Today's Science News

Thursday, August 21, 2014

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Life Can Persist in Cold, Dark World: Life Under Antarctic Ice Explored

Aug. 20, 2014 — The first breakthrough article to come out of a massive U.S. expedition to one of Earth's final frontiers shows that there's life and an active ecosystem one-half mile below the surface of ... full story

Jurassic Mammals Were Picky Eaters, New Study Finds

Aug. 20, 2014 — New analyses of tiny fossil mammals from Glamorgan, South Wales are shedding light on the function and diets of our earliest ancestors, a team reports. Mammals and their immediate ancestors from the ... full story

Paving the Way for Cyborg Moth 'Biobots'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Researchers have developed methods for electronically manipulating the flight muscles of moths and for monitoring the electrical signals moths use to control those muscles. The work opens the door to ... full story

Solar Energy That Doesn't Block the View

Aug. 19, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new type of solar concentrator that when placed over a window creates solar energy while allowing people to actually see through the window. It is called a transparent ... full story

Why Global Warming Is Taking a Break

Aug. 19, 2014 — The average temperature on Earth has barely risen over the past 16 years. Researchers in Switzerland have now found out why. And they believe that global warming is likely to continue again ... full story

Ozone-Depleting Compound Persists, NASA Research Shows

Aug. 20, 2014 — NASA research shows Earth's atmosphere contains an unexpectedly large amount of an ozone-depleting compound from an unknown source decades after the compound was banned ... full story

Bacterial Nanowires: 'Electric Bacteria' Not What We Thought They Were

Aug. 18, 2014 — Scientists have discovered that bacterial nanowires (which conduct electricity, allowing certain bacteria to breathe) are actually extensions of the bacteria's outer membrane -- not pili, as ... full story

Seals and Sea Lions Likely Spread Tuberculosis to Humans

Aug. 20, 2014 — Scientists who study tuberculosis have long debated its origins. New research shows that tuberculosis likely spread from humans in Africa to seals and sea lions that brought the disease to South ... full story

The Power of Salt: Power Generation from Where River Water and Seawater Meet

Aug. 20, 2014 — Where the river meets the sea, there is the potential to harness a significant amount of renewable energy, according to a team of mechanical engineers. The researchers evaluated an emerging method of ... full story

Turning Waste from Rice, Parsley and Other Foods Into Biodegradable Plastic

Aug. 20, 2014 — Your chairs, synthetic rugs and plastic bags could one day be made out of cocoa, rice and vegetable waste rather than petroleum, scientists are now reporting. The novel process they developed and ... full story

Coronary Arteries Hold Heart-Regenerating Cells

Aug. 20, 2014 — Endothelial cells residing in the coronary arteries can function as cardiac stem cells to produce new heart muscle tissue, investigators have discovered. The heart has long been considered to be an ... full story

Sunblock Poses Potential Hazard to Sea Life

Aug. 20, 2014 — The sweet and salty aroma of sunscreen and seawater signals a relaxing trip to the shore. But scientists are now reporting that the idyllic beach vacation comes with an environmental hitch. When ... full story

Record Decline of Ice Sheets: Scientists Map Elevation Changes of Greenlandic and Antarctic Glaciers

Aug. 20, 2014 — Researchers have for the first time extensively mapped Greenland's and Antarctica's ice sheets with the help of the ESA satellite CryoSat-2 and have thus been able to prove that the ice ... full story

A Semi-Artificial Leaf Faster Than 'Natural' Photosynthesis

Aug. 20, 2014 — Cooperation between chemists and biologists has resulted in a new method for the very efficient integration of photosynthetic proteins in photovoltaics. Their research offers a new immobilization ... full story

First LOFAR Observations of 'Whirlpool Galaxy'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Using a radio telescope with frequencies just above those of commercial FM radio stations, a European team of astronomers has obtained the most sensitive image of a galaxy below 1 ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — A U.S. team found nearly 4,000 species in a subglacial lake that hasn't seen sunlight in millennia, showing life can thrive even under the ice. Video provided by Newsy
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Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — Poachers have killed 100,000 elephants between 2010 and 2012, as the booming ivory trade takes its toll on the animals in Africa. Video provided by Newsy
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Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Newsy (Aug. 19, 2014) — Scientists have developed a new device that mimics the way octopuses blend in with their surroundings to hide from dangerous predators. Video provided by Newsy
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Human Activity Blamed For Increase In Melting Glaciers

Human Activity Blamed For Increase In Melting Glaciers

Newsy (Aug. 15, 2014) — Researchers found human-made greenhouse gas emissions account for more than two-thirds of glacier melting between 1991 and 2010. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-08-21 at 12:08 pm EDT

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Polio: Mutated Virus Breaches Vaccine Protection

Aug. 21, 2014 — Thanks to effective vaccination, polio is considered nearly eradicated. Each year only a few hundred people are stricken worldwide. However, scientists are reporting alarming findings: a mutated ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Insulin Offers New Hope for Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

Aug. 21, 2014 — Insulin can protect the cells of the pancreas from acute pancreatitis -- a disease for which there is currently no treatment -- researchers report. Acute pancreatitis involves the pancreas digesting ... full story

3D Printers Used to Create Custom Medical Implants That Deliver Drugs, Chemo

Aug. 21, 2014 — An innovative method for using affordable, consumer-grade 3D printers and materials has been developed to fabricate custom medical implants that can contain antibacterial and chemotherapeutic ... full story

Experts Question Value of Common Superbug Control Practices

Aug. 21, 2014 — The jury is still out on the effectiveness of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) superbug control policies in hospitals, according to leading infectious disease experts. In particular, ... full story

Ibuprofen Posing Potential Threat to Fish, Researchers Say

Aug. 21, 2014 — Many rivers contain levels of ibuprofen that could be adversely affecting fish health, researchers report. In what is believed to be the first study to establish the level of risk posed by ibuprofen ... full story

Important Clue Found for Potential Treatments for Absence Seizures

Aug. 21, 2014 — A group of researchers has succeeded in revealing a principle mechanism of a neural network in the human brain, which will provide an important clue to potential treatments for absence seizures. ... full story

Adherence to Diet Can Be Measured from Blood

Aug. 21, 2014 — New results show that it's possible to assess dietary compliance from a blood sample. This is especially useful in controlled dietary intervention studies investigating the health benefits of ... full story

White-Matter Deficits in Users of Codeine-Containing Cough Syrups

Aug. 20, 2014 — An imaging study of chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups (CCS) has found deficits in specific regions of brain white matter and associates these changes with increased impulsivity in ... full story

Questioning the Use of Acute Hemodialysis Treatment

Aug. 20, 2014 — A common approach to treating kidney failure by removing waste products from the blood did not improve survival chances for people who suddenly developed the condition, an analysis concludes. The ... full story

Learning to Play the Piano? Sleep on It!

Aug. 21, 2014 — According to new research the regions of the brain below the cortex play an important role as we train our bodies’ movements and, critically, they interact more effectively after a night of sleep. ... full story

Does Your Computer Know How You're Feeling?

Aug. 21, 2014 — Researchers have designed a computer program that can accurately recognize users’ emotional states as much as 87% of the time, depending on the emotion. The study combined -- for the first time -- ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

Severing Nerves May Shrink Stomach Cancers: Botox Injections Slow Growth of Stomach Tumors in Mice

Aug. 20, 2014 — Nerves may play a critical role in stomach cancer growth and that blocking nerve signals using surgery or Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA) could be an effective treatment for the disease. Stomach cancer ... full story

Teen Sleeplessness Piles on Risk for Obesity

Aug. 20, 2014 — Teenagers who don't get enough sleep may wake up to worse consequences than nodding off during chemistry class. According to new research, risk of being obese by age 21 was 20 percent higher among ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

Treating Pain by Blocking the 'Chili-Pepper Receptor'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Biting into a chili pepper causes a burning spiciness that is irresistible to some, but intolerable to others. Scientists exploring the chili pepper's effect are using their findings to develop a new ... full story

Why Elderly Are Prone to Sleep Problems

Aug. 20, 2014 — A group of inhibitory neurons, whose loss leads to sleep disruption in experimental animals, are substantially diminished among the elderly and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, researchers ... full story

Targeted Brain Training May Help You Multitask Better

Aug. 20, 2014 — The area of the brain involved in multitasking and ways to train it have been identified by a research team. The research includes a model to better predict the effectiveness of this ... full story

Growing Up Poor Affects Adults' Sense of Control, Impulsiveness When Faced With Economic Uncertainty

Aug. 20, 2014 — Growing up poor can influence people's sense of control and in turn may lead them to more impulsive decision-making and quickly give up on challenging tasks in uncertain situations, according to new ... full story

'Tickling' Your Ear Could Be Good for Your Heart

Aug. 19, 2014 — Stimulating nerves in your ear could improve the health of your heart, researchers have discovered. Scientists used a standard TENS machine like those designed to relieve labour pains to apply ... full story

Does Love Make Sex Better for Most Women?

Aug. 19, 2014 — Love and commitment can make sex physically more satisfying for many women, according to a sociologist. The benefits of being in love with a sexual partner are more than just emotional. Most of the ... full story

Hand Gestures Improve Learning in Both Signers, Speakers

Aug. 19, 2014 — Spontaneous gesture can help children learn, whether they use a spoken language or sign language, according to a new report. "Children who can hear use gesture along with speech to communicate as ... full story

Physically Fit Kids Have Beefier Brain White Matter Than Their Less-Fit Peers

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new study of 9- and 10-year-olds finds that those who are more aerobically fit have more fibrous and compact white-matter tracts in the brain than their peers who are less fit. 'White matter' ... full story

Bacteria Detected in Food May Cause Risks to Unborn Children

Aug. 19, 2014 — At least 10 percent of the fresh cheese, sausages and meats sold in markets and on the street may be contaminated, Mexican research suggests. Human listeriosis is a disease with a high mortality rate ... full story

Daughters Provide as Much Elderly Parent Care as They Can, Sons Do as Little as Possible

Aug. 19, 2014 — Parents are better off having daughters if they want to be cared for in their old age suggests a new study, which finds that women appear to provide as much elderly parent care as they can, while men ... full story

Children's Drawings Indicate Later Intelligence, Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — How 4-year-old children draw pictures of a child is an indicator of intelligence at age 14, according to a new study. The researchers studied 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical twins and ... full story

Fighting Unfairness: Children Have Advanced Ideas About Fairness

Aug. 18, 2014 — From a young age, children are biased in favor of their own social groups when they intervene in what they believe are unfair situations -- but as they get older, they can learn to become more ... full story

Smoking During Pregnancy May Affect Grandchildren's Growth

Aug. 18, 2014 — Smoking during pregnancy has discernible effects on the growth of a woman's future grandkids, a new study shows. The "likely transgenerational effects from the grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy need ... full story

Hatha Yoga Boosts Brain Function in Older Adults, Study Suggests

Aug. 18, 2014 — Practicing hatha yoga three times a week for eight weeks improved sedentary older adults' performance on cognitive tasks that are relevant to everyday life, researchers report. The findings involved ... full story

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Your Toothpaste's Fluorine Formed in the Stars

Aug. 21, 2014 — The fluorine that is found in products such as toothpaste was likely formed billions of years ago in now-dead stars of the same type as our sun, according to new research by ... full story

Water and Sunlight: The Formula for Sustainable Fuel

Aug. 21, 2014 — Scientists have replicated one of the crucial steps in photosynthesis, opening the way for biological systems powered by sunlight which could manufacture hydrogen as a ... full story

Water Leads to Chemical That Gunks Up Biofuels Production

Aug. 20, 2014 — Trying to understand the chemistry that turns plant material into the same energy-rich gasoline and diesel we put in our vehicles, researchers have discovered that water in the conversion process ... full story

Seeing a Molecule Breathe Through Scattering of Light Pulses

Aug. 20, 2014 — For the first time, chemists have succeeded in measuring vibrational motion of a single molecule with a femtosecond time resolution. The study reveals how vibration of a single molecule differs from ... full story

Testing the Shelf-Life of Nuclear Reactors

Aug. 20, 2014 — Researchers have devised a quick way to test the structural materials used to build nuclear ... full story

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments Using Earth's Magnetic Field

Aug. 19, 2014 — Earth's magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. Now it has provided the basis for a technique ... full story

Engineering Bone Growth: Coated Tissue Scaffolds Help Body Grow New Bone to Repair Injuries or Congenital Defects

Aug. 19, 2014 — Chemical engineers have devised a new implantable tissue scaffold coated with bone growth factors that are released slowly over a few weeks. When applied to bone injuries or defects, this coated ... full story

Bubbling Down: Discovery Suggests Surprising Uses for Common Bubbles

Aug. 19, 2014 — In a finding with scientific and industrial applications, researchers find that bursting bubbles can push tiny particles down into a liquid as well as up into the ... full story

Major Step Toward Optical Computing: Non-Metallic Metamaterial Used to 'Compress' and Contain Light

Aug. 19, 2014 — Engineering researchers are designing nano-optical cables small enough to replace the copper wiring on computer chips. The advance could result in radical increases in computing speeds and reduced ... full story

Сalculations With Nanoscale Smart Particles: Important Step Towards Creating Medical Nanorobots

Aug. 19, 2014 — Researchers in Russia have made an important step towards creating medical nanorobots, discovering a way of enabling them to produce logical calculations using a variety of biochemical ... full story

Electric Sparks May Alter Evolution of Lunar Soil

Aug. 21, 2014 — The moon appears to be a tranquil place, but new modeling suggests that, over the eons, periodic storms of solar energetic particles may have significantly altered the properties of the soil in the ... full story

A Spectacular Landscape of Star Formation

Aug. 20, 2014 — A new image shows two dramatic star formation regions in the southern Milky Way. The first is of these, on the left, is dominated by the star cluster NGC 3603, located 20,000 light-years away, in the ... full story

Martian Meteorite: Implications of a Newly Discovered Mineral-Rich Structure

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new ovoid structure discovered in the Nakhla Martian meteorite is made of nanocrystalline iron-rich clay, contains a variety of minerals, and shows evidence of undergoing a past shock event from ... full story

What Are Stars Made Of? Determining Stellar Compositions Made Easier With New Catalog

Aug. 19, 2014 — An astronomer has devised the largest catalog ever produced for stellar compositions. The work is critical to understanding the properties of stars, how they form, and possible connections with ... full story

Immune System Is Dazed and Confused During Spaceflight, Study Reveals

Aug. 18, 2014 — Research indicates that crew members aboard the International Space Station have changes in blood cytokines that persist during ... full story

Sun's Activity Influences Natural Climate Change, Ice Age Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new study has, for the first time, reconstructed solar activity during the last ice age. The study shows that the regional climate is influenced by the sun and offers opportunities to better ... full story

Fascinating Rhythm: Light Pulses Illuminate a Rare Black Hole

Aug. 17, 2014 — Astronomers have accurately measured -- and thus confirmed the existence of -- a rare intermediate-mass black hole about 400 times the mass of our sun in a galaxy 12 million light years from the ... full story

Hubble Stirs Up Galactic Soup

Aug. 16, 2014 — A new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a whole host of colorful and differently shaped galaxies; some bright and nearby, some fuzzy, and some so far from us they appear as small specks in ... full story

Curiosity Mars Rover Prepares for Fourth Rock Drilling

Aug. 16, 2014 — The team operating NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has chosen a rock that looks like a pale paving stone as the mission's fourth drilling target, if it passes engineers' evaluation. They call it "Bonanza ... full story

NASA's Chandra Observatory Searches for Trigger of Nearby Supernova

Aug. 16, 2014 — New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory offer a glimpse into the environment of a star before it exploded earlier this year, and insight into what triggered one of the closest supernovas ... full story

How Worms Crawl: Mathematical Model Challenges Traditional View

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new mathematical model for earthworms and insect larvae challenges the traditional view of how these soft bodied animals get around. Researchers say that there is a far greater role for the body's ... full story

First Indirect Evidence of So-Far Undetected Strange Baryons

Aug. 19, 2014 — New supercomputing calculations provide the first evidence that particles predicted by the theory of quark-gluon interactions but never before observed are being produced in heavy-ion collisions at ... full story

A New Wireless Energy Transfer Device Can Charge Any Device Without Using Cables

Aug. 19, 2014 — Researchers have designed a new device for wireless energy transfer that will, for example, charge mobile phones or laptops without needing ... full story

Most Complete Antarctic Map for Climate Research Made Public

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new satellite image of Antarctica has been made available to the public, and the imagery will help scientists all over the world gain new insight into the effects of climate change. Using Synthetic ... full story

New 'Invisibility Cloak': Octopus-Inspired Camouflage Systems Automatically Read Surroundings and Mimic Them

Aug. 18, 2014 — Researchers have developed a technology that allows a material to automatically read its environment and adapt to mimic its surroundings. Cunjiang Yu, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at ... full story

Research Improves Temperature Modeling Across Mountainous Landscapes

Aug. 18, 2014 — New research provides improved computer models for estimating temperature across mountainous landscapes. Accurate, spatially based estimates of historical air temperature within mountainous areas are ... full story

New Tool Makes Online Personal Data More Transparent

Aug. 18, 2014 — XRay is a new tool that reveals which data in a web account, such as emails, searches, or viewed products, are being used to target which outputs, such as ads, recommended products, or prices. ... full story

Uncontrolled E-Waste Treatment Produces Carcinogenic Effects, Study Confirms

Aug. 18, 2014 — Most of the waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is not treated properly, a study confirms. In this sense, once reused and recycled in treatment plants, electronic devices will pass ... full story

How Children's Brains Memorize Math Facts

Aug. 17, 2014 — As children learn basic arithmetic, they gradually switch from solving problems by counting on their fingers to pulling facts from memory. The shift comes more easily for some kids than for others, ... full story

'Cavity Protection Effect' Helps to Conserve Quantum Information

Aug. 17, 2014 — Two different quantum systems are being coupled by researchers to create a powerful hybrid quantum system. Using a strong coupling effect, the coherence time could now be considerably ... full story

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Paleolithic Diet May Have Included Snails 10,000 Years Earlier Than Previously Thought

Aug. 20, 2014 — Paleolithic inhabitants of modern-day Spain may have eaten snails 10,000 years earlier than their Mediterranean neighbors. Snails were widespread in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, but it is still ... full story

Orb-Weaving Spiders Living in Urban Areas May Be Larger

Aug. 20, 2014 — A common orb-weaving spider may grow larger and have an increased ability to reproduce when living in urban ... full story

How Lizards Regenerate Their Tails: Researchers Discover Genetic 'Recipe'

Aug. 20, 2014 — By understanding the secret of how lizards regenerate their tails, researchers may be able to develop ways to stimulate the regeneration of limbs in humans. Now, a team of researchers is one step ... full story

Gene Therapy Protects Mice from Lethal Heart Condition, Researchers Find

Aug. 20, 2014 — A new gene therapy has been shown to protect mice from a life-threatening heart condition caused by muscular dystrophy. About one in 3,500 children, mostly boys, are born with Duchenne muscular ... full story

Worker Bees ‘know’ When to Invest in Their Reproductive Future

Aug. 20, 2014 — When a colony of honeybees grows to about 4,000 members, it triggers an important first stage in its reproductive cycle: the building of a special type of comb used for rearing male reproductive, ... full story

Progress in the Fight Against Harmful Fungi

Aug. 20, 2014 — One of the world's largest gene libraries for the Candida glabrata yeast, which is harmful to humans, has been developed by researchers. Molecular analysis of the Candida glabrata fungus mutations ... full story

Zipper Action Triggers Bacterial Invasion: Scientists Discover New Strategy Germs Use to Invade Cells

Aug. 20, 2014 — The hospital germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa wraps itself into the membrane of human cells. Now researchers have identified a novel mechanism of bacterial invasion, outlining how Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... full story

Seafood Substitutions Can Expose Consumers to Unexpectedly High Mercury

Aug. 19, 2014 — New measurements from fish purchased at retail seafood counters in 10 different states show the extent to which mislabeling can expose consumers to unexpectedly high levels of mercury, a harmful ... full story

Philippine Tarsier: Genetic Proof of a New Variety

Aug. 19, 2014 — The tarsier is the 'flagship' iconic species for promoting environmental stewardship and ecotourism in the Philippines, a nation suffering from large-scale destruction of natural ... full story

More Than 100,000 African Elephants Killed in Three Years, Study Verifies

Aug. 19, 2014 — New research has revealed that an estimated 100,000 elephants in Africa were killed for their ivory between 2010 and 2012. The study shows these losses are driving population declines of the world's ... full story

New Satellite Data Will Help Farmers Facing Drought

Aug. 20, 2014 — NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission, scheduled to launch this winter, will collect the kind of local data agricultural and water managers worldwide need. SMAP uses two ... full story

Neither Too Hot nor Too Cold: Evolution of Marine Crocodilians Constrained by Ocean Temperatures

Aug. 19, 2014 — The ancestors of today's crocodiles colonized the seas during warm phases and became extinct during cold phases, according to a new Anglo-French study which establishes a link between marine ... full story

Exporting U.S. Coal to Asia Could Drop Emissions 21 Percent

Aug. 19, 2014 — Under the right scenario, exporting U.S. coal to power plants in South Korea could lead to a 21 percent drop in greenhouse gas emissions compared to burning it at less energy-efficient U.S. plants. ... full story

Study at Deepwater Horizon Spill Site Finds Key to Tracking Pollutants

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new study of the ocean circulation patterns at the site of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill reveals the significant role small-scale ocean currents play in the spread of pollutants. The findings ... full story

Study of African Dust Transport to South America Reveals Air Quality Impacts

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new study that analyzed concentrations of African dust transported to South America shows large seasonal peaks in winter and spring. These research findings offer new insight on the overall human ... full story

Economists: Shale Oil 'Dividend' Could Pay for Smaller Carbon Footprint

Aug. 19, 2014 — Unanticipated economic benefits from the shale oil and gas boom could help offset the costs of substantially reducing the US's carbon footprint, agricultural economists say. Using an economic model, ... full story

Minor Variations in Ice Sheet Size Can Trigger Abrupt Climate Change

Aug. 18, 2014 — Small fluctuations in the sizes of ice sheets during the last ice age were enough to trigger abrupt climate change, scientists have found. The team compared simulated model data with that retrieved ... full story

NOAA Analysis Reveals Significant Land Cover Changes in U.S. Coastal Regions

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new NOAA nationwide analysis shows that between 1996 and 2011, 64,975 square miles in coastal regions -- an area larger than the state of Wisconsin -- experienced changes in land cover, including a ... full story

Trees, Shrubs Invading Critical Grasslands, Diminish Cattle Production

Aug. 18, 2014 — Half of Earth's land mass is made up of rangelands, which include grasslands and savannas, yet they are being transformed at an alarming rate. Woody plants, such as trees and shrubs, are taking over, ... full story

Climate Change Will Threaten Fish by Drying out Southwest U.S. Streams, Study Predicts

Aug. 18, 2014 — Fish species native to a major Arizona watershed may lose access to important segments of their habitat by 2050 as surface water flow is reduced by the effects of climate warming, new research ... full story

Oldest Metal Object Found to Date in Middle East

Aug. 21, 2014 — A copper awl, the oldest metal object found to date in the Middle East, has been discovered during the excavations at Tel Tsaf. The awl dates back to the late 6th millennium or the early 5th ... full story

500-Million-Year Reset for Immune System

Aug. 18, 2014 — A single factor can reset the immune system of mice to a state likely similar to what it was 500 million years ago, when the first vertebrates emerged. The model, researchers report, could provide an ... full story

Toothless 'Dragon' Pterosaurs Dominated the Late Cretaceous Skies

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new study provides an exciting insight into the diversity and distribution of pterosaurs from the Azhdarchidae family. Dominating the Late Cretaceous skies this group of toothless flying 'dragons' ... full story

Evolutionary Misfit: Misunderstood Worm-Like Fossil Finds Its Place in the Tree of Life

Aug. 17, 2014 — One of the most bizarre-looking fossils ever found -- a worm-like creature with legs, spikes and a head difficult to distinguish from its tail -- has found its place in the evolutionary tree of life, ... full story

Bone Chemistry Reveals Royal Lifestyle of Richard III

Aug. 16, 2014 — A recent study has delved into the bone and tooth chemistry of King Richard III and uncovered fascinating new details about the life and diet of Britain's last Plantagenet king. The study indicates a ... full story

New Species of Flying Pterosaur: Bones from Nearly 50 Ancient Flying Reptiles Discovered

Aug. 13, 2014 — Scientists discovered the bones of nearly 50 winged reptiles from a new species, Caiuajara dobruskii, that lived during the Cretaceous in southern ... full story

Embalming Study 'Rewrites' Key Chapter in Egyptian History

Aug. 13, 2014 — Researchers have discovered new evidence to suggest that the origins of mummification started in ancient Egypt 1,500 years earlier than previously ... full story

From Eons to Seconds, Proteins Exploit the Same Forces

Aug. 13, 2014 — Nature's artistic and engineering skills are evident in proteins, life's robust molecular machines. Scientists have now employed their unique theories to show how the interplay between evolution and ... full story

Our Ancestor's 'Leaky' Membrane Answers Big Questions in Biology

Aug. 12, 2014 — All life on Earth came from one common ancestor -- a single-celled organism -- but what it looked like, how it lived and how it evolved into today’s modern cells is a four billion year old mystery ... full story

Reconstructions Show How Some of the Earliest Animals Lived -- And Died

Aug. 11, 2014 — A bizarre group of uniquely shaped organisms known as rangeomorphs may have been some of the earliest animals to appear on Earth, uniquely suited to ocean conditions 575 million years ago. A new ... full story

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Experts Denounce Clinical Trials of Unscientific, 'Alternative' Medicines

Aug. 20, 2014 — Experts call for an end to clinical trials of 'highly implausible treatments' such as homeopathy and reiki. Over the last two decades, such complementary and alternative medicine treatments have been ... full story

Is China's 50 Percent Cesarean Section Delivery Rate Too High?

Aug. 20, 2014 — Efforts must be made to decrease China's increasing cesarean section rate, suggests a new article. China has one of the highest caesarean delivery rates in the world. Of 16 million babies born in ... full story

Bigger Weddings, Fewer Partners, Less 'Sliding' Linked to Better Marriages

Aug. 19, 2014 — The more people who attend your wedding and the fewer relationships you had prior to marriage, the more likely you are to report a high-quality marriage, a study concludes. The study challenges the ... full story

Electronic 'Noses' to Detect Chemical Warfare Gases

Aug. 19, 2014 — Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic "nose" for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Neglected Boys May Turn Into Violent Adolescents

Aug. 18, 2014 — Parents who physically neglect their boys may increase the risk that they will raise violent adolescents, according to sociologists. Examples of physical neglect include not taking a sick or injured ... full story

Pygmy Phenotype Developed Many Times, Adaptive to Rainforest

Aug. 18, 2014 — The small body size associated with the pygmy phenotype is probably a selective adaptation for rainforest hunter-gatherers, according to an international team of researchers. But all African pygmy ... full story

No One-Size-Fits-All Approach in a Changing Climate, Changing Land

Aug. 18, 2014 — As climate change alters habitats for birds and bees and everything in between, so too does the way humans decide to use land. Researchers have, for the first time, found a way to determine the ... full story

Quasi-Legal Drug 15 Times Stronger Than Heroin Hides in Plain Sight

Aug. 18, 2014 — Emergency physicians should expect 'an upswing in what on the surface appear to be heroin overdoses,' but are actually overdoses tied to acetyl fentanyl, an opiate that is mixed into street drugs ... full story

Compromise Needed on Roads Through Sensitive Wild Areas

Aug. 18, 2014 — Compromise solutions must be found when it comes to roads built through sensitive tropical and subtropical areas, say experts. While developing nations need to deploy adequate transportation ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Study Measures Steep Coastal Costs of China's GDP Growth

Aug. 8, 2014 — Economic reforms declared in 1978 led to a surge of growth in China, but resulting increases in human impact activities are seriously degrading the nation's coastal ecosystems, according to a newly ... full story

Geography Matters: Model Predicts How Local 'Shocks' Influence U.S. Economy

Aug. 6, 2014 — Hurricanes. Foreclosures. Factory shutdowns. How do these local industry 'shocks' influence the country as a whole? A new model measures the power of industry dips and boosts nationwide. Overall, ... full story

All-in-One Energy System Offers Greener Power for Off–grid Homes, Farms and Businesses

July 30, 2014 — An innovative ‘trigeneration’ system fuelled entirely by raw plant oils could have great potential for isolated homes and businesses operating outside grid ... full story

Kill Switch in Cell Phones Could Save Consumers More Than $3.4 Billion Annually

July 29, 2014 — A new study shows consumer savings from the Kill Switch legislation exceed initial projections and now points to well over $3 billion. This savings to consumers comes at the expense of insurance and ... full story

Google Searches May Hold Key to Future Market Crashes, Researchers Find

July 28, 2014 — A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market ... full story

It Takes More Than Practice to Excel

July 28, 2014 — Psychologists have overturned a 20-year-old theory that people who excel in their fields are those who practiced the ... full story

Shift Work Linked to Heightened Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

July 24, 2014 — Shift work is linked to a heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes, with the risk seemingly greatest among men and those working rotating shift patterns, indicates an analysis of the available ... full story

Powerful New Source of Up-to-Date Information on Economic Activity

July 10, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure uses aggregated and de-identified data on transactions and account balances from Check, a ... full story

Expecting to Teach Enhances Learning, Recall

Aug. 8, 2014 — People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that ... full story

Musical Training Offsets Some Academic Achievement Gaps, Research Says

Aug. 8, 2014 — Learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills, according to research. The findings, which involved hundreds of kids ... full story

New Insights Into How Young and Developing Readers Make Sense of Words

Aug. 7, 2014 — Skilled readers are often able to make sense of words suffering from 'typos' and jumbled up letter orders as long as the beginning and end letters of the words are ... full story

Video-Game Playing for Less Than an Hour a Day Is Linked With Better-Adjusted Children, Study Finds

Aug. 4, 2014 — A new study suggests video game-playing for less than an hour a day is linked with better-adjusted children and teenagers. The research found that young people who indulged in a little video ... full story

Removing Vending Machines from Schools Is Not Enough to Reduce Soda Consumption

Aug. 1, 2014 — Banning vending machines from schools can actually increase soda and fast food consumption among students if it’s the only school food policy change implemented, according to new ... full story

Preterm Children Do Not Have an Increased Risk for Dyscalculia, New Research Suggests

Aug. 1, 2014 — Preterm children do not suffer from dyscalculia more often than healthy full-term children, experts say, contrary to previous studies. Unlike most other studies, the researchers took the children’s ... full story

Numerical Learning Disability: Dyscalculia Linked to Difficulties in Reading and Spelling

July 30, 2014 — Between three and six percent of schoolchildren suffer from an arithmetic-related learning disability. Researchers now show that these children are also more likely to exhibit deficits in reading and ... full story

Social Origins of Intelligence in the Brain

July 29, 2014 — By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, scientists are tackling -- and beginning to answer -- longstanding questions about ... full story

First Grade Reading Suffers in Segregated Schools

July 29, 2014 — A groundbreaking study has found that African-American students in first grade experience smaller gains in reading when they attend segregated schools -- but the students' backgrounds likely are not ... full story

Reinventing Biology Labs by Turning Smartphones Into Microscopes

July 29, 2014 — With nothing more than a smartphone and less than $10 of trinkets and hardware supplies, students can build their own microscopes. The DIY microscopes can magnify samples up to 175 times with a ... full story

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