Today's Science News

Thursday, February 26, 2015

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Monster Black Hole Discovered at Cosmic Dawn

Feb. 25, 2015 The discovery of the brightest quasar in the early universe, powered by the most massive black hole yet known at that time presents a puzzle to researchers: How could something so massive and ... full story

Physicists Offer a Solution to the Puzzle of the Origin of Matter in the Universe

Feb. 25, 2015 Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter ... full story

First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface

Feb. 25, 2015 Scientists have observed an increase in carbon dioxide's greenhouse effect at Earth's surface for the first time. They measured atmospheric carbon dioxide's increasing capacity to ... full story

Crocodiles Rocked Pre-Amazonian Peru: Seven Crocodile Species Found in Single 13-Million-Year-Old Bone Bed

Feb. 24, 2015 Thirteen million years ago, as many as seven different species of crocodiles hunted in the swampy waters of what is now northeastern Peru, new research shows. This hyperdiverse assemblage, revealed ... full story

Bionic Reconstruction Lets Patients Use a Robotic Prosthetic Hand Controlled by the Mind

Feb. 24, 2015 Three Austrian men have become the first in the world to undergo a new technique called "bionic reconstruction", enabling them to use a robotic prosthetic hand controlled by their mind, ... full story

New Insight Found in Black Hole Collisions

Feb. 26, 2015 New research by an astrophysicist provides revelations about the most energetic event in the universe -- the merging of two spinning, orbiting black holes into a much larger black ... full story

Pockets of Calm Protect Molecules Around a Supermassive Black Hole

Feb. 26, 2015 Researchers have discovered regions where certain organic molecules somehow endure the intense radiation near the supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy NGC 1068, also known to amateur ... full story

MUSE Goes Beyond Hubble: Looking Deeply Into the Universe in 3-D

Feb. 26, 2015 The MUSE instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope has given astronomers the best ever three-dimensional view of the deep universe. After staring at the Hubble Deep Field South region for only 27 ... full story

One Brain Area, Two Planning Strategies

Feb. 26, 2015 Ready to strike, the spear fisherman holds his spear above the water surface. He aims at the fish. But he is misled by the view: Due to the refraction of light on the surface, he does not see the ... full story

Widely Used Food Additives Promotes Colitis, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Shows Study of Emulsifiers

Feb. 25, 2015 Emulsifiers, which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter the gut microbiota composition and localization to induce intestinal inflammation that promotes ... full story

Agricultural Insecticides Pose a Global Risk to Surface Water Bodies, Researchers Find

Feb. 25, 2015 Streams within approximately 40 percent of the global land surface are at risk from the application of insecticides. These were the results from the first global map to be modeled on insecticide ... full story

Easy on the Eyes: Optimum Length of Eyelashes Is One Third Width of Eye

Feb. 24, 2015 A new study finds that the optimal eyelash length is one-third the width of the eye for humans and 21 other mammals. Anything shorter or longer increases airflow around the eye and leads to more dust ... full story

Tissue Engineering: Scientists Grow Leg Muscle from Cells in a Dish

Feb. 24, 2015 Scientists have generated mature, functional skeletal muscles in mice using a new approach for tissue engineering. The scientists grew a leg muscle starting from engineered cells cultured in a dish ... full story

Neuroscientists Literally Change the Way We Think: Advantages of a Wandering Mind

Feb. 23, 2015 Does your mind wander when performing monotonous, repetitive tasks? Of course! But daydreaming involves more than just beating back boredom. In fact, according to a new study, a wandering mind can ... full story

Yellowstone: Geysers Erupt Periodically Because They Have Loops in Their Plumbing

Feb. 24, 2015 Volcanologists threaded sensors and cameras into the superheated water of geysers in Chile and Yellowstone, and have come up with an explanation for why geysers erupt periodically. They've even ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Black Hole 12 Billion Times the Size of Sun Discovered at Dawn of Universe

Black Hole 12 Billion Times the Size of Sun Discovered at Dawn of Universe

Buzz60 (Feb. 26, 2015) Scientists are saying they've spotted a black hole 12 billion time bigger than the sun. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) has the details. Video provided by Buzz60
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NASA's Dawn Spacecraft Spots Two Bright Points On Ceres

NASA's Dawn Spacecraft Spots Two Bright Points On Ceres

Newsy (Feb. 26, 2015) NASA scientists still don't have a clear picture of the bright spots showing up on the surface of Ceres, a minor planet in the asteroid belt. Video provided by Newsy
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Researchers Replace Damaged Hands With Prostheses

Researchers Replace Damaged Hands With Prostheses

Newsy (Feb. 25, 2015) Scientists in Austria have been able to fit patients who've lost the use of a hand with bionic prostheses the patients control with their minds. Video provided by Newsy
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How Did A Mummy End Up In A 1,000-Year-Old Buddha Statue?

