves -- a phenomenon known as in-group bias, or favoring people who have the same characteristics as oneself. The ... full story

Detrimental Effects of Television Viewing on Sleep in Young Children

Apr. 14, 2014 — A study following more than 1,800 children from ages 6 months to nearly 8 years found a small but consistent association between increased television viewing and shorter sleep duration. The presence ... full story

Women Who Gain Too Much or Too Little Weight During Pregnancy at Risk for Having an Overweight Child

Apr. 14, 2014 — Gaining both too much or too little weight during pregnancy appears to increase the risk of having an overweight or obese child, according to a study. In one of the largest studies to examine current ... full story

Teaching to Optimize Learning or Control Misbehavior? Scale of Disruptive Behavior in Schools Seriously Underestimated

Apr. 14, 2014 — The true extent of poor pupil behavior in schools is seriously underestimated, according to an academic. The research raises the question of the extent to which there is a right to learn in ... full story

To Be an Organ Donor, Specific Attitudes Trump General Support, Study Finds

Apr. 11, 2014 — Most Americans say they support the idea of organ donation, yet fewer than half of eligible donors ever register, national polls show. That may be because supporting a good cause doesn’t mean ... full story

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Repeated Self-Healing Now Possible in Composite Materials

Apr. 15, 2014 — Internal damage in fiber-reinforced composites, materials used in structures of modern airplanes and automobiles, is difficult to detect and nearly impossible to repair by conventional methods. A ... full story

Lens Turns Any Smartphone Into a Portable Microscope

Apr. 15, 2014 — The Micro Phone Lens can turn any smartphone or tablet computer into a hand-held microscope. The soft, pliable lens sticks to a device's camera without any adhesive or glue and makes it possible to ... full story

Key to Easy Asthma Diagnosis Is in the Blood

Apr. 15, 2014 — Using just a single drop of blood, a team of researchers has developed a faster, cheaper and more accurate tool for diagnosing even mild cases of asthma. This handheld technology — which takes ... full story

Sensitive Detection Method May Help Impede Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

Apr. 15, 2014 — According to a new study, coupling commercially available spectral X-ray detectors with a specialized algorithm can improve the detection of uranium and plutonium in small, layered objects such as ... full story

Engineers Develop New Materials for Hydrogen Storage

Apr. 15, 2014 — Engineers have created new ceramic materials that could be used to store hydrogen safely and efficiently. The researchers have created for the first time compounds made from mixtures of calcium ... full story

Scientists Come Up With Method of Reducing Solar Panel Glare

Apr. 15, 2014 — The glare from solar farms could be a thing of the past, thanks to new research. Researchers have developed a multi-layer anti-reflection coating for glass surfaces, which reduces the sun's ... full story

New Design for Mobile Phone Masts Could Cut Carbon Emissions

Apr. 15, 2014 — A breakthrough in the design of signal amplifiers for mobile phone masts could deliver a massive 200MW cut in the load on UK power stations, reducing carbon dioxide emissions by around 0.5 million ... full story

Intelligent Prosthetic Liners Could Ease Pain for Lower Limb Amputees

Apr. 15, 2014 — A new device could help to relieve the pain and discomfort experienced by thousands of amputees as a result of poorly fitting replacement lower limbs. Researchers are developing a prototype of the ... full story

Nanocrystalline Cellulose Modified Into Efficient Viral Inhibitor

Apr. 15, 2014 — Researchers have succeeded in creating a surface on nano-sized cellulose crystals that imitates a biological structure. The surface adsorbs viruses and disables them. The results can prove useful in ... full story

Fiber-Optic Microscope Will Help Physicians Detect Cancer, Diseases at Early Stages

Apr. 15, 2014 — An inexpensive, portable and re-usable endoscopic microscope has been developed that will help clinicians detect and diagnose early-stage disease, primarily cancer. An endoscopic microscope is a tool ... full story

A Study in Scarlet: Hot Newborn Stars Formed out of the Clouds

Apr. 16, 2014 — An area of the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur), is home to many bright nebulae, each associated with hot newborn stars that formed out of the clouds of hydrogen gas. The ... full story

