Today's Science News

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

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Mars: Meteorites Yield Clues to Red Planet's Early Atmosphere

Apr. 16, 2014 — Geologists analyzed 40 meteorites that fell to Earth from Mars to understand the history of the Martian atmosphere. Their new article shows the atmospheres of Mars and Earth diverged in important ... full story

Eavesdropping on Brain Cell Chatter

Apr. 16, 2014 — Everything we do -- all of our movements, thoughts and feelings -- are the result of neurons talking with one another, and recent studies have suggested that some of the conversations might not be ... full story

Crucial New Information About How the Ice Ages Came About

Apr. 16, 2014 — Scientists have discovered new relationships between deep-sea temperature and ice-volume changes to provide crucial new information about how the ice ages came about. The researchers found, for the ... full story

Ancient Shark Fossil Reveals New Insights Into Jaw Evolution

Apr. 16, 2014 — The skull of a newly discovered 325-million-year-old shark-like species suggests that early cartilaginous and bony fishes have more to tell us about the early evolution of jawed vertebrates -- ... full story

Searching for Dark Energy With Neutrons: With Neutrons, Scientists Can Now Look for Dark Energy in the Lab

Apr. 16, 2014 — It does not always take a huge accelerator to do particle physics: First results from a low energy, table top alternative takes validity of Newtonian gravity down by five orders of magnitude and ... full story

For Cells, Internal Stress Leads to Unique Shapes

Apr. 16, 2014 — A cell's unique shape results from an internal tug-of-war: the cell needs to maintain structural integrity while also dynamically responding to the pushes and pulls of mechanical stress, ... full story

At the Origin of Cell Division: The Features of Living Matter Emerge from Inanimate Matter in Simulation

Apr. 16, 2014 — Droplets of filamentous material enclosed in a lipid membrane: these are the models of a “simplified” cell used by physicists who simulated the spontaneous emergence of cell motility and division ... full story

How Smells Stick to Your Memories: Your Nose Can Be a