How Did A Mummy End Up In A 1,000-Year-Old Buddha Statue?

Newsy (Feb. 23, 2015) A CT scan has revealed a mummified Chinese monk inside a Buddha statue. The remains date back about 1,000 years. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2015-02-26 at 11:23 pm EST

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Adults Wtih Disabilities Screened for Cancer Less Often

Feb. 26, 2015 Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities are much less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer, research shows. "As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities ... full story

Poor Response to Cholesterol Drugs May Indicate Blocked Arteries

Feb. 26, 2015 Patients whose bad cholesterol levels don't respond to cholesterol-lowering statin drugs may have more artery blockages than those whose cholesterol levels drop with treatment, scientists ... full story

Statin Use Associated With Reduced Risk of Liver Cancer Among Those in the Uk

Feb. 26, 2015 In a nested-case control study of individuals living in the UK, a part of the world with a relatively low incidence of liver cancer, statin use is associated with a decreased risk of liver cancer, ... full story

Urine Test Predicts Heart Failure Patients' Risk of Kidney Injury

Feb. 26, 2015 Urinary angiotensinogen levels at the time of hospital admission predicted acute decompensated heart failure patients' risk of developing acute kidney injury with considerable accuracy, scientists ... full story

Study Successfully Screens for Diabetes at Dental Visits Using Oral Blood

Feb. 26, 2015 Using gingival crevicular blood (GCB) for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing produced values that were nearly identical to those obtained using finger stick blood (FSB), with a correlation of .991 ... full story

Can Coffee Reduce Your Risk of MS?

Feb. 26, 2015 Drinking coffee may be associated with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a new ... full story

Why Debunked Autism Treatment Fads Persist

Feb. 26, 2015 The communication struggles of children with autism spectrum disorder can drive parents and educators to try anything to understand their thoughts, needs and wants. Authors describe a litany of ... full story

Malaria Transmission Linked to Mosquitoes' Sexual Biology

Feb. 26, 2015 Sexual biology may be the key to uncovering why Anopheles mosquitoes are unique in their ability to transmit malaria to humans, according to researchers. "Our study is the first to reveal the ... full story

Novel Gene Variants Discovered in a Difficult Childhood Immune Disorder

Feb. 26, 2015 Genomics researchers analyzing common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) in children have discovered links to a gene crucial to the body's defense against infections. The finding may represent ... full story

People With Disabilities Experience Unrecognized Health Disparities, New Research Shows

Feb. 26, 2015 People with disabilities have unmet medical needs and poorer overall health throughout their lives, and as a result should be recognized as a health disparity group so more attention can be directed ... full story

Role of Specialized Protein Affirmed in Assuring Normal Cell Development

Feb. 26, 2015 A specialized DNA-binding protein called CTCF is essential for the precise expression of genes that control the body plan of a developing embryo, scientists have demonstrated. The findings focus on ... full story

Method for Mapping Neuron Clusters Developed

Feb. 26, 2015 A method for identifying clusters of neurons that work in concert to guide the behavior has been developed by researchers. Their findings address a long-standing mystery about the organization of the ... full story

Neurons That Help Predict What Another Individual Will Do Identified

Feb. 26, 2015 Investigators have discovered two groups of neurons that play key roles in social interactions between primates -- one that is activated when deciding whether to cooperate with another individual and ... full story

Bumblebees Make False Memories Too

Feb. 26, 2015 It's well known that our human memory can fail us. People can be forgetful, and they can sometimes also 'remember' things incorrectly, with devastating consequences in the classroom, courtroom, and ... full story

Moffitt Researchers Identify Protein Pathway Involved in Brain Tumor Stem Cell Growth

Feb. 26, 2015 Glioblastomas are a highly aggressive type of brain tumor, with few effective treatment options. Researchers are one step closer to understanding glioblastoma development following the identification ... full story

Teacher Prejudices Put Girls Off Math, Science, Study Suggests

Feb. 26, 2015 Although higher education has already opened the door to equal opportunities for women and minorities in the US in the math and science professions, a new study suggests that elementary school ... full story