NASA Cassini Images May Reveal Birth of a Saturn Moon

Apr. 14, 2014 — NASA's Cassini spacecraft has documented the formation of a small icy object within the rings of Saturn that may be a new moon, and may also provide clues to the formation of the planet's known ... full story

SpaceX’s Dragon Headed to Space Station to Create Astronaut Farmers

Apr. 14, 2014 — "Enter the Dragon" takes on a whole new meaning this month as SpaceX's Dragon capsule heads to the International Space Station for its third commercial resupply mission on April 14. During the ... full story

International Space Station to Beam Video Via Laser Back to Earth

Apr. 14, 2014 — A team of about 20 working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., through the lab's Phaeton early-career-hire program, led the development of the Optical Payload for Lasercomm ... full story

Faraway Moon or Faint Star? Possible Exomoon Found

Apr. 12, 2014 — Titan, Europa, Io and Phobos are just a few members of our solar system's pantheon of moons. Are there are other moons out there, orbiting planets beyond our sun? Researchers have spotted the first ... full story

NASA's Hubble Extends Stellar Tape Measure 10 Times Farther Into Space

Apr. 11, 2014 — Astronomers now can precisely measure the distance of stars up to 10,000 light-years away -- 10 times farther than previously possible. Astronomers have developed yet another novel way to use the ... full story

Microgravity Research Helping to Understand the Fungi Within

Apr. 10, 2014 — You may not recognize it by name, but if you have ever had a child with a diaper rash, that child was likely a host to Candida albicans (C. albicans). This unwelcome "guest" can be hard to control, ... full story

Mars: Gusev Crater Once Held a Lake After All, Scientist Says

Apr. 9, 2014 — Evidence for an ancient 'Lake Gusev' on Mars has come and gone several times. That lake is looking pretty good today, thanks to new research. New research suggests floodwaters entered the crater ... full story

Recycling Astronaut Urine for Energy and Drinking Water

Apr. 9, 2014 — On the less glamorous side of space exploration, there's the more practical problem of waste -- in particular, what to do with astronaut pee. But rather than ejecting it into space, scientists are ... full story

Chance Meeting Creates Celestial Diamond Ring

Apr. 9, 2014 — Astronomers have captured an eye-catching image of planetary nebula PN A66 33 -- usually known as Abell 33. Created when an aging star blew off its outer layers, this beautiful blue bubble is, by ... full story

Flaw in 'Secure' Cloud Storage Could Put Privacy at Risk

Apr. 15, 2014 — Computer scientists have found a flaw in the way that secure cloud storage companies protect their customers’ data. The scientists say this weakness jeopardizes the privacy protection these digital ... full story

Cybersecurity Researchers Roll out a New Heartbleed Solution: Red Herring Creates Decoy Servers, Entraps, Monitors Hackers

Apr. 14, 2014 — As companies scrambled in recent days to address the latest cybersecurity bug known as Heartbleed, researchers demonstrate a solution that fixes the vulnerability, and also detects and entraps ... full story

Surgeons Develop Personalized 3-D Printed Kidney to Simulate Surgery Prior to Cancer Operation

Apr. 14, 2014 — For the first time, surgeons have used 3-D printing to produce exact models of tumor-containing kidneys, allowing them to simulate surgery prior to the real operation. These models can be ... full story

Look Who's Evolving Now: Using Robots to Study Evolution

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have demonstrated the usefulness of robots in studying evolution.  They successfully used a colony of rodent-like robots to watch different mating strategies evolve.  The work not only ... full story

Tiny Particles Could Help Verify Goods

Apr. 13, 2014 — Chemical engineers hope smartphone-readable microparticles could crack down on counterfeiting. Some 2 to 5 percent of all international trade involves counterfeit goods, according to a 2013 United ... full story

Odds That Global Warming Is Due to Natural Factors: Slim to None

Apr. 11, 2014 — An analysis of temperature data since 1500 all but rules out the possibility that global warming in the industrial era is just a natural fluctuation in the earth’s climate, according to a new ... full story

Nanostructures With Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Ranges

Apr. 11, 2014 — Scientists have created a compound semiconductor of nearly perfect quality with embedded nanostructures containing ordered lines of atoms that can manipulate light energy in the mid-infrared range. ... full story

