Today's Science News

Thursday, July 24, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Smarter Than a First-Grader? Crows Can Perform as Well as 7 To 10-Year-Olds on Cause-and-Effect Water Displacement Tasks

July 23, 2014 — In Aesop's fable about the crow and the pitcher, a thirsty bird happens upon a vessel of water, but when he tries to drink from it, he finds the water level out of his reach. Not strong enough ... full story

New Approach in Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Target Alien Polluters

July 23, 2014 — Humanity is on the threshold of being able to detect signs of alien life on other worlds. By studying exoplanet atmospheres, we can look for gases like oxygen and methane that only coexist if ... full story

NASA's Fermi Finds a 'Transformer' Pulsar

July 22, 2014 — In late June 2013, an exceptional binary containing a rapidly spinning neutron star underwent a dramatic change in behavior never before observed. The pulsar's radio beacon vanished, while at ... full story

Bats Use Polarized Light to Navigate: First Mammal Known to Use Polarization Patterns in the Sky to Navigate

July 22, 2014 — The bats use the way the sun's light is scattered in the atmosphere at sunset to calibrate their internal magnetic compass, which helps them to fly in the right direction, a new study has ... full story

Study Reveals 'Unhappiest' Cities in the U.S.

July 22, 2014 — New research identifies the unhappiest cities in the U.S., but finds that some young people are still willing to relocate to them for a good job opportunity or lower housing prices. The analysis ... full story

Life Expectancy Gains Threatened as More Older Americans Suffer from Multiple Medical Conditions

July 23, 2014 — With nearly four in five older Americans living with multiple chronic medical conditions, a new study finds that the more ailments you have after retirement age, the shorter your life expectancy. The ... full story

Dog Jealousy: Study Suggests Primordial Origins for the 'Green-Eyed Monster'

July 23, 2014 — Dogs exhibit jealous behaviors. The first experimental test of jealousy in dogs supports the view that there may be a more basic form of jealousy, which evolved to protect social bonds from ... full story

3-D Image of Paleolithic Child's Skull Reveals Trauma, Brain Damage

July 23, 2014 — Three-dimensional imaging of a Paleolithic child's skull reveals potentially violent head trauma that likely lead to brain ... full story

Major Impact of Climate Change on Antarctic Fur Seals

July 23, 2014 — Genetic analysis of Antarctic fur seals, alongside decades of in-depth monitoring, has provided unique insights into the effect of climate change on a population of top-predators. The findings show ... full story

Age of Puberty in Girls Influenced by Which Parent 'Imprinted' Genes Are Inherited from

July 23, 2014 — The age at which girls reach sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes, a small sub-set of genes whose activity differs depending on which parent passes on that gene, according to ... full story

Genetics of Cancer: Non-Coding DNA Can Finally Be Decoded

July 23, 2014 — Cancer is a disease of the genome resulting from a combination of genetic modifications, or mutations. We inherit from our parents strong or weak predispositions to developing certain kinds of ... full story

How Much Magma Is Hiding Beneath Our Feet? Mysteries of Earth's Crust Pierced

July 23, 2014 — Molten rock, or magma, has a strong influence on our planet and its inhabitants, causing destructive volcanic eruptions and generating some of the giant mineral deposits. Our understanding of these ... full story

Strategy Proposed for Preventing Diseases of Aging

July 23, 2014 — Researchers argue that medicine focuses too much on fighting diseases individually instead of concentrating on interventions that prevent multiple chronic diseases and extend healthy lifespan. They ... full story

Satellite Galaxies Put Astronomers in a Spin

July 23, 2014 — Astronomers have studied 380 galaxies and shown that their small satellite galaxies almost always move in rotating discs. However, such satellite galaxy discs are not predicted by current models of ... full story

Therapeutic Bacteria Prevent Obesity in Mice, Study Finds

July 22, 2014 — A probiotic that prevents obesity could be on the horizon. Bacteria that produce a therapeutic compound in the gut inhibit weight gain, insulin resistance and other adverse effects of a high-fat diet ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Newsy (July 22, 2014) — The 83 new genetic markers could open dozens of new avenues for schizophrenia treatment research. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Find New Way To Make Human Platelets

Scientists Find New Way To Make Human Platelets

Newsy (July 22, 2014) — Boston scientists have discovered a new way to create fully functioning human platelets using a bioreactor and human stem cells. Video provided by Newsy
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Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Newsy (July 19, 2014) — Research on plaque from ancient teeth shows that our prehistoric ancestor's had a detailed understanding of plants long before developing agriculture. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Investigating Mysterious Giant Hole In Siberia

Scientists Investigating Mysterious Giant Hole In Siberia

Newsy (July 17, 2014) — Scientists have launched an investigation into a giant crater that suddenly appeared in Siberia. Internet speculation on the hole's origins abounds. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-07-24 at 6:58 am EDT

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Greater Odds of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Those With Military Service

July 23, 2014 — Men and women who have served in the military have a higher prevalence of adverse childhood events (ACEs), suggesting that enlistment may be a way to escape adversity for some. ACEs can result in ... full story

Unsuspected Characteristics of New Cystic Fibrosis Drugs Found, Offering Potential Paths to More Effective Therapies

July 23, 2014 — A large phase 3 clinical trial for cystic fibrosis patients has concluded, showing that a combination of two new cystic fibrosis drugs modestly improved lung function and offered better health ... full story

Gene Inhibitor, Salmon Fibrin Restore Function Lost in Spinal Cord Injury

July 23, 2014 — A therapy combining salmon fibrin injections into the spinal cord and injections of a gene inhibitor into the brain restored voluntary motor function impaired by spinal cord injury, scientists have ... full story

Sapronoses: Diseases of Another Kind, Caused by Pathogenic Microorganisms

July 23, 2014 — The drought that has the entire country in its grip is affecting more than the color of people's lawns. It may also be responsible for the proliferation of a heat-loving amoeba commonly found in warm ... full story

Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Helps Treat HCV in Patients Co-Infected With HIV

July 23, 2014 — Treatment of HIV patients co-infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) with an anti-retroviral drug therapy not only tackles HIV, but also reduces HCV replication, according to a new ... full story

How Stress Hormones Promote Brain's Building of Negative Memories

July 23, 2014 — Scientists have discovered a key component to better understanding how traumatic memories may be strengthened in women. Their study's findings suggest that developing clinical treatments that could ... full story

Physicians Seeing Increase in Brown Recluse Spider Bites

July 23, 2014 — Medical toxicologists are reporting an increase in patients seen with brown recluse spider bites this summer. There are two components to spider bites -- the cutaneous lesion and, more rarely, the ... full story

Protein Evolution Follows Modular Principle

July 23, 2014 — Similarities between proteins reveal that their great diversity has arisen from smaller building blocks. Proteins consist of long chains of 20 different amino acid building blocks that fold into a ... full story

Ketamine Can Be a Wonder Drug for ER Patients, Physicians

July 23, 2014 — For critically ill patients arriving at the emergency department, the drug ketamine can safely provide analgesia, sedation and amnesia for rapid, life-saving intubation, despite decades-old studies ... full story

Researchers Unlock Protein Puzzle Using Brightly Hued Dyes

July 23, 2014 — By using brightly hued dyes, researchers discovered an innovative way to reveal where proteins touch each other, possibly leading to new treatments for cancer, arthritis, heart disease and even lung ... full story

Dopamine Transporter: Stampede Supercomputer Used to Study Common Link Between Addiction, Neurological Disease

July 22, 2014 — The XSEDE-allocated Stampede supercomputer has been used to study the dopamine transporter. Stampede is ranked seventh on the Top 500 list of supercomputers. Its research links altered dopamine ... full story

Potential Genetic Link Between Epilepsy, Neurodegenerative Disorders

July 22, 2014 — A potential link between epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders has been uncovered by new research. "This is, to our knowledge, the first direct genetic evidence demonstrating that mutations in the ... full story

Extra Exercise Helps Depressed Smokers Kick the Habit Faster

July 22, 2014 — People diagnosed with depression need to step out for a cigarette twice as often as smokers who are not dealing with a mood disorder. And those who have the hardest time shaking off the habit may ... full story

Vitamin D Deficiency Raises Risk of Schizophrenia Diagnosis

July 22, 2014 — Vitamin D-deficient individuals are twice as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as people who have sufficient levels of the vitamin, according to a new study. Vitamin D helps the body absorb ... full story

Death of a Parent During Childhood Is Associated With Greater Mortality in Early Adulthood

July 22, 2014 — Experiencing the loss of a parent during childhood or adolescence is associated with a greater risk of mortality, according to a new study. Individuals who lost either a mother or a father during ... full story

How Children Categorize Living Things

July 22, 2014 — "Name everything you can think of that is alive." How would a child respond to this question? Would his or her list be full of relatives, animals from movies and books, or perhaps neighborhood pets? ... full story

Understanding How Neuro Cells Turn Cancerous

July 22, 2014 — New research, for the first time, brings scientists nearer to understanding how some cells in the brain and nervous system become cancerous. The team studied a tumor suppressor called Merlin. Their ... full story

Schizophrenia's Genetic 'Skyline' Rising as Genetic Code Linked to Illness Grows

July 22, 2014 — The largest genomic dragnet of any psychiatric disorder to date has unmasked 108 chromosomal sites harboring inherited variations in the genetic code linked to schizophrenia, 83 of which had not been ... full story

Neuroprotective Role of Immune Cell Discovered

July 22, 2014 — A type of immune cell widely believed to exacerbate chronic adult brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, can actually protect the brain from traumatic brain injury and ... full story

High School Lacrosse Players at Risk for Concussions, Other Injuries, Study Finds

July 22, 2014 — High school players experienced 1,406 injuries over the four academic years from 2008 through 2012, a new study reports. The overall injury rate was 20 per 10,000 lacrosse competitions and practices. ... full story

Low Strength Brain Stimulation May Be Effective for Depression

July 22, 2014 — Brain stimulation treatments, like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are often effective for the treatment of depression. Like antidepressant medications, ... full story

Computer Privacy: Share Button May Share Your Browsing History, Too

July 22, 2014 — One in 18 of the world’s top 100,000 websites track users without their consent using a previously undetected cookie-like tracking mechanism embedded in ‘share’ buttons. The researchers traced ... full story

Eating Probiotics Regularly May Improve Your Blood Pressure

July 21, 2014 — Probiotics -- a bacteria in yogurt and supplements -- appear to modestly lower blood pressure, according to a review of nine studies. The blood pressure-lowering effect from probiotics was greatest ... full story

Try, Try Again? Study Says No: Trying Harder Makes It More Difficult to Learn Some Aspects of Language, Neuroscientists Find

July 21, 2014 — Neuroscientists find that trying harder makes it more difficult to learn some aspects of language. When it comes to learning languages, adults and children have different strengths. Adults excel at ... full story

Parents Rank Their Obese Children as 'Very Healthy'

July 21, 2014 — Parents of obese children often do not recognize the potentially serious health consequences of childhood weight gain or the importance of daily physical activity in helping their child reach a ... full story

New Research Links Bad Diet to Loss of Smell

July 21, 2014 — Could stuffing yourself full of high-fat foods cause you to lose your sense of smell? A new study by neuroscientists says so, and it has researchers taking a closer look at how our diets could impact ... full story

Missing Sleep May Hurt Your Memory

July 21, 2014 — Lack of sleep, already considered a public health epidemic, can also lead to errors in memory, finds a new study that found participants deprived of a night’s sleep were more likely to flub the ... full story

Brain Waves Show Learning to Read Does Not End in 4th Grade, Contrary to Popular Theory

July 21, 2014 — Teachers-in-training have long been taught that fourth grade is when students stop learning to read and start reading to learn. But a new study tested the theory by analyzing brain waves and found ... full story

Children as Young as Three Recognize 'Cuteness' in Faces of People, Animals

July 21, 2014 — Children as young as three are able to recognize the same ‘cute’ infantile facial features in humans and animals which encourage caregiving behavior in adults, new research has shown. A study ... full story

Large Twin Study Suggests That Language Delay Due More to Nature Than Nurture

July 21, 2014 — A study of 473 sets of twins followed since birth found twins have twice the rate of language delay as do single-born children. Moreover, identical twins have greater rates of language delay than do ... full story

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Spinach Could Lead to Alternative Energy More Powerful Than Popeye

July 23, 2014 — Spinach gave Popeye super strength, but it also holds the promise of a different power for a group of scientists: the ability to convert sunlight into a clean, efficient alternative fuel. Physicists ... full story

The Birth of Topological Spintronics: New Material Combo Could Lead to More Efficient Computers

July 23, 2014 — The discovery of a new material combination that could lead to a more efficient approach to computer memory and logic is the first promising indication that it may be possible to build a practical ... full story

15-Year Analysis of Blue Whale Range Off California Finds Conflict With Shipping Lanes

July 23, 2014 — A comprehensive analysis of the movements of blue whales off the West Coast found that their favored feeding areas are bisected by heavily used shipping lanes, increasing the threat of injury and ... full story

The Physics of Lead Guitar Playing

July 23, 2014 — String bends, tapping, vibrato and whammy bars are all techniques that add to the distinctiveness of a lead guitarist's sound, whether it's Clapton, Hendrix, or BB King. Now a guitarist and physicist ... full story

Nano-Sized Chip Picks Up Scent of Explosives Molecules Better Than Dog's Nose

July 23, 2014 — A groundbreaking nanotechnology-inspired sensor picks up the scent of explosives molecules better than a detection dog's nose. The device is mobile, inexpensive, and highly accurate, detecting ... full story

A Crystal Wedding in the Nanocosmos May Lead to Fast Multi-Functional Processing Units on Single Chip

July 23, 2014 — Researchers have succeeded in embedding nearly perfect semiconductor crystals into a silicon nanowire. With this new method of producing hybrid nanowires, very fast and multi-functional processing ... full story

Scientists Find Way to Maintain Quantum Entanglement in Amplified Signals

July 23, 2014 — Physicists have found a way to preserve quantum entanglement of particles passing through an amplifier and, conversely, when transmitting a signal over long ... full story

Can Machines Think? Misidentification of Humans as Machines in Turing Tests

July 23, 2014 — Pairs were set up and judges were tasked with identifying whether who they were talking to was human or a computer. Can machines be successful in 'being human' in real ... full story

Could Tailored Golf Balls Improve Golfing Performance?

July 23, 2014 — Elements such as trip wires, dimples and sand-grain roughness on the surface of a body have been shown to be effective in reducing drag on objects such as golf balls, which helps them fly ... full story

The Electric Slide Dance of DNA Knots

July 23, 2014 — DNA has the nasty habit of getting tangled and forming knots. Scientists study these knots to understand their function and learn how to disentangle them (e.g. useful for gene sequencing techniques). ... full story

Voyager Spacecraft Might Not Have Reached Interstellar Space

July 23, 2014 — In 2012, the Voyager mission team announced that the Voyager 1 spacecraft had passed into interstellar space, traveling further from Earth than any other humanmade object. But, in the nearly two ... full story

Atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's Largest Moon

July 23, 2014 — An astronomer has published the results of the comparison of his model of Titan's atmosphere with the latest ... full story

Lives and Deaths of Sibling Stars

July 23, 2014 — In a new image from ESO, young stars huddle together against clouds of glowing gas and lanes of dust. The star cluster, NGC 3293, would have been just a cloud of gas and dust itself about ten million ... full story

Hubble Traces Halo of a Galaxy More Accurately Than Ever Before: An in-Depth Look at Giant Elliptical Galaxy Centaurus A

July 22, 2014 — Astronomers have probed the extreme outskirts of the stunning elliptical galaxy Centaurus A. The galaxy's halo of stars has been found to extend much further from the galaxy's center than expected ... full story

Boosting the Force of Empty Space: Theorists Propose Way to Amplify Force of Vacuum Fluctuations

July 22, 2014 — Vacuum fluctuations may be among the most counter-intuitive phenomena of quantum physics. Theorists have now proposed a way to amplify their force. The researchers believe that their proposed ... full story

Massive Neutrinos and New Standard Cosmological Model: No Concordance Yet

July 22, 2014 — Neutrinos, also known as ‘ghost particles’ because they barely interact with other particles or their surroundings, are massless particles according to the standard model of particle physics. ... full story

Transiting Exoplanet With Longest Known Year: 704 Earth Days

July 21, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered a transiting exoplanet with the longest known year. Kepler-421b circles its star once every 704 days. In comparison, Mars orbits our Sun once every 780 days. Most of the ... full story

Mysterious Dance of Dwarf Galaxies May Force a Cosmic Rethink

July 21, 2014 — The discovery that many small galaxies throughout the universe do not 'swarm' around larger ones like bees do but 'dance' in orderly disc-shaped orbits is a challenge to our understanding of how the ... full story

Oceans Vital for Possibility for Alien Life

July 20, 2014 — Researchers have made an important step in the race to discover whether other planets could develop and sustain life. New research shows the vital role of oceans in moderating climate on Earth-like ... full story

Astronauts to Test Free-Flying 'Housekeeper' Robots

July 20, 2014 — Inspired by science fiction, three bowling ball-size free-flying Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) have been flying inside the International Space ... full story

New Model Helps Explain How Provisions Promote or Reduce Wildlife Disease

July 23, 2014 — Scientists have long known that providing supplemental food for wildlife, or resource provisioning, can sometimes cause more harm than good. Ecologists have now developed a new mathematical model to ... full story

Electronic Nose Could Aid in Rescue Missions

July 23, 2014 — Researchers have developed a device that allows multiple robotic platforms to follow the path of certain odors. A technology which could aid the search and rescue of people in case of natural ... full story

Quantum Leap in Lasers Brightens Future for Quantum Computing

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have devised a breakthrough laser that uses a single artificial atom to generate and emit particles of light. The laser may play a crucial role in the development of quantum computers, ... full story

'Comb on a Chip' Powers New Atomic Clock Design

July 22, 2014 — Researchers have demonstrated a novel design for a small atomic clock that is based on a chip-scale frequency comb, or a ... full story

A New Multi-Bit 'Spin' for Magnetic Random Access Memory Storage

July 22, 2014 — Interest in magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is escalating, thanks to demand for fast, low-cost, nonvolatile, low-consumption, secure memory devices. MRAM boasts all of these advantages as an ... full story

High-Precision Software Developed for Diagnosing Eye Sensitivity

July 22, 2014 — High-precision software for diagnosing eye sensitivity has been developed by researchers. This is a new technology that allows to quantify the degree of opacity in the posterior capsule of the eye ... full story

Innovative System Anticipates Driver Fatigue in the Vehicle to Prevent Accidents

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have created a devise integrated in smart materials capable of monitoring cardiac and respiratory rhythms in order to prevent drivers from falling ... full story

Chemists Eye Improved Thin Films With Metal Substitution

July 21, 2014 — The yield so far is small, but chemists have developed a low-energy, solution-based mineral substitution process to make a precursor to transparent thin films that could find use in electronics and ... full story

Philosopher Uses Game Theory to Understand How Words, Actions Acquire Meaning

July 21, 2014 — Why does the word "dog" have meaning? If you say "dog" to a friend, why does your friend understand you? A philosopher aims to address these types of questions in his latest research, which focuses ... full story

Size and Age of Plants Impact Their Productivity More Than Climate

July 20, 2014 — The size and age of plants has more of an impact on their productivity than temperature and precipitation, according to a landmark study. They show that variation in terrestrial ecosystems is ... full story

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Vasculature of the Hive: How Honey Bees Stay Cool

July 23, 2014 — Honey bees, especially the young, are highly sensitive to temperature and to protect developing bees, adults work together to maintain temperatures within a narrow range. New research also supports ... full story

Bird 'Backpacks' Put Wood Thrush Migration on the Map

July 23, 2014 — Researchers have created the first migratory connectivity map produced for a songbird, using tracking from both breeding and winter sites. They were able to trace the route taken by wood thrushes ... full story

Calcification in Changing Oceans

July 23, 2014 — What do mollusks, starfish, and corals have in common? Aside from their shared marine habitat, they are all calcifiers -- organisms that use calcium from their environment to create hard carbonate ... full story

Research Charts Ecological Impact of Microbial Respiration in Oxygen-Starved Ocean

July 23, 2014 — A sulfur-oxidizing bacterial group called SUP05 will play an increasingly important role in carbon and nutrient cycling in the world's oceans as oxygen minimum zones expand, according to research. To ... full story

Researchers Work to Save Endangered New England Cottontail

July 23, 2014 — Scientists are working to restore New Hampshire and Maine's only native rabbit after new research based on genetic monitoring has found that in the last decade, cottontail populations in northern New ... full story

Ancient Genetic Material from Caries Bacterium Obtained for the First Time

July 23, 2014 — Streptococcus mutans, one of the principal bacteria that cause dental caries, has increased the change in its genetic material over time, possibly coinciding with dietary change linked to the ... full story

Alaska Frogs Reach Record Lows in Extreme Temperature Survival

July 22, 2014 — "Alaska wood frogs spend more time freezing and thawing outside than a steak does in your freezer, and the frog comes back to life in the spring in better shape than the steak," said the lead author ... full story

Vaccine for Dust-Mite Allergies Created

July 22, 2014 — A vaccine for dust-mite allergies has been created, researchers report. In lab tests and animal trials, the nano-sized vaccine package was readily absorbed by immune cells and dramatically lowered ... full story

Safeguarding Belize's Barrier Reef With Conservation Drones

July 22, 2014 — Seeking to gain a high-tech edge over illegal fishers, the Government of Belize will use “eyes in the sky” to enforce fishing regulations in the biodiverse Glover’s Reef Marine Reserve and ... full story

Vulnerability of Sharks as Collateral Damage in Commercial Fishing Shown by Study

July 22, 2014 — A new study that examined the survival rates of 12 different shark species when captured as unintentional bycatch in commercial longline fishing operations found large differences in survival rates ... full story

Oso Disaster Had Its Roots in Earlier Landslides

July 22, 2014 — A new geological study concludes that the disastrous March 22 landslide that killed 43 people in the rural Washington state community of Oso involved the "remobilization" of a 2006 landslide on the ... full story

Radio Frequency ID Tags on Honey Bees Reveal Hive Dynamics

July 22, 2014 — Scientists attached radio-frequency identification tags to hundreds of individual honey bees and tracked them for several weeks. The effort yielded two discoveries: Some foraging bees are much busier ... full story

New Water Balance Calculation for Dead Sea

July 22, 2014 — The drinking water resources on the eastern, Jordanian side of the Dead Sea could decline more severely as a result of climate change than those on the western, Israeli and Palestinian side. This is ... full story

Jeju Island, Korea Is a Live Volcano

July 22, 2014 — In Jeju, Korea, a place emerging as a world-famous vacation spot with natural tourism resources, a recent study revealed a volcanic eruption occurred on the island as recently as 5,000 years ago. ... full story

Mixed Genes Mix Up the Migrations of Hybrid Birds

July 22, 2014 — Mixed genes appear to drive hybrid birds to select more difficult routes than their parent species, according to new research. "Instead of taking well-trodden paths through fertile areas, these birds ... full story

Self-Cooling Solar Cells Boost Power, Last Longer

July 22, 2014 — Scientists may have overcome one of the major hurdles in developing high-efficiency, long-lasting solar cells -- keeping them cool, even in the blistering heat of the noonday sun. By adding a ... full story

Global Temperature Reaches Record High in June Following Record Warmth in May

July 22, 2014 — According to NOAA scientists, the globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest for June since record keeping began in 1880. It also marked the 38th ... full story

Is Antarctic Sea Ice Cover Really Setting Record Highs? Processing Errors May Be Confusing the Matter

July 22, 2014 — Antarctic sea ice may not be expanding as fast as previously thought, new research suggests. A team of scientists say much of the increase measured for Southern Hemisphere sea ice could be due to a ... full story

Mammoth and Mastodon Behavior Was Less Roam, More Stay at Home

July 21, 2014 — Their scruffy beards weren't ironic, but there are reasons mammoths and mastodons could have been the hipsters of the Ice Age. According to new research, the famously fuzzy relatives of elephants ... full story

Global Warming 'Pause' Since 1998 Reflects Natural Fluctuation

July 21, 2014 — Statistical analysis of average global temperatures between 1998 and 2013 shows that the slowdown in global warming during this period is consistent with natural variations in temperature, according ... full story

Science and Art Bring Back to Life 300-Million-Year-Old Specimens of a Primitive Reptile-Like Vertebrate

July 21, 2014 — Paleontologists have recreated the cranial structure of a 308-million-year-old lizard-like vertebrate that could be the earliest example of a reptile and explain the origin of all vertebrates that ... full story

Tooth Plaque Provides Unique Insights Into Our Prehistoric Ancestors' Diet

July 16, 2014 — An international team of researchers has found new evidence that our prehistoric ancestors had a detailed understanding of plants long before the development of agriculture. By extracting chemical ... full story

Brain of World's First Known Predators Discovered

July 16, 2014 — Scientists have found the fossilized remains of the brain of the world's earliest known predators, from a time when life teemed in the oceans but had not yet colonized the land. The discovery reveals ... full story

Animal Foraging Tactics Unchanged for 50 Million Years

July 15, 2014 — Animals have used the same technique to search for food that's in short supply for at least 50 million years, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed fossilized sea urchin trails from northern ... full story

Dodos and Spotted Green Pigeons Are Descendants of an Island Hopping Bird

July 15, 2014 — The mysterious spotted green pigeon was a relative of the dodo, according to scientists who have examined its genetic make-up. The authors say their results support a theory that both birds are ... full story

New Feathered Predatory Fossil Sheds Light on Dinosaur Flight

July 15, 2014 — A new raptorial dinosaur fossil with exceptionally long feathers has provided exciting insights into dinosaur flight. A new article asserts that the fossil has a long feathered tail that scientists ... full story

Little Too Late: Pathogenic Bacterium in 700-Year-Old Skeleton Identified

July 15, 2014 — Researchers have recovered a genome of the bacterium Brucella melitensis from a 700-year-old skeleton found in the ruins of a Medieval Italian village. Researchers used a technique called shotgun ... full story

Ötzi's Non-Human DNA: Opportunistic Pathogen Discovered in Iceman Tissue Biopsy

July 15, 2014 — Ötzi’s human genome was decoded from a hip bone sample taken from the 5,300 year old mummy. However the tiny sample weighing no more than 0.1 g provides so much more information. A team of ... full story

Bones of Elephant Ancestor Unearthed: Meet the Gomphothere

July 14, 2014 — An ancient ancestor of the elephant, once believed to have disappeared from North America before humans ever arrived there, might actually have roamed the continent longer than previously thought. ... full story

Running for Life: How Speed Restricts Evolutionary Change of the Vertebral Column

July 14, 2014 — One of the riddles of mammal evolution is explained: the conservation of the number of trunk vertebrae. Dutch and American researchers have shown that this conservation is due to the role of speed in ... full story

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HIV, Malaria, and Tuberculosis: Success of the Millennium Shown in Most Comprehensive Study to Date

July 22, 2014 — Accelerated progress against the global burden of HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB) has been made since 2000 when governments worldwide adopted Millennium Development Goal 6 to combat HIV/AIDS, ... full story

Real Price of Steak: Comparing Environmental Costs of Livestock-Based Foods

July 21, 2014 — New research reveals the comparative environmental costs of livestock-based foods. While we are told that eating beef is bad for the environment, do we know its real cost? Are the other animal or ... full story

New Clues About Source of Racial Health Disparities

July 21, 2014 — The use of specific ethnicities in public health messaging can have unexpected negative consequences. A first-of-its-kind study has found evidence that the persistent health disparities across race ... full story

Replacing Coal, Oil With Natural Gas Will Not Help Fight Global Warming, Expert Argues

July 21, 2014 — Both shale gas and conventional natural gas have a larger greenhouse gas footprint than do coal or oil, especially for the primary uses of residential and commercial heating. "While emissions of ... full story

Seals Forage at Offshore Wind Farms

July 21, 2014 — By using sophisticated GPS tracking to monitor seals' every movement, researchers have shown for the first time that some individual seals are repeatedly drawn to offshore wind farms and pipelines. ... full story

Sea Level Rising in Western Tropical Pacific Anthropogenic as Result of Human Activity, Study Concludes

July 20, 2014 — Sea levels likely will continue to rise in the tropical Pacific Ocean off the coasts of the Philippines and northeastern Australia as humans continue to alter the climate, a study concludes. The ... full story

Rate of HIV Diagnosis in U.S. Examined in Study

July 19, 2014 — The annual HIV diagnosis rate in the U.S. decreased more than 30 percent from 2002-2011, with declines observed in several key populations, although increases were found among certain age groups of ... full story

No Evidence That California Cellphone Ban Decreased Accidents, Says Researcher

July 17, 2014 — No evidence has been found that a California ban on using hand-held cellphones while driving decreased the number of traffic accidents in the state in the first six months following the ban. The ... full story

How Existing Cropland Could Feed Billions More

July 17, 2014 — Feeding a growing human population without increasing stresses on Earth's strained land and water resources may seem like an impossible challenge. But according to a new report focusing efforts to ... full story

Should You Should Talk to Strangers? Doing So Increases Positive Experience, Study Shows

July 17, 2014 — An interesting social paradox plays out every morning around the world as millions of people board commuter trains and buses: Human beings are one of the most social species on the planet, yet when ... full story

Powerful New Source of Up-to-Date Information on Economic Activity

July 10, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure uses aggregated and de-identified data on transactions and account balances from Check, a ... full story

Computer Security: 'Melbourne Shuffle' Secures Data in the Cloud

July 10, 2014 — Encryption might not be enough for all that data stored in the cloud. Usage patterns -- which files are accessed and when -- can give away secrets as well. Computer scientists have developed an ... full story

Neuroeconomists Confirm Warren Buffett's Wisdom: Brain Research Suggests an Early Warning Signal Tips Off Smart Traders

July 7, 2014 — Investment magnate Warren Buffett has famously suggested that investors should try to 'be fearful when others are greedy and be greedy only when others are fearful.' That turns out to be excellent ... full story

Putting a Price Tag on the 2 Degree Celsius Climate Target

July 2, 2014 — Addressing climate change will require substantial new investment in low-carbon energy and energy efficiency -- but no more than what is currently spent on today's fossil-dominated energy system, ... full story

Oil Palm Plantations Threaten Water Quality, Scientists Say

June 30, 2014 — Indonesia pays a price for a lucrative crop used in many household products. Palm plantations damage freshwater streams that supply drinking water to millions of people. Found in thousands of ... full story

Are You Seen as a Jerk at Work? Many People Are Oblivious to How They Come Across to Counterparts and Colleagues

June 30, 2014 — New research shows that many people seen by others as under-assertive or over-assertive think they're appropriately assertive. The study also reveals that people seen as getting assertiveness right ... full story

Back Away, Please: Humans Tend to Fear Things Approaching, Even If Non-Threatening

June 23, 2014 — We still have negative feelings about things that approach us -- even if they objectively are not threatening, according to new research. Though we modern humans don't really consider such fear, it ... full story

New Research Proves Gender Bias Extraordinarily Prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Fields

June 23, 2014 — With everyone from the federal government to corporate America working to encourage more women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math fields, you would think the doors would ... full story

Android Security Weaknesses Caused by Performance Design Identified

June 19, 2014 — Researchers have identified a weakness in one of Android’s security features. The research identifies an Android performance feature that weakens a software protection called Address Space Layout ... full story

Crucial Security Problem in Google Play: Thousands of Secret Keys Found in Android Apps

June 18, 2014 — Researchers have discovered a crucial security problem in Google Play, the official Android app store. The study is the first to make a large-scale measurement of the huge marketplace, using ... full story

Months Before Their First Words, Babies' Brains Rehearse Speech Mechanics

July 14, 2014 — New research in 7- and 11-month-old infants shows that speech sounds stimulate areas of the brain that coordinate and plan motor movements for speech. The study suggests that baby brains start laying ... full story

Want a Higher GPA in College? Join a Gym

July 10, 2014 — For those students looking to bump up their grade point averages during college, the answer may not be spending more time in a library or study hall, but in a gym. New research shows that students ... full story

Same Genes Drive Mathematics and Reading Ability

July 8, 2014 — About half of the genes that influence how well a child can read also play a role in their mathematics ability, say scientists who led a study into the genetic basis of cognitive traits. While ... full story

Working Memory Is Key to Early Academic Achievement

July 8, 2014 — Working memory in children is linked strongly to reading and academic achievement, a new study has shown. Moreover, this finding holds true regardless of socio-economic status. This suggests that ... full story

3-D Printer to Aid the Visually Impaired Students in Their Educational Endeavors

July 2, 2014 — New technology has been developed to make tactile objects with ease thanks to the convergence technology of 3-D printing and 3-D thermal reflow treatment, which can be denoted as the revolution in ... full story

Learn Dutch in Your Sleep: Listening to Lessons While Sleeping Reinforces Memory

June 30, 2014 — When you have learned words in another language, it may be worth listening to them again in your sleep. A study has now shown that this method reinforces memory. "Our method is easy to use in daily ... full story

The Secrets of Children's Chatter: Research Shows Boys and Girls Learn Language Differently

June 27, 2014 — Experts believe language uses both a mental dictionary and a mental grammar.  The mental ‘dictionary’ stores sounds, words and common phrases, while mental ‘grammar’ involves the real-time ... full story

Increased Nearsightedness Linked to Higher Education Levels and More Years Spent in School

June 26, 2014 — Researchers have found strong evidence that attaining a higher level of education and spending more years in school are two factors associated with a greater prevalence and severity of ... full story

First Year University Students Struggle to Remember Basic Concepts Learned the Year Before

June 25, 2014 — University freshers struggle to remember basic concepts from their A-level studies according to new U.K. research. A new report shows that even grade-A students could only remember 40 percent of ... full story

Learning by Repetition Impairs Recall of Details, Study Shows

June 23, 2014 — While repetition enhances the factual content of memories, it can reduce the amount of detail stored with those memories, neurobiologists report following a recent study. This means that with ... full story

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