Thinking of God Makes People Bigger Risk-Takers, Study Suggests

Feb. 26, 2015 Reminders of God can make people more likely to seek out and take risks, according to research. The findings suggest that people are willing to take these risks because they view God as providing ... full story

Persistent Insomnia, Increased Mortality Risk: Link Found by Researchers

Feb. 26, 2015 A connection between persistent insomnia and increased inflammation and mortality has been identified by a group of researchers. Their study found that people who suffer from persistent insomnia are ... full story

Twin Study Lends New Insights Into Link Between Back Pain and Depression

Feb. 26, 2015 Genetic factors help to explain the commonly found association between low back pain and depression, suggests a large study of twins. Genetic factors affecting both conditions may be involved in the ... full story

Emergency Doctors and Paramedics Commonly Misinterpret Documents for End-of-Life Care Choices, Study Finds

Feb. 26, 2015 Emergency care providers vary in their understanding of a type of medical order intended to communicate seriously ill patients' choices for life-sustaining treatments, according to a pair of studies ... full story

Study Maps Extroversion Types in the Brain's Anatomy

Feb. 25, 2015 Scientists have mapped the similarities and the differences in the brain between the two different kinds of extroverts: 'Agentic' go-getters and 'affiliative' people ... full story

Bariatric Surgery Affects Risk of Pregnancy Complications

Feb. 25, 2015 Bariatric surgery has both a positive and negative influence on the risk of complications during subsequent pregnancy and delivery, concludes a new study. The results indicate that maternal health ... full story

The 180 Billion Bill for Living in a Material World: Material Lifestyles Not Making Us Happier

Feb. 25, 2015 Our modern material lifestyles are failing to make us happier, damaging our health, are no longer sustainable and cost the overall economy tens of billions of pounds every ... full story

Breakfast Habits Affect Teens' Metabolic Responses to Protein-Packed Morning Meals

Feb. 25, 2015 A researcher compared young women who habitually skip breakfast to those who routinely eat breakfast and found that their metabolic responses to eating a high-protein breakfast were different. ... full story

Oat Breakfast Cereals May Contain a Common Mold-Related Toxin

Feb. 25, 2015 Oats are often touted for boosting heart health, but scientists warn that the grain and its products might need closer monitoring for potential mold contamination. They report that some oat-based ... full story

More Than Two Hours of TV a Day Increases High Blood Pressure Risk in Children by 30%

Feb. 25, 2015 A study on European children concludes that spending more than two hours a day in front of a screen increases the probability of high blood pressure by 30%. The article also points out that doing no ... full story

Is Your Busy Schedule Affecting Your Health? Time Might Not Be the Problem

Feb. 25, 2015 The modern schedule is infamously frantic, leaving many of us feeling constantly pressed for time. But that feeling may not have much to do with time itself, according to a new study. "Feeling ... full story

Warning on Use of Drug for Children's Sleep

Feb. 25, 2015 Sleep researchers are warning doctors and parents not to provide the drug melatonin to children to help control their sleep ... full story

Meditation Can Reduce Chronic Neck Pain, Study Shows

Feb. 25, 2015 Meditation might be an effective treatment for reducing chronic neck pain, according to research. Chronic neck pain can lead to serious comorbidities like depression. Patients with chronic neck pain ... full story

Playful Adults Preferred in Choice of Partner

Feb. 25, 2015 Which characteristics do young adults value in a potential partner for long-term relationships? A new study reveals that, besides friendliness, intelligence and a sense of humor, playfulness is also ... full story

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Top-Precision Optical Atomic Clock Starts Ticking

Feb. 26, 2015 A state-of-the-art optical atomic clock is now 'ticking away.' As the first of its kind in Poland and one of just a handful of clocks of this caliber in the world, the new clock will keep track of ... full story

'Ecosystem Services' Help Assess Ocean Energy Development

Feb. 26, 2015 Environmental scientists suggest that the way to fill vast gaps in knowledge about the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of ocean energy development is to consider how the benefits provided by ... full story

Caging of Molecules Allows Investigation of Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Feb. 26, 2015 High performance materials for gas storage, thermal insulators or nanomachines need a thorough understanding of the behavior of the material down to the molecular level. Thermodynamics, which have ... full story