The ATM Strikes Back: Researchers Protect Money With Method Borrowed from an Aggressive Beetle

Apr. 11, 2014 — Its head and pronotum are usually rusty red, and its abdomen blue or shiny green: the bombardier beetle is approximately one centimeter long and common to Central Europe. At first glance, it appears ... full story

Sneak a Peek Through the Mist to Technology of the Future

Apr. 10, 2014 — A tabletop display with personal screens made from a curtain of mist that allow users to move images around and push through the fog-screens and onto the display, will be unveiled at an international ... full story

3-D Printing Cancer Cells to Mimic Tumors

Apr. 10, 2014 — A 3-D model of a cancerous tumor using a 3-D printer has been successfully created by researchers. The model consists of a grid structure, 10 mm in width and length, made from gelatin, alginate and ... full story

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New Technique Will Accelerate Genetic Characterization of Photosynthesis

Apr. 15, 2014 — Photosynthesis provides fixed carbon and energy for nearly all life on Earth, yet many aspects of this fascinating process remain mysterious. We do not know the full list of the parts of the ... full story

Biologists Develop Nanosensors to Visualize Movements and Distribution of Plant Stress Hormone

Apr. 15, 2014 — Biologists have succeeded in visualizing the movement within plants of a key hormone responsible for growth and resistance to drought. The achievement will allow researchers to conduct further ... full story

Sibling Cooperation in Earwig Families Provides Clues to the Early Evolution of Social Behavior

Apr. 15, 2014 — Looking at the question of how social behavior has developed over the course of evolution, scientists have gained new insights from the study of earwigs. "Young earwig offspring don't simply compete ... full story

Whooping Cough Bacterium Evolving in Australia, Research Shows

Apr. 15, 2014 — The bacterium that causes whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis, has changed in Australia -- most likely in response to the vaccine used to prevent the disease -- with a possible reduced effectiveness ... full story

Bizarre Parasite May Provide Cuttlefish Clues

Apr. 15, 2014 — New research into parasites of cuttlefish, squid and octopus has uncovered details of the parasites’ astonishing life cycles, and shown how they may help in investigating populations of their ... full story

Deforestation Could Intensify Climate Change in Congo Basin by Half

Apr. 15, 2014 — By 2050, deforestation could cause temperatures in the Congo Basin to increase by 0.7 °C. The increase would intensify warming caused by greenhouse gases by half, according to a new ... full story

Penicillin Redux: Rearming Proven Warriors for the 21st Century

Apr. 14, 2014 — Drug-resistant bacteria like MRSA are hard to treat because so many antibiotics are ineffective against them. A team of researchers has shown a new way to reclaim the power of penicillin and similar ... full story

Faithful Allies Since the Cretaceous: Symbiosis Between Beewolves and Protective Bacteria Originated Millions of Years Ago

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have discovered that certain wasps tightly control mother-to-offspring transmission of their bacterial symbionts. This stabilizes the symbiotic alliance and contributed to its persistence ... full story

Fire and Drought May Push Amazonian Forests Beyond Tipping Point

Apr. 14, 2014 — Future simulations of climate in the Amazon suggest a longer dry season leading to more drought and fires. Scientists have published a new study on the impacts of fire and drought on Amazon tree ... full story

Ferns Borrowed Genes to Flourish in Low Light

Apr. 14, 2014 — During the age of the dinosaurs, the arrival of flowering plants as competitors could have spelled doom for primitive ferns. Instead, ferns diversified and flourished under the new canopy -- using a ... full story

Long-Term Predictions for Miami Sea Level Rise Could Be Available Relatively Soon

Apr. 15, 2014 — Miami could know as early as 2020 how high sea levels will rise into the next century, according to a team of researchers. Scientists conclude that sea level rise is one of the most certain ... full story

Bioarchaeologists Link Climate Instability to Human Mobility in Ancient Sahara

Apr. 15, 2014 — Researchers have uncovered clues to how past peoples moved across their landscape as the once lush environment deteriorated. Scientists sampled bone and teeth enamel, and used their chemical ... full story

European Climate at the 2 Degrees Celsius Global Warming Threshold

Apr. 15, 2014 — A global warming of 2 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of ... full story

Everest Trek Shows How Some People Get Type II Diabetes

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have gained new insights into the molecular process of how some people get type II diabetes, which could lead to new ways of preventing people from getting the condition. The research, ... full story

'Problem Wells' Source of Greenhouse Gas at Unexpected Stage of Natural Gas Production

Apr. 14, 2014 — High levels of the greenhouse gas methane were found above shale gas wells at a production point not thought to be an important emissions source. The findings could have implications for the ... full story

Plugging an Ozone Hole: Extreme Antarctic Ozone Holes Have Not Been Replicated in Arctic

Apr. 14, 2014 — Since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, scientists, policymakers, and the public have wondered whether we might someday see a similarly extreme depletion of ozone over the Arctic. But a new ... full story

Air Pollution Over Asia Influences Global Weather and Makes Pacific Storms More Intense

Apr. 14, 2014 — In the first study of its kind, scientists have compared air pollution rates from 1850 to 2000 and found that anthropogenic (human-made) particles from Asia impact the Pacific storm track that can ... full story

Making Dams Safer for Fish Around the World

Apr. 14, 2014 — The pressure changes that many fish experience when they travel through the turbulent waters near a dam can seriously injure or kill the fish. Scientists from around the world, including areas like ... full story

Four New Species of 'Killer Sponges' from the Deep Sea

Apr. 14, 2014 — Killer sponges sound like creatures from a B-grade horror movie. In fact, they thrive in the lightless depths of the deep sea. Scientists first discovered that some sponges are carnivorous about 20 ... full story

House Windows That Double as Solar Panels? Shiny Quantum Dots Brighten Future of Solar Cells

Apr. 14, 2014 — A house window that doubles as a solar panel could be on the horizon, thanks to recent quantum-dot work. Scientists have demonstrated that superior light-emitting properties of quantum dots can be ... full story

Medieval Slave Trade Routes in Eastern Europe Extended from Finland and the Baltic Countries to Central Asia

Apr. 15, 2014 — The routes of slave trade in Eastern Europe in the medieval and pre-modern period extended all the way to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. A recent study suggests that persons captured during raids ... full story

Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons Did Not Coexist on the Iberian Peninsula, Suggests Re-Analysis of Dating

Apr. 14, 2014 — The meeting between a Neanderthal and one of the first humans, which we used to picture in our minds, did not happen on the Iberian Peninsula. That is the conclusion reached by an scientists after ... full story

Does Germ Plasm Accelerate Evolution?

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have challenged a long held belief about the way certain species of vertebrates evolved. They found that genes evolve more rapidly in species containing germ plasm. The results came about ... full story

Computer Rendering: Graduate Student Brings Extinct Plants 'Back to Life'

Apr. 11, 2014 — Most fossilized plants are fragments indistinguishable from a stick, but a graduate student hopes a new technique will allow paleontologists to more precisely identify these fossils. A graduate ... full story

Climate Paradox Deciphered from the Miocene Era

Apr. 11, 2014 — A supposed climate paradox from the Miocene era has been deciphered by means of complex model simulations. When the Antarctic ice sheet grew to its present-day size around 14 million years ago, it ... full story

Rare Fossilized Embryos More Than 500 Million Years Old Found

Apr. 10, 2014 — The Cambrian Period is a time when most phyla of marine invertebrates first appeared. Also dubbed the 'Cambrian explosion,' fossilized records from this time provide glimpses into evolutionary ... full story

Ancient 'Spider' Images Reveal Eye-Opening Secrets

Apr. 10, 2014 — Stunning images of a 305-million-year-old harvestman fossil reveal ancestors of the modern-day arachnids had two sets of eyes rather than one. The researchers say their findings add significant ... full story

Reef Fish Arrived in Two Waves, Before and After Mass Extinction 66 Million Years Ago

Apr. 10, 2014 — The world's reefs are hotbeds of biological diversity, including over 4,500 species of fish. A new study shows that the ancestors of these fish colonized reefs in two distinct waves, before and after ... full story

Rare Leafcutter Bee Fossils Reveal Ice Age Environment at the La Brea Tar Pits

Apr. 9, 2014 — The La Brea Tar Pits are celebrated for saber-toothed cats and mastodons. The site's insect collection is also of great significance. Recent examination of fossil leafcutter bee nest cells ... full story

Extinct Carnivorous Marsupial May Have Hunted Prey Larger Than Itself

Apr. 9, 2014 — The reconstruction of an extinct meat-eating marsupial's skull, Nimbacinus dicksoni, suggests that it may have had the ability to hunt vertebrate prey exceeding its own body ... full story

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Let the Sun Shine In: Redirecting Sunlight to Dark Urban Alleyways

Apr. 14, 2014 — In response to ever-crowded urban conditions in developing countries, researchers in Egypt have developed an inexpensive way of re-directing natural sunlight into dimly lit streets and alleys, where ... full story

Result of Slow Degradation on Environmental Pollutants

Apr. 14, 2014 — Why do environmental pollutants accumulate in the cold polar regions? This may not only be due to the fact that many substances are less volatile at low temperatures, as has been long suspected, but ... full story

Reduction in HPV in Young Women in England Following National Immunization Program

Apr. 14, 2014 — A reduction in two High Risk human papillomavirus types in sexually-active young women in England has been seen, following the introduction of a national immunization program. "The data provide ... full story

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Today Will Be Felt for at Least 1,000 Years

Apr. 13, 2014 — Greenhouse gas emissions from today will greatly affect our descendants for at least 1,000 years. In 1,000 years, between 15 and 40 per cent of the CO2 we emit today will still be left in the ... full story

Greenland Ice Cores Show Industrial Record of Acid Rain, Success of US Clean Air Act

Apr. 11, 2014 — Detailed ice core measurements show smog-related ratios leveling off in 1970, and suggest these deposits are sensitive to the same chemicals that cause acid rain. By analyzing samples from the ... full story

How a Bird Flu Virus Spreads Could Prevent Pandemics

Apr. 10, 2014 — The H5N1 bird flu virus has killed hundreds of people, despite the fact that the virus can't spread easily between people. The death toll could become much worse if the virus became airborne. A study ... full story

Name of New Weakly Electric Fish Species Reflects Hope for Peace in Central Africa

Apr. 10, 2014 — Two new species of weakly electric fishes from the Congo River basin have been discovered. One of them, known from only a single specimen, is named 'Petrocephalus boboto.' 'Boboto' is the word for ... full story

Should You Trust Your Financial Advisor? Pseudo-Mathematics and Financial Charlatanism

Apr. 10, 2014 — Your financial advisor calls you up to suggest a new investment scheme. Drawing on 20 years of data, he has set his computer to work on this question: If you had invested according to this scheme in ... full story

Security Barriers in U.S./Mexico National Parks Affect Movement of Animals

Apr. 9, 2014 — Security barriers in national parks on the US/Mexican border which aim to deter illegal migrants are affecting the movements of some native animal species while not necessarily restricting the ... full story

Farming for Improved Ecosystem Services Seen as Economically Feasible

Apr. 9, 2014 — Research conducted over 25 years shows that lowering -- or avoiding -- the use of chemical fertilizers in row-crop agriculture in the northern United States can reduce polluting nitrogen runoff, ... full story

UN Climate Report: Pricing of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Critical

Apr. 4, 2014 — Despite climate change, most polluters still pay little or nothing when they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A cost $0.15 US per kilo of carbon dioxide would be enough to solve the whole ... full story

Americans Using More Energy, According to New Analysis

Apr. 2, 2014 — Americans used more renewable, fossil and even nuclear energy in 2013, according to the most recent energy flow charts. Wind energy continued to grow strongly, increasing 18 percent from 1.36 ... full story

Agroforestry Systems Can Repair Degraded Watersheds

Mar. 27, 2014 — Agroforestry, combined with land and water management practices that increase agricultural productivity, can save watersheds from degradation. A study in the Gabayan watershed in eastern Bohol, ... full story

Smoke-Free Air Policies Seem to Protect the Heart

Mar. 27, 2014 — Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces may substantially improve public health by reducing heart disease and death, according to a new study on the impact of ... full story

Keeping Secrets in a World of Spies and Mistrust

Mar. 26, 2014 — A new article reviews developments in quantum cryptography and describes how we can keep our secrets secret even when faced with the double challenge of mistrust and ... full story

Important and Complex Systems, from the Global Financial Market to Groups of Friends, May Be Highly Controllable

Mar. 20, 2014 — Scientists have discovered that all complex systems, whether they are found in the body, in international finance, or in social situations, actually fall into just three basic categories, in terms of ... full story

A Majority Prefers Letting Computers Decide

Mar. 19, 2014 — When individuals engage in risky business transactions with each other, they may end up being disappointed. This is why they'd rather leave the decision on how to divvy up jointly-owned monies to a ... full story

Quantum Physics Secures New Cryptography Scheme

Mar. 12, 2014 — The way we secure digital transactions could soon change. An international team has demonstrated a form of quantum cryptography that can protect people doing business with others they may not know or ... full story

Over Demanding Market Affects Fisheries More Than Climate Change

Mar. 7, 2014 — Fisheries that rely on short life species, such as shrimp or sardine, have been more affected by climate change, because this phenomenon affects chlorophyll production, which is vital for ... full story

Using a Treadmill While Working Can Boost Employee Productivity, Study Finds

Mar. 4, 2014 — Walking while you work may not only improve an employee's health, it may also boost productivity, according to new research. Researchers studied employees using treadmills instead of office chairs as ... full story

Procrastination and Impulsivity Genetically Linked: Exploring the Genetics of 'I'll Do It Tomorrow'

Apr. 7, 2014 — Procrastination and impulsivity are genetically linked, suggesting that the two traits stem from similar evolutionary origins, according to new research. The research indicates that the traits are ... full story

U.S. School Children Exposed to Arsenic in Well Water Have Lower IQ Scores

Apr. 7, 2014 — A study from three school districts in Maine exposed to arsenic in drinking water experienced declines in child intelligence. While earlier studies conducted by the researchers in South Asia, and ... full story

Limiting Screen Time Improves Sleep, Academics, Behavior, Study Finds

Mar. 31, 2014 — Parents may not always see it, but efforts to limit their children’s screen time can make a difference. A new study found children get more sleep, do better in school and see other health benefits ... full story

Four in 10 Infants Lack Strong Parental Attachments

Mar. 27, 2014 — In a study of 14,000 US children, 40 percent lack strong emotional bonds -- what psychologists call 'secure attachment' -- with their parents that are crucial to success later in life, according to a ... full story

Natural History Must Reclaim Its Place, Experts Say

Mar. 26, 2014 — Scientists argue that the study of natural history has waned in recent decades in developed countries. Declining course requirements and support for herbaria are among the documented evidence. Yet ... full story

Secret to Cutting Sugary Drink Use by Teens Found by New Study

Mar. 26, 2014 — A new study shows that teenagers can be persuaded to cut back on sugary soft drinks -- especially with a little help from their friends. A 30-day challenge encouraging teens to reduce sugar-sweetened ... full story

Life Lessons: Children Learn Aggressive Ways of Thinking and Behaving from Violent Video Games, Study Finds

Mar. 24, 2014 — Children who repeatedly play violent video games are learning thought patterns that will stick with them and influence behaviors as they grow older, according to a new study. The effect is the same ... full story

Preterm Children at Increased Risk of Having Math Problems

Mar. 21, 2014 — Preterm children are at an increased risk of having general cognitive and mathematic problems, research has concluded. "Teachers should be aware of these children's problems and need to work on ways ... full story

Genes Play Key Role in Parenting: Children Also Shape Parents' Behavior

Mar. 20, 2014 — Scientists have presented the most conclusive evidence yet that genes play a significant role in parenting. The study sheds light on another misconception: that parenting is solely a top-down process ... full story

School Hearing Tests Do Not Detect Noise Exposure Hearing Loss

Mar. 20, 2014 — School hearing tests cannot effectively detect adolescent high-frequency hearing loss, which is typically caused by loud noise exposure, according to researchers. School screenings primarily focus on ... full story

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