Today's Science News

Monday, October 20, 2014

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NASA Spacecraft Provides New Information About Sun's Atmosphere

Oct. 16, 2014 — NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has provided scientists with five new findings into how the sun's atmosphere, or corona, is heated far hotter than its surface, what ... full story

Cells' Powerhouses Were Once Energy Parasites: Study Upends Current Theories of How Mitochondria Began

Oct. 16, 2014 — Parasitic bacteria were the first cousins of the mitochondria that power cells in animals and plants -- and first acted as energy parasites in those cells before becoming beneficial, according to a ... full story

Wobbling of a Saturn Moon Hints at What Lies Beneath

Oct. 16, 2014 — Using instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft to measure the wobbles of Mimas, the closest of Saturn's regular moons, an astronomer has inferred that this small moon's icy surface cloaks ... full story

Scientists Find 'Hidden Brain Signatures' of Consciousness in Vegetative State Patients

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists in Cambridge have found hidden signatures in the brains of people in a vegetative state, which point to networks that could support consciousness even when a patient appears to be ... full story

Hubble Finds Extremely Distant Galaxy Through Cosmic Magnifying Glass

Oct. 16, 2014 — Using the Hubble Space Telescope and the lensing power of giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744, astronomers may have made the most reliable distance measurement yet of an object that existed in the very ... full story

Brain Surgery, by Robot, Through the Cheek

Oct. 15, 2014 — Engineers have developed a surgical robot designed to perform brain surgery by entering through the cheek instead of the skull that can operate on a patient in an MRI scanner. Additionally, the ... full story

New Way to Lose Weight: Scientists Stimulate Brown Fat to Burn More Energy from Food

Oct. 16, 2014 — The number of overweight persons is greatly increasing worldwide - and as a result is the risk of suffering a heart attack, stroke, diabetes or Alzheimer's disease. For this reason, many people ... full story

Inexplicable Signal from Unseen Universe Provides Tantalizing Clue About One of Astronomy's Greatest Secrets -- Dark Matter

Oct. 16, 2014 — The first potential indication of direct detection of dark matter -- something that has been a mystery in physics for over 30 years -- has been attained. Astronomers found what appears to be a ... full story

Evidence for Huge Mountains That Fed Early Life Discovered

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists have found evidence for a huge mountain range that existed in the supercontinent of Gondwana some 600 million years ago. It ran from modern west Africa to northeast Brazil, and as it ... full story

Magnetic Mirrors Enable New Technologies by Reflecting Light in Uncanny Ways

Oct. 16, 2014 — Scientists have demonstrated, for the first time, a new type of mirror that forgoes a familiar shiny metallic surface and instead reflects infrared light by using an unusual magnetic property of a ... full story

Brain's Compass Relies on Geometric Relationships, Say Researchers

Oct. 16, 2014 — The brain has a complex system for keeping track of which direction you are facing as you move about; remembering how to get from one place to another would otherwise be impossible. Researchers have ... full story

That Pregnant Feeling Makes a Fly Start Nesting

Oct. 16, 2014 — Across the animal kingdom, it's not uncommon for pregnancy to change an expectant mom's behavior. Even female flies have their own rudimentary way of 'nesting,' which appears to ... full story

Amphibian Communities Collapse in Wake of Viral Outbreak

Oct. 16, 2014 — Two closely related viruses that have been introduced to northern Spain in recent years have already led to the collapse of three different species of amphibian -- the common midwife toad, the common ... full story

Jet Lag Can Cause Obesity by Disrupting the Daily Rhythms of Gut Microbes

Oct. 16, 2014 — Organisms ranging from bacteria to humans have circadian clocks to help them synchronize their biological activities to the time of day. A study now reveals that gut microbes in mice and humans have ... full story

Cosmic Jets of Young Stars Formed by Magnetic Fields

Oct. 16, 2014 — Astrophysical jets are counted among our universe's most spectacular phenomena: From the centers of black holes, quasars, or protostars, these rays of matter sometimes protrude several light ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Saturn's 'Death Star' Moon Might Have A Hidden Ocean

Saturn's 'Death Star' Moon Might Have A Hidden Ocean

Newsy (Oct. 17, 2014) — The smallest of Saturn's main moons, Mimas, wobbles as it orbits. Research reveals it might be due to a global ocean underneath its icy surface. Video provided by Newsy
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So, Kangaroos Didn't Always Hop

So, Kangaroos Didn't Always Hop

Newsy (Oct. 16, 2014) — Researchers believe an extinct kangaroo species weighed 500 pounds or more and couldn't hop. Video provided by Newsy
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'Robotic Eyes' Helps Japan's Bipedal Bot Run Faster

'Robotic Eyes' Helps Japan's Bipedal Bot Run Faster

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 16, 2014) — Japanese researcher uses an eye-sensor camera to enable a bipedal robot to balance itself, while running on a treadmill. Jim Drury reports. Video provided by Reuters
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The Largest Volcano In Centuries Is Spewing Toxic Gas

The Largest Volcano In Centuries Is Spewing Toxic Gas

Newsy (Oct. 16, 2014) — One of the largest volcanic eruptions in centuries is occurring on Iceland. The volcano Bardarbunga is producing high levels of sulfur dioxide. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-10-20 at 12:28 am EDT

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Lab-Developed Intestinal Organoids Form Mature Human Tissue in Mice

Oct. 19, 2014 — Researchers have successfully transplanted 'organoids' of functioning human intestinal tissue grown from pluripotent stem cells in a lab dish into mice -- creating an unprecedented model for studying ... full story

Major Breakthrough Could Help Detoxify Pollutants

Oct. 19, 2014 — A major breakthrough could lead to more effective methods for detoxifying dangerous pollutants like PCBs and dioxins, scientists say. The result is a culmination of 15 years of research. It details ... full story

Many Older People Have Mutations Linked to Leukemia, Lymphoma in Their Blood Cells

Oct. 19, 2014 — At least 2 percent of people over age 40 and 5 percent of people over 70 have mutations linked to leukemia and lymphoma in their blood cells, according to new research. Mutations in the body's cells ... full story

'Mega' Cells Control Growth of Blood-Producing Cells

Oct. 19, 2014 — While megakaryocytes are best known for producing platelets that heal wounds, these “mega” cells found in bone marrow also play a critical role in regulating stem cells according to new research. ... full story

Research Reveals Likelihood, Onset of Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis Among Patients With Inflammatory Eye Disease

Oct. 19, 2014 — The results of the largest retrospective study of multiple sclerosis (MS) in uveitis patients has revealed that nearly 60 percent of patients with both diseases were diagnosed with each within a ... full story

Gene Duplications Associated With Autism Evolved Recently in Human History

Oct. 19, 2014 — Human geneticists have discovered that a region of the genome associated with autism contains genetic variation that evolved in the last 250,000 years, after the divergence of humans from ancient ... full story

Women More Likely to Develop Anxiety and Depression After Heart Attack

Oct. 19, 2014 — Patients with depression are nearly 6 times more likely to die within 6 months after a heart attack than those without depression. The increased risk of death in patients with depression persists up ... full story

Mutation Associated With Cleft Palate in Humans, Dogs Identified

Oct. 19, 2014 — Scientists studying birth defects in humans and purebred dogs have identified an association between cleft lip and cleft palate -- conditions that occur when the lip and mouth fail to form properly ... full story

Children's Genes Affect Their Mothers' Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Oct. 19, 2014 — A child's genetic makeup may contribute to his or her mother's risk of rheumatoid arthritis, possibly explaining why women are at higher risk of developing the disease than men, experts ... full story

Asbestos Likely More Widespread Than Previously Thought

Oct. 19, 2014 — Naturally occurring asbestos minerals may be more widespread than previously thought, with newly discovered sources now identified within the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The asbestos-rich areas are ... full story

Vitamin D Deficiency Increases Poor Brain Function After Cardiac Arrest by Sevenfold

Oct. 18, 2014 — Patients with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to have a poor neurological outcome or die after sudden cardiac arrest than those who were not deficient. Nearly one-third of the patients who were ... full story

Action Video Games Bolster Sensorimotor Skills, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — People who play action video games such as Call of Duty or Assassin's Creed seem to learn a new sensorimotor skill more quickly than non-gamers do, psychology researchers have ... full story

How the Brain Leads Us to Believe We Have Sharp Vision

Oct. 17, 2014 — We assume that we can see the world around us in sharp detail. In fact, our eyes can only process a fraction of our surroundings precisely. In a series of experiments, psychologists have been ... full story

'Red Effect' Sparks Interest in Female Monkeys

Oct. 17, 2014 — Recent studies showed that the color red tends increase our attraction toward others, feelings of jealousy, and even reaction times. Now, new research shows that female monkeys also respond to the ... full story

Presence of Enzyme May Worsen Effects of Spinal Cord Injury and Impair Long-Term Recovery

Oct. 17, 2014 — Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few treatment options. Studies show that damage to the barrier separating blood from the spinal cord can contribute to the ... full story

Major Benefits for Students Who Attend Live Theater, Study Finds

Oct. 16, 2014 — Field trips to live theater enhance literary knowledge, tolerance, and empathy among students, according to a study. The research team found that reading and watching movies of Hamlet and A Christmas ... full story

Myelin Vital for Learning New Practical Skills

Oct. 16, 2014 — New evidence of myelin's essential role in learning and retaining new practical skills, such as playing a musical instrument, has been uncovered by research. Myelin is a fatty substance produced by ... full story

New Front in War on Alzheimer's, Other Protein-Linked Brain Diseases

Oct. 16, 2014 — Proteins must fold into the right 3-D structure to work, and the body produces many chaperone molecules to refold misfolded proteins. Heat shock boosts the number of these chaperones. Research now ... full story

Myth-Conceptions: How Myths About the Brain Are Hampering Teaching

Oct. 16, 2014 — Myths about the brain are common among teachers worldwide and are hampering teaching, according to new research. The report highlights several areas where new findings from neuroscience are becoming ... full story

Are Male Brains Wired to Ignore Food for Sex? Nematode Study Points to Basic Biological Mechanisms

Oct. 16, 2014 — Choosing between two good things can be tough. When animals must decide between feeding and mating, it can get even trickier. In a discovery that might ring true even for some humans, researchers ... full story

Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Newborn Stress Hormones, DNA, Study Finds

Oct. 17, 2014 — The effects of smoking during pregnancy, and its impact on the stress response in newborn babies, has been the focus of recent study. The research indicates that newborns of mothers who smoke ... full story

Blinded by Non-Science: Trivial Scientific Information Increases Trust in Products

Oct. 17, 2014 — Beware of trivial graphs and formulas, warns new research. The study found trivial graphs or formulas accompanying medical information can lead consumers to believe products are more ... full story

Physicists Sound Warning to 'Nail Beauty Fanatics'

Oct. 17, 2014 — The daily trimming of fingernails and toenails to make them more aesthetically pleasing could be detrimental and potentially lead to serious nail ... full story

Male and Female Brains Aren't Equal When It Comes to Fat

Oct. 16, 2014 — Researchers have found that male and female brains respond in remarkably different ways to high-fat meals. Those differences in the brain lead to greater inflammation and increased health risks in ... full story

Oh, Brother! Having a Sibling Makes Boys Selfless, Study Suggests

Oct. 16, 2014 — A study found that siblings uniquely promote sympathy and altruism. Boys and girls benefited equally -- a surprise since girls generally benefit more from friendships. However, researchers found that ... full story

Pre-Eclampsia May Be Caused by the Fetus, Not the Placenta, Says Expert

Oct. 16, 2014 — Pre-eclampsia, the potentially deadly condition that affects pregnant women, may be caused by problems meeting the oxygen demands of the growing fetus, according to experts. The researchers believe ... full story

Gradual Weight Loss No Better Than Rapid Weight Loss for Long-Term Weight Control

Oct. 15, 2014 — Contrary to current dietary recommendations, slow and steady weight loss does not reduce the amount or rate of weight regain compared with losing weight quickly, new research has ... full story

Reminding People of Their Religious Belief System Reduces Hostility, Study Shows

Oct. 15, 2014 — New research may shed some light on religion's actual influence on believers -- and the news is positive. Researchers hypothesized that being reminded of religious beliefs would normally promote less ... full story

Leisure Time Physical Activity Linked to Lower Depression Risk

Oct. 15, 2014 — Being physically active three times a week reduces the odds of being depressed by approximately 16 percent, according to new research. The study found a two-way relationship between depression and ... full story

Weight Gain Study Suggests Polyunsaturated Oil Healthier Option

Oct. 15, 2014 — Rapid weight gain from eating foods rich in saturated fats quickly increased bad cholesterol levels, even in otherwise healthy and normal-weight adults in their mid-20s. The opposite was true in ... full story

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Imaging Electric Charge Propagating Along Microbial Nanowires

Oct. 19, 2014 — Physicists report that they've used a new imaging technique, electrostatic force microscopy, to resolve the biological debate with evidence from physics, showing that electric charges do indeed ... full story

Crystallizing the DNA Nanotechnology Dream

Oct. 19, 2014 — For the last 20 years, scientists have tried to design large DNA crystals with precisely prescribed depth and complex features -- a design quest just fulfilled by scientists. The team built 32 DNA ... full story

Superconducting Circuits, Simplified

Oct. 17, 2014 — New circuit design could unlock the power of experimental superconducting computer ... full story

Atomic Trigger Shatters Mystery of How Glass Deforms

Oct. 17, 2014 — A new study has cracked one mystery of glass to shed light on the mechanism that triggers its deformation before shattering. Glass hangs in a metastable state in which the energy of the system is ... full story

Plastic Nanoparticles Also Harm Freshwater Organisms

Oct. 17, 2014 — Organisms can be negatively affected by plastic nanoparticles, not just in the seas and oceans but in freshwater bodies too. These particles slow the growth of algae, cause deformities in water fleas ... full story

Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei

Oct. 16, 2014 — Protons and neutrons that have briefly paired up in the nucleus have higher-average momentum, leaving less for non-paired nucleons. Researchers have now shown for the first time that this phenomenon ... full story

Engineers Find a Way to Win in Laser Performance by Losing

Oct. 16, 2014 — Engineers have shown a new way to reverse or eliminate loss by, ironically, adding loss to a laser system to actually reap energy gains. To help laser systems overcome loss, operators often pump the ... full story

Dispelling a Misconception About Mg-Ion Batteries

Oct. 16, 2014 — Researchers used supercomputer simulations to dispel a popular misconception about magnesium-ion batteries that should help advance the development of multivalent ion battery ... full story

Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Species

Oct. 16, 2014 — Offshore wind power is a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions. Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed in deeper water, but ... full story

Light Bending Material Facilitates the Search for New Particles

Oct. 16, 2014 — Particle physicists have a hard time identifying all the elementary particles created in their particle accelerators. But now researchers have designed a material that makes it much easier to ... full story

Explosion First Evidence of a Hydrogen-Deficient Supernova Progenitor

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new model is the first characterization of the progenitor for a hydrogen-deficient supernova. The model predicts that a bright hot star, which is the binary companion to an exploding object, ... full story

Tiny 'Nanoflares' Might Heat the Sun's Corona

Oct. 16, 2014 — Why is the Sun's million-degree corona, or outermost atmosphere, so much hotter than the Sun's surface? This question has baffled astronomers for decades. Today, a team led by Paola Testa is ... full story

Journey to the Center of the Earth: Geochemist Uses Helium and Lead Isotopes to Gain Insight Into Makeup of Planet’s Deep Interior

Oct. 16, 2014 — A geochemist studying Samoan volcanoes has found evidence of the planet's early formation still trapped inside Earth. Known as hotspots, volcanic island chains such as Samoa can ancient primordial ... full story

Getting to Know Super-Earths: Using Hubble to Study Mysterious Exoplanet

Oct. 15, 2014 — Results from NASA's Kepler mission have indicated that the most common planets in the galaxy are super-Earths -- those that are bigger than Earth but smaller than Neptune. We have no examples of ... full story

Milky Way Ransacks Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

Oct. 15, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that our nearest galactic neighbors, the dwarf spheroidal galaxies, are devoid of star-forming gas, and that our Milky Way Galaxy is to ... full story

Potential Kuiper Belt Targets for New Horizons Pluto Mission

Oct. 15, 2014 — NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered three Kuiper Belt objects that the agency's New Horizons spacecraft could potentially visit after it flies by Pluto in July ... full story

Astronomers Spot Faraway Uranus-Like Planet: First 'Ice Giant' Planet Found in Another Solar System

Oct. 15, 2014 — Our view of other solar systems just got a little more familiar, with the discovery of a planet 25,000 light-years away that resembles our own Uranus. Astronomers have discovered hundreds of planets ... full story

Construction Secrets of a Galactic Metropolis: APEX Reveals Hidden Star Formation in Protocluster

Oct. 15, 2014 — Astronomers have used the APEX telescope to probe a huge galaxy cluster that is forming in the early Universe and revealed that much of the star formation taking place is not only hidden by dust, but ... full story

Technical Feasibility of Proposed 'Mars One' Mission Assessed

Oct. 14, 2014 — In 2012, the "Mars One" project, led by a Dutch nonprofit, announced plans to establish the first human colony on the Red Planet by 2025. The mission would initially send four astronauts on a one-way ... full story

Rediscovering Venus to Find Faraway Earths: Measuring Gravitational Pull of a Planet Should Speed Search

Oct. 14, 2014 — As the search for Earth-like planets wages on, a team of researchers may have found a way to speed up the process. The team is developing a new laser-based technology known as the green astro-comb to ... full story

Smartphone Approach for Examining Progression of Diabetic Eye Disease Offers Comparable Results to Traditional Method

Oct. 18, 2014 — A smartphone-based tool may be an effective alternative to traditional ophthalmic imaging equipment in evaluating and grading severity of a diabetic eye disease, according to a study. The results of ... full story

iPhones for Eye Health: Capturing Ocular Images in Difficult-to-Photograph Patients

Oct. 18, 2014 — Smartphone technology is a widely available resource which may also be a portable and effective tool for imaging the inside of the eye, according to results of a study. Researchers are successfully ... full story

Scientific Breakthrough Will Help Design Antibiotics of the Future

Oct. 17, 2014 — Computer simulations have been used to show how bacteria are able to destroy antibiotics -- a breakthrough which will help develop drugs which can effectively tackle infections in the ... full story

Tailored 'Activity Coaching' by Smartphone

Oct. 17, 2014 — Today’s smartphone user can obtain a lot of data about his or her health, thanks to built-in or separate sensors. Researchers now take this health monitoring to a higher level. Using the system he ... full story

Modeling Tumor Dormancy: What Makes a Tumor Switch from Dormant to Malignant?

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new computational model may help illuminate the conditions surrounding tumor dormancy and the switch to a malignant state. The so-called cellular automaton model simulated various scenarios of ... full story

Digital Archaeology Changes Exploration of the Past

Oct. 15, 2014 — New ways of documenting and sharing artifacts are being explored in recent study. Archaeologists are now using the tools of the 21st century to explore the past, researchers say, and are exploring ... full story

Weather History 'Time Machine' Created

Oct. 15, 2014 — A software program that allows climate researchers to access historical climate data for the entire global surface (excluding the poles) has been developed. This software include the oceans, and is ... full story

Future Computers Could Be Built from Magnetic 'Tornadoes'

Oct. 14, 2014 — Computers of the future could be built from 'magnetic tornadoes,' according to new research into nanotechnology. Using computer simulations, the team have shown it is possible to create magnetic ... full story

How to Train a Robot: Can We Teach Robots Right from Wrong?

Oct. 14, 2014 — From performing surgery and flying planes to babysitting kids and driving cars, today’s robots can do it all. With chatbots such as Eugene Goostman recently being hailed as “passing” the Turing ... full story

Monitoring Heart Failure With Tiny Implant

Oct. 13, 2014 — A new implant gives patients the opportunity to send daily updates about their heart condition to physicians. The system features a paper clip-sized sensor that is implanted in the pulmonary artery ... full story

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Scale of Declines of UK Migratory Birds Wintering in Africa Revealed

Oct. 17, 2014 — The migration of millions of birds across the face of the planet is one of nature's greatest annual events. Every spring some species move in one direction, while every autumn those same species move ... full story

Climate Change Alters Cast of Winter Birds

Oct. 17, 2014 — Over the past two decades, the resident communities of birds that attend eastern North America’s backyard bird feeders in winter have quietly been remade, most likely as a result of a warming ... full story

New Data About Endangered Marsh Harrier Distribution in Europe

Oct. 17, 2014 — The use of ringing recoveries -- a conventional method used to study bird migration -- in combination with more modern techniques such as species distribution modelling and stable isotope analysis is ... full story

Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection: Scientists Open Black Box on Bacterial Growth

Oct. 17, 2014 — Researchers have shown for the first time how bacteria can grow directly in the lungs of Cystic fibrosis patients, giving them the opportunity to get tremendous insights into bacteria behavior and ... full story

High-Speed Evolution in the Lab: Geneticists Evaluate Cost-Effective Genome Analysis

Oct. 17, 2014 — Life implies change. And this holds true for genes as well. Organisms require a flexible genome in order to adapt to changes in the local environment. Researchers want to know why individuals differ ... full story

Cellular Self-Destruct Program Has Deep Roots Throughout Evolution

Oct. 16, 2014 — In what seems like a counter-intuitive move against survival, within animals, some cells are fated to die from the triggering of an elaborate cell death program, known as apoptosis. Now, researchers ... full story

How a Molecular Superman Protects Genome from Damage

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new role for the RNAi protein Dicer has been found in preserving genomic stability. Researchers discovered that Dicer helps prevent collisions during DNA replication by freeing transcription ... full story

Sugared Soda Consumption, Cell Aging Associated in New Study

Oct. 16, 2014 — Sugar-sweetened soda consumption might promote disease independently from its role in obesity, according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was ... full story

'Paradigm Shift' in Understanding of Potassium Channels

Oct. 16, 2014 — A new discovery relating to one of the most common processes in human cells is being described as a 'paradigm shift' in understanding. Researchers have observed ion permeation in potassium channels ... full story

Loss of Big Predators Could Leave Herbivores in a Thorny Situation

Oct. 16, 2014 — Global declines in carnivore populations could embolden plant eaters to increasingly dine on succulent vegetation, driving losses in plant and tree biodiversity, according to new research published ... full story

Improved Electricity Access Has Little Impact on Climate Change

Oct. 19, 2014 — Expanding access to household electricity services accounts for only a small portion of total emission growth, shows a new study, shedding light on an ongoing debate on potential conflicts between ... full story

Australian Volcanic Mystery Explained

Oct. 17, 2014 — Scientists have solved a long-standing mystery surrounding Australia's only active volcanic area. The volcanism springs from a unique interaction between the continent's movement north and local ... full story

Mysterious Midcontinent Rift Is a Geological Hybrid

Oct. 16, 2014 — Geologists have a new explanation for the formation of the Midcontinent Rift, an ancient 2,000-mile-long underground crack that starts in Lake Superior and runs south. The rift is a geological ... full story

Rivers Flow Differently Over Gravel Beds

Oct. 16, 2014 — River beds, where flowing water meets silt, sand and gravel, are critical ecological zones. Yet how water flows in a river with a gravel bed is very different from the traditional model of a sandy ... full story

Turning Humble Seaweed Into Biofuel

Oct. 16, 2014 — The sea has long been a source of Norway’s riches, whether from cod, farmed salmon or oil. Now one researcher hopes to add seaweed to this list as he refines a way to produce “biocrude” from ... full story

Plant Communities Produce Greater Yield Than Monocultures

Oct. 16, 2014 — Diverse plant communities are more successful and enable higher crop yields than pure monocultures, a research team has discovered. The scientists are convinced that the cultivation of crop mixtures ... full story

Informative Visit to the Toilet, for Lemurs

Oct. 15, 2014 — Emily loves Justin, Stop global warming, Two more weeks till I graduate! The exchange of information in public toilets is widespread. It also occurs in the world of white-footed sportive lemurs. Only ... full story

Microfossils Reveal Warm Oceans Had Less Oxygen

Oct. 15, 2014 — Researchers are pairing chemical analyses with micropaleontology -- the study of tiny fossilized organisms -- to better understand how global marine life was affected by a rapid warming event more ... full story

Canary for Climate Change: How Past Extinctions Have Influenced Modern Distribution, Population Size of Existing Species

Oct. 15, 2014 — Wing-propelled diving seabirds, as well as their extinct relatives, may have served as an indicator species for environmental changes and faunal shifts, researchers suggest. The findings also ... full story

Could Sleeper Sharks Be Preying on Protected Steller Sea Lions?

Oct. 15, 2014 — Pacific sleeper sharks, a large, slow-moving species thought of as primarily a scavenger or predator of fish, may be preying on something a bit larger -- protected Steller sea lions in the Gulf of ... full story

These Roos Were 'Made' for Walking, Study Suggests of Extinct Enigmas

Oct. 15, 2014 — Based on a rigorous comparative analysis of kangaroo anatomy, researchers posit that the ancient family of sthenurine kangaroos that lived until 30,000 years ago likely preferred walking to ... full story

Prehistoric Crocodiles' Evolution Mirrored in Living Species

Oct. 15, 2014 — Crocodiles which roamed the world's seas millions of years ago developed in similar ways to their modern-day relatives, a study has shown. Fresh research into a group of prehistoric marine crocs ... full story

Ancient Fossils of Bizarre Figure-Eight Water Creatures Confirmed Among Our Strangest Distant Cousins

Oct. 15, 2014 — More than 100 years since they were first discovered, some of the world's most bizarre fossils have been identified as close relatives of vertebrates. The fossils belong to 500-million-year-old blind ... full story

Method for Detecting Extremely Rare Inert Gas Isotopes for Water Dating

Oct. 15, 2014 — In earth and environmental sciences, radioactive isotopes, atom variants that decay over time, play a major role in age determination. A radioactive isotope of the inert gas argon 39, for example, is ... full story

Using Test Tube Experiments to Study How Bacterial Species Evolve Antibiotic Resistance

Oct. 14, 2014 — Given a critical change in the environment, how exactly, do species adapt? Researchers wanted to get at the heart of this evolutionary question by measuring the growth rates and DNA mutations of 8 ... full story

Past Climate Change and Continental Ice Melt Linked to Varying Carbon Dioxide Levels

Oct. 14, 2014 — Scientists have discovered that a globally warm period in Earth's geological past featured highly variable levels of CO2. Previous studies have found that the Miocene climatic optimum, a period that ... full story

Earliest-Known Lamprey Larva Fossils Unearthed in Inner Mongolia

Oct. 14, 2014 — Few people devote time to pondering the ancient origins of the eel-like lamprey, yet the evolutionary saga of the bloodsucker holds essential clues to the biological roots of humanity. Scientists now ... full story

Archaeologists Discover Bronze Remains of Iron Age Chariot in the UK

Oct. 14, 2014 — Archaeologists in the UK have discovered the decorated bronze remains of an Iron Age chariot. The rare set of decorated chariot fittings appear to have been buried as a religious offering. The ... full story

Fossilized Bird Egg Offers Clues to Brazil's Prehistoric Past

Oct. 14, 2014 — Brazilian scientists have discovered a near-intact fossilized bird egg -- the country’s first -- in Sao Paulo State. Compared to the abundance of eggs from non-avian dinosaurs, finds of complete ... full story

Icebergs Once Drifted to Florida, New Climate Model Suggests

Oct. 12, 2014 — Using a first-of-its-kind, high-resolution numerical model to describe ocean circulation during the last ice age about 21,000 year ago, oceanographers have shown that icebergs and meltwater from the ... full story

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FDA, E-Cigarettes, and Demise of Combusted Tobacco

Oct. 15, 2014 — Two professors explore the popularity of E-cigarettes and point out that they could lead to the 'demise' of cigarette smoking and save thousands of lives, but not until they are proven safe and are ... full story

Risking Your Life Without a Second Thought: Extreme Altruism May Be Motivated by Intuitive Process

Oct. 15, 2014 — People who risk their lives to save strangers may do so without deliberation, according to an analysis of statements from more than 50 recognized civilian ... full story

Global Natural Gas Boom Alone Won't Slow Climate Change

Oct. 15, 2014 — A new analysis of global energy use, economics and the climate shows that expanding the current bounty of inexpensive natural gas alone would not slow the growth of global greenhouse gas emissions ... full story

Study Questions 21-Day Quarantine Period for Ebola

Oct. 15, 2014 — One of the tenets for minimizing the risk of spreading Ebola Virus has been a 21-day quarantine period for individuals who might have been exposed to the virus. But a new study suggests that 21 days ... full story

Climate Change Not Responsible for Altering Forest Tree Composition, Experts Say

Oct. 15, 2014 — Change in disturbance regimes -- rather than a change in climate -- is largely responsible for altering the composition of Eastern forests, according to a researcher. Forests in the Eastern United ... full story

Hydraulic Fracturing Linked to Earthquakes in Ohio

Oct. 14, 2014 — Hydraulic fracturing triggered a series of small earthquakes in 2013 on a previously unmapped fault in Harrison County, Ohio, according to a new ... full story

Nationality at Birth Plays a Role in U.S. Adult Vaccination Rates

Oct. 14, 2014 — Nationality at birth appears to play a significant role in whether or not adults in the United States are routinely vaccinated for preventable diseases, a new study finds, reflecting a risky medical ... full story

Energy Drinks May Pose Danger to Public Health, Researchers Warn

Oct. 14, 2014 — Increased consumption of energy drinks may pose danger to public health, especially among young people, warns a team of researchers. Energy drinks are non-alcoholic beverages that contain caffeine, ... full story

Helping Outdoor Workers Reduce Skin Cancer Risk

Oct. 14, 2014 — Skin cancer is one of the biggest fears for one in two outdoor workers, and when the boss and staff work together the sun safe message gets through, a study has ... full story

Rats of New York and the Diseases They Carry

Oct. 14, 2014 — In the first study to look at would-be diseases carried by New York City rats, scientists identified bacterial pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella, and C. difficile, that cause mild to ... full story

Scientists Identify Method of Eradicating Harmful Impacts from Manufacturing Process

Oct. 8, 2014 — A novel technique for applying high-quality finishes in engineering industries could reduce the human and environmental impact by up to 98 percent, scientists ... full story

Private Telephone Conversations: Dynamic Encryption Keeps Secrets

Oct. 7, 2014 — Scientists have invented a new way to encrypt telephone conversations that makes it very difficult to ‘eavesdrop’. The invention can help to curb industrial ... full story

What Makes a Song Sing? Backup Singers

Sep. 29, 2014 — What made Michael Jackson’s “Billie Jean” a No. 1 hit on Billboard’s Hot 100 in 1983, and other songs, like Madonna’s 1999 “Nothing Really Matters,” flounder at 90 or below? New ... full story

Job Loss Fears May Boost First-Time Asthma Risk

Sep. 22, 2014 — Job loss fears may boost the risk of developing asthma for the first time, indicates research. The findings back up other epidemiological studies pointing to a link between the development of asthma ... full story

Burnout Caused by More Than Just Job Stress

Sep. 16, 2014 — Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life ... full story

Gray Matter Matters When Measuring Risk Tolerance: May Explain Why Risk Tolerance Decreases With Age

Sep. 12, 2014 — The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists ... full story

Illegal Land Clearing for Commercial Agriculture Responsible for Half of Tropical Deforestation

Sep. 10, 2014 — A comprehensive new analysis says that nearly half of all recent tropical deforestation is the result of illegal clearing for commercial agriculture. The study also finds that the majority of this ... full story

Working During Depression Can Offer Health Benefits to Employees

Sep. 10, 2014 — Attending work while suffering a depressive illness could help employees better manage their depression more than taking a sickness absence from work, a new study has found. The study is the first ... full story

There Could Be Increased Numbers of Psychopaths in Senior Managerial Positions, High Levels of Business, Research Shows

Sep. 8, 2014 — For the first time, it has been demonstrated that people with psychopathic tendencies who have high IQs can mask their symptoms by manipulating tests designed to reveal their personalities. It raises ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 — Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

More Physical Activity Improved School Performance in Swedish Study

Oct. 14, 2014 — Just two hours of extra physical activity each week can improve school performance, researchers report. This has been shown by a study of approximately 2,000 ... full story

Trying to Fool a Kindergartner? Not So Fast

Oct. 8, 2014 — A new study shows that by the age of five, children become wary of information provided by people who make overly confident ... full story

Why Is Educational Achievement Heritable?

Oct. 6, 2014 — The high heritability of exam grades reflects many genetically influenced traits such as personality, behavior problems, and self-efficacy and not just intelligence. The study looked at 13,306 twins ... full story

Kids' Oral Language Skills Can Predict Future Writing Difficulties

Oct. 6, 2014 — Children's future writing difficulties can be identified before they even learn how to begin writing, according to a new study. The research data also contradicts the popular belief that bilingualism ... full story

How Curiosity Changes the Brain to Enhance Learning

Oct. 2, 2014 — The more curious we are about a topic, the easier it is to learn information about that topic. New research provides insights into what happens in our brains when curiosity is piqued. The findings ... full story

After-School Exercise Program Enhances Cognition in 7-, 8 And 9-Year-Olds

Sep. 29, 2014 — A nine-month-long, randomized controlled trial involving 221 prepubescent children found that those who engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes a day after school ... full story

Secret to Raising Well Behaved Teens? Maximize Their Zzzzz's

Sep. 26, 2014 — While American pediatricians warn sleep deprivation can stack the deck against teenagers, a new study reveals youth’s irritability and laziness aren’t down to attitude problems but lack of sleep. ... full story

False Memories Could Be a Side-Effect of Human Ability to Learn Rules

Sep. 24, 2014 — Our tendency to create false memories could be related to our ability to learn rules according to new research. New research suggests that individuals who are particularly good at learning rules and ... full story

Fighting Parents Hurt Children's Ability to Recognize and Regulate Emotions

Sep. 17, 2014 — Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study. Exposure to conflict and violence in the ... full story

Brain Scans Used to Forecast Early Reading Difficulties

Sep. 15, 2014 — Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience ... full story

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