Building Blocks of the Future Defy Logic: New Logic-Defying Mathematical Model

Feb. 26, 2015 Wake up in the morning and stretch; your midsection narrows. Pull on a rubber band and it becomes thinner. One might assume that materials will always stretch and thin. Wrong. Thanks to their ... full story

New Research Predicts When, How Materials Will Act

Feb. 26, 2015 A material might melt or snap in half. And for engineers, knowing when and why that might happen is crucial information. Now, a researcher has laid out an overarching theory that explains why certain ... full story

New X-Ray Microscope for Nanoscale Imaging

Feb. 26, 2015 A new microscope at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe will ultimately deliver nanoscale resolution imaging for everything from proteins to fuel cell ... full story

Superatomic Nickel Core and Unusual Molecular Reactivity

Feb. 26, 2015 Scientists have revealed a unique molecular fragment Ni2O2, consisting of two nickel atoms and two oxygen atoms, that have shown plausible superatomic properties. Supeatoms are important structural ... full story

Optical Features Embedded in Marine Shells May Help Develop Responsive, Transparent Displays

Feb. 26, 2015 The blue-rayed limpet is a tiny mollusk that lives in kelp beds along the coasts of Norway, Iceland, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and the Canary Islands. These diminutive organisms -- as small as a ... full story

Simple Way to Make and Reconfigure Complex Emulsions

Feb. 25, 2015 Researchers have devised a new way to make complex liquid mixtures, known as emulsions, that could have many applications in drug delivery, sensing, cleaning up pollutants, and performing chemical ... full story

Clusters of Aluminum Metal Atoms Become Superconductive at Surprisingly High Temperatures

Feb. 25, 2015 Clusters of atoms known as 'superatoms' represent an entirely new family of superconductors -- one that appears to work at temperatures well above standard ... full story

SOHO Sees Something New Near the Sun: Comet Survives Close Encounter

Feb. 24, 2015 An unusual comet skimmed past the sun on Feb 18-21, 2015, as captured by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or ... full story

Mars Exploration: NASA's MAVEN Spacecraft Completes First Deep Dip Campaign

Feb. 19, 2015 NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution has completed the first of five deep-dip maneuvers designed to gather measurements closer to the lower end of the Martian upper ... full story

Giving Shape to Black Holes' Intense Winds

Feb. 19, 2015 By looking at the speed of ambient gas spewing out from a well-known quasar, astronomers are gaining insight into how black holes and their host galaxies might have evolved at the same ... full story

Scientists Identify Mineral That Destroys Organic Compounds, With Implications for Mars Curiosity Mission

Feb. 19, 2015 Scientists have discovered that the mineral jarosite breaks down organic compounds when it is flash-heated, with implications for Mars research. Jarosite is an iron sulphate and it is one of several ... full story

Hubble Gets Best View of a Circumstellar Debris Disk Distorted by a Planet

Feb. 19, 2015 Astronomers have used the Hubble Space Telescope to take the most detailed picture to date of a large, edge-on, gas-and-dust disk encircling the 20-million-year-old star Beta Pictoris. The new image ... full story

A New View of the Solar System: Astrophysical Jets Driven by the Sun

Feb. 19, 2015 New research suggests that the sun's magnetic field controls the large-scale shape of the heliosphere much more than expected. The new model shows that the magnetic field squeezes the solar wind ... full story

Higgs Mode in Superconducting Materials: Tabletop Technique for Examining Physics' Most Celebrated Missing Link

Feb. 19, 2015 The Nobel Prize-winning discovery of the Higgs boson -- the 'God particle' believed responsible for all the mass in the universe -- took place in 2012 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The first hint ... full story

Classical Nova Explosions Are Major Lithium Factories in the Universe

Feb. 19, 2015 Astronomers observed Nova Delphini 2013 which occurred on August 14, 2013. They discovered that the outburst is producing a large amount of lithium (Li). Lithium is a key element in the study of the ... full story

Does Dark Matter Cause Mass Extinctions and Geologic Upheavals?

Feb. 19, 2015 New research concludes that Earth's infrequent but predictable path around and through our Galaxy's disc may have a direct and significant effect on geological and biological phenomena occurring on ... full story

Searching for Signs of a Force from the 'Dark Side' in Particle Collisions

Feb. 19, 2015 Scientists searching for signs of elusive “dark photons” as an explanation for an anomaly in a groundbreaking physics experiment have nearly ruled out their ... full story

Economic Models Provide Insights Into Global Sustainability Challenges

Feb. 26, 2015 Using models that blend global economics, geography, ecology and environmental sciences is essential to understanding how changes in trade and natural systems in one part of the world affect those in ... full story

Parkinson's Disease Patients Have Reduced Visual Contrast Acuity

Feb. 25, 2015 An iPad<sup></sup> application has been developed that can help physicians screen for Parkinson's Disease, report researchers. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have difficulties with ... full story

Uncertainties Must Be Taken Into Account in Fisheries Stock Assessment

Feb. 25, 2015 Fisheries stock assessment provides information on the status of fish stocks and the impact of fishing on stock development. Since no direct information on fish stock size or fishing mortality rates ... full story

Novel Computer Model Designed to Understand Cardiovascular Diseases

Feb. 25, 2015 A novel three-dimensional, multiscale and multicomponent model of endothelial cells monolayer, the inner lining of artery, has been developed by researchers to identify the cellular mechanisms ... full story

Sensor-Packed Smartphones Can Read Your Mood, Guard Your Data, and Wreak Havoc in the Wrong Hands

Feb. 24, 2015 Smartphones have replaced nearly every conceivable gadget, but computer scientists are teaching them some new tricks. The researchers are adapting accelerometers, GPS chips, gyroscopes and other ... full story

Dendrite Eraser: New Electrolyte Rids Batteries of Short-Circuiting Fibers

Feb. 24, 2015 A new electrolyte allows rechargeable batteries to operate well without growing dendrites, tiny pin-like fibers that short-circuit rechargeable ... full story

Optical Nanoantennas Set the Stage for a NEMS Lab-on-a-Chip Revolution

Feb. 24, 2015 Newly developed tiny antennas, likened to spotlights on the nanoscale, offer the potential to measure food safety, identify pollutants in the air and even quickly diagnose and treat cancer, according ... full story

Cyberbystanders: Most Don't Try to Stop Online Bullies

Feb. 24, 2015 In a new study, 221 college students participated in an online chat room in which they watched a fellow student get “bullied” right before their eyes. Only 10 percent of the students who noticed ... full story

Building Tailor-Made DNA Nanotubes Step by Step

Feb. 23, 2015 Researchers have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block -- a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be used in applications ... full story

Your Privacy Online: Health Information at Serious Risk of Abuse, Researchers Warn

Feb. 23, 2015 There is a significant risk to your privacy whenever you visit a health-related web page, some researchers warn. An analysis of over 80,000 such web pages shows that nine out of ten visits result in ... full story

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Fighting Colorado Potato Beetle With RNA Interference

Feb. 26, 2015 Colorado potato beetles are a dreaded pest of potatoes. Since they do not have natural enemies in most regions, farmers try to control them with pesticides. However, this strategy is often ... full story

Living in Genetic Comfort Zone: How to Avoid Influence of Genetic Variation

Feb. 26, 2015 The phenotype of organisms is shaped by the interaction between environmental factors and their genetic constitution. A recent study by a team of population geneticists shows that fruit flies live in ... full story

Asian Herb Holds Promise as Treatment for Ebola Virus Disease

Feb. 26, 2015 New research focuses on the mechanism by which Ebola virus infects a cell and the discovery of a promising drug therapy candidate. A small molecule called Tetrandrine derived from an Asian herb has ... full story

How Mantis Shrimp Evolved Many Shapes With Same Powerful Punch

Feb. 26, 2015 The miniweight boxing title of the animal world belongs to the mantis shrimp, a cigar-sized crustacean whose front claws can deliver an explosive 60-mile-per-hour blow akin to a bullet leaving the ... full story

Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Reaches Madagascar

Feb. 26, 2015 The chytrid fungus, which is fatal to amphibians, has been detected in Madagascar for the first time. This means that the chytridiomycosis pandemic has now reached a biodiversity hotspot. Researchers ... full story

Could Squirmy Livestock Dent Africa's Protein Deficit?

Feb. 26, 2015 Two graduate students are working to introduce highly productive kits for farming mealworms to regions such as sub-Saharan Africa where eating insects is already culturally palatable. They are just ... full story

The Eyes Have It: Cats Put Sight Over Smell in Finding Food

Feb. 26, 2015 Cats may prefer to use their eyes rather than follow their nose when it comes to finding the location of food, according to new research by leading animal ... full story

'Blue-Green Algae' Proliferating in Lakes

Feb. 26, 2015 The organisms commonly known as blue-green algae have proliferated much more rapidly than other algae in lakes across North America and Europe over the past two centuries -- and in many cases the ... full story

Aggressive Plant Fungus Threatens Wheat Production

Feb. 26, 2015 The spread of exotic and aggressive strains of a plant fungus is presenting a serious threat to wheat production in the UK, according to research. The research uses a new surveillance technique that ... full story

Research Cracks Code Governing Infections Single-Stranded RNA Viruses

Feb. 26, 2015 Researchers have cracked a code that governs infections caused by simple, single-stranded RNA viruses similar in many respects to viruses that cause the common cold, polio and the winter vomiting ... full story

Embrace Unknowns, Opt for Flexibility in Environmental Policies, Experts Say

Feb. 26, 2015 We make hundreds, possibly thousands, of decisions each day without having full knowledge of what will happen next. Life is unpredictable, and we move forward the best we can despite not knowing ... full story

Interaction of Atlantic and Pacific Oscillations Caused 'False Pause' in Warming

Feb. 26, 2015 The recent slowdown in climate warming is due, at least in part, to natural oscillations in the climate, according to a team of climate scientists, who add that these oscillations represent ... full story

Forest Tree Seeds Stored in the Svalbard Seed Vault

Feb. 26, 2015 A new method for the conservation of the genetic diversity of forest trees will see its launch on 26 February 2015, as forest tree seeds are for the first time stored in the Svalbard Global Seed ... full story

Lake Tahoe Research Provides New Insights on Global Change

Feb. 26, 2015 A study on how natural and human-made sources of nitrogen are recycled through the Lake Tahoe ecosystem provides new information on how global change may affect the iconic blue ... full story

Causes of Great Lakes Smelt Population Decline Are Complex

Feb. 25, 2015 The reasons for the dwindling population of smelt prey fish in the Great Lakes to near historic lows are more complicated than previously believed, new research suggests. Although results of the 2014 ... full story

Felling of Tropical Trees Has Soared, Satellite Shows, Not Slowed as UN Study Found

Feb. 25, 2015 The rate at which tropical forests were cut, burned or otherwise lost from the 1990s through the 2000s accelerated by 62 percent, according to a new study which dramatically reverses a previous ... full story

New Technology Could Make Treatment of Oil and Gas Wastewater Simpler, Cheaper

Feb. 25, 2015 Oil and gas operations in the United States produce about 21 billion barrels of wastewater per year. The saltiness of the water and the organic contaminants it contains have traditionally made ... full story

Cellular Communication Offers Easy Fog Detection for Roads and Runways

Feb. 25, 2015 Thick fogbanks can blanket open roads and runways and dramatically reduce visibility -- often causing devastating accidents. A new study suggests that a practical solution to fog detection can be ... full story

Learning by Eye: Silicon Micro-Funnels Increase the Efficiency of Solar Cells

Feb. 25, 2015 A biological structure in mammalian eyes has inspired scientists to design an inorganic counterpart for use in solar cells: micron-sized vertical funnels were etched shoulder-to-shoulder in a silicon ... full story

Magnetic Nanoparticles Enhance Performance of Solar Cells

Feb. 25, 2015 Magnetic nanoparticles can increase the performance of solar cells made from polymers -- provided the mix is right. Adding about one per cent of such nanoparticles by weight makes the solar cells ... full story

Climate-Change Clues from Turtles of Tropical Wyoming

Feb. 24, 2015 Tropical turtle fossils discovered in Wyoming reveal that when Earth got warmer, prehistoric turtles headed north. But if today's turtles try the same technique to cope with warming habitats, they ... full story

Kenyan Fossils Show Evolution of Hippos

Feb. 24, 2015 A French-Kenyan research team has just described a new fossil ancestor of today's hippo family. This discovery bridges a gap in the fossil record separating these animals from their closest ... full story

Asian Tree Rings Explain Historical Plague Outbreaks in Europe

Feb. 24, 2015 Climate-driven plague outbreaks in Asia were repeatedly transmitted over several centuries into southern European harbors, an international team of researchers has found. This finding contrasts the ... full story

Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars Thrived With Time

Feb. 23, 2015 New work on echinoids -- marine animals like sea urchins and sand dollars -- gives scientists a reason to rethink a classical pattern of evolution. Fossil-based studies have traditionally indicated ... full story

Ancient and Modern Cities Aren't So Different

Feb. 20, 2015 Despite notable differences in appearance and governance, ancient human settlements function in much the same way as modern cities, according to new ... full story

Greenland Is Melting: The Past Might Tell What the Future Holds

Feb. 20, 2015 Scientists have managed to quantify how the Greenland Ice Sheet reacted to a warm period 8,000-5,000 years ago. Back then temperatures were 2-4 degrees C warmer than they are in the present. Their ... full story

Out of Africa: Did Humans Migrate Quickly and All-at-Once or in Phases Based on Weather?

Feb. 20, 2015 Considerable debate surrounds the migration of human populations out of Africa. Two predominant hypotheses concerning the timing contrast in their emphasis on the role of the Arabian interior and its ... full story

Animals Tend to Evolve Toward Larger Size Over Time

Feb. 19, 2015 In one of the most comprehensive studies of body size evolution ever conducted, scientists have found fresh support for Cope's rule, a theory in biology that states that animal lineages tend to ... full story

Tracing Languages Back to Their Common Ancestors Through the Statistics of Sound Shifts

Feb. 19, 2015 A statistical technique that sorts out when changes to words’ pronunciations most likely occurred in the evolution of a language offers a renewed opportunity to trace words and languages back to ... full story

Learning from Extinction: New Insights on Controlling Cancer

Feb. 18, 2015 A researcher brings a paleontological view of species extinction to bear on the challenges involved in driving populations of cancer cells to annihilation -- or at least improving patient prognosis ... full story

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Criminologist's Study Shows Lack of Mental Health Care for Prisoners

Feb. 26, 2015 A substantial number of prison inmates have not received treatment for mental health conditions, a expert claims. The study recommends that prisons prioritize the use of validated screening ... full story

Sharp Rise in Experimental Animal Research in US

Feb. 25, 2015 The use of animals in experimental research has soared at leading US laboratories in recent years, finds new research. This is despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting ... full story

Vaccine Hesitancy: Journal Collection Investigates Vaccination Decision-Making

Feb. 25, 2015 Vaccines are thought to be one of the most successful public health measures, but some individuals are hesitant to vaccinate their families for a variety of reasons. Researchers explore individuals' ... full story

Consideration of Costs Can Reduce Moral Objections to Human Organ Sales and Other 'Repugnant' Transactions, Says Researcher

Feb. 25, 2015 People might abandon their moral objections to organ selling – and to other transactions in repugnant markets -- when presented with information about the potential advantages of such sales, ... full story

Biology Teachers: Understanding Faith, Teaching Evolution Not Mutually Exclusive

Feb. 25, 2015 Discussing the relationship between science and faith, rather than avoiding the discussion, may better prepare future high school biology teachers for anticipating questions about evolution, ... full story

Study Linking Suicidal Behavior, Psychotic Experiences May Yield Strategies to Help Prevent Suicide Attempts

Feb. 25, 2015 Suicidal ideation and psychotic experiences have been studied among more than 11,000 adults 18 and older. The data were drawn from a large general-population based sample of U. S. households. Suicide ... full story

Women Twice as Likely to See Pot as Risky

Feb. 25, 2015 A study on the perceived risk of using cannabis and characteristics associated with these perceptions found that non-white, low-income women over 50 were most likely to perceive a risk in using the ... full story

Himalayan Ice Shows Chemicals Ban Is Working

Feb. 25, 2015 A unique study of frozen ice cores from the Tibetan Himalayas has shown that international agreements on phasing out the use of toxic persistent organic pollutants are working. "Chemical residues are ... full story

New Look at Culture, Its Influence on Individuals, Organizations

Feb. 24, 2015 'Polyculturalism' offers a better lens for understanding cultural complexity and how it affects collaboration, negotiation and leadership, a new article ... full story

World's Protected Natural Areas Receive Eight Billion Visits a Year

Feb. 24, 2015 Researchers say that the first study to attempt to gauge global visitation figures for protected areas reveals nature-based tourism has an economic value of hundreds of billions of dollars annually, ... full story

Amphetamine Gets the Job Done: Using Drugs to Work Long Hours

Feb. 20, 2015 Drugs are usually associated with vulnerable social groups. New research reveals that amphetamine, however, is used by some in physically demanding manual jobs - to sustain long working ... full story

Basic Personality Changes Linked to Unemployment, Study Finds

Feb. 18, 2015 Unemployment can change peoples' core personalities, making some less conscientious, agreeable and open, which may make it difficult for them to find new jobs, according to new ... full story

Leader of the Pack: Study of Voles and Owls Show Rise of Individuals With Greatest Influence on Collective Group Behavior

Feb. 18, 2015 Who takes charge during a disaster or at an accident scene? The question has intrigued sociologists since Gustave Le Bon first studied "herd behavior" in nineteenth-century France. The question of an ... full story

How Income Fraud Made the Housing Bubble Worse

Feb. 18, 2015 New research reveals that, in low-income zip codes, IRS-reported incomes and earnings reported on mortgages in fact differed wildly from 2002 to 2005. The researchers place the blame for falsified ... full story

Women Seek Greater Variety in Men and Consumer Products Near Ovulation

Feb. 17, 2015 New research suggests women seek more options in dating partners near ovulation -- when they are most fertile -- which may lead them to also seek a greater variety of products and ... full story

Workplace Bullying a Vicious Circle

Feb. 17, 2015 Bullying at work grinds victims down and makes them an 'easy target' for further abuse according to new research. The research suggests that employers should not only crack down on workplace bullies, ... full story

People Value Resources More Consistently When They Are Scarce

Feb. 12, 2015 We tend to be economically irrational when it comes to choosing how we use resources like money and time but scarcity can convert us into economically rational decision makers, according to new ... full story

An Internet of Things Reality Check

Feb. 9, 2015 Connecting different kinds of devices, not just computers and communications devices, to the Internet could lead to new ways of working with a wide range of machinery, sensors, domestic and other ... full story

Increasing Individualism in US Linked With Rise of White-Collar Jobs

Feb. 5, 2015 Rising individualism in the United States over the last 150 years is mainly associated with a societal shift toward more white-collar occupations, according to new research. The study, which looked ... full story

Novel Method Projects Growth Potential of New Firms: Which Tech Businesses Will Thrive?

Feb. 5, 2015 New businesses spring up all the time in the U.S. But which ones have the greatest ability to become big? A new method based on an empirical study, projects the growth potential of high-tech firms ... full story

Education 'Experts' Cited in News Stories May Lack Expertise, Study Finds

Feb. 20, 2015 A study of education experts cited in news stories and blogs during 2013 finds that some lack background in education policy and ... full story

Delaying Children's School Entry Linked to Poor Academic Performance

Feb. 19, 2015 Delaying school entry for children could cause poorer academic performance, according to new research. Many parents are keen to hold their children back a year if they were born prematurely or in the ... full story

Teens Increasingly Sleep Deprived

Feb. 16, 2015 A new study found that female students, racial/ethnic minorities, and students of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to report regularly getting seven or more hours of sleep each night ... full story

Learning With All the Senses: Movement, Images Facilitate Vocabulary Learning

Feb. 5, 2015 "Atesi" -- what sounds like a word from the Elven language of Lord of the Rings is actually a Vimmish word meaning "thought". Scientists have used Vimmish, an artificial language specifically ... full story

Public and Scientists Express Strikingly Different Views About Science-Related Issues

Jan. 29, 2015 Despite similar views about the overall place of science in America, the general public and scientists often see science-related issues through a different lens, according to a new pair of ... full story

Can Synesthesia Be Taught? Colored Letters, Tasty Sounds?

Jan. 29, 2015 Can synesthesia have cognitive benefits and can it be taught? There are over 60 known types of synesthesia, a condition in which stimulation of one sense, such as taste, leads to automatic, ... full story

Concentrating on Word Sounds Helps Reading Instruction and Intervention

Jan. 28, 2015 A neuroimaging study by psychologist suggests that phonics shouldn't be overlooked in favor of a whole-language technique, a finding that could help improve treatment and diagnosis of common reading ... full story

Playing With Puzzles, Blocks May Build Children's Spatial Skills

Jan. 28, 2015 Play may seem like fun and games, but new research shows that specific kinds of play are actually associated with development of particular cognitive skills. Data from an American nationally ... full story

Students Master Math Through Movement Using Kinect for Windows

Jan. 26, 2015 Significant gains in the understanding of angles and angle measurements by elementary school students are seen in those who performed body-based tasks while interacting with a Kinect for Windows ... full story

Girls Lead Boys in Academic Achievement Globally

Jan. 26, 2015 Considerable attention has been paid to how boys' educational achievements in science and math compare to girls' accomplishments in those areas, often leading to the assumption that boys outperform ... full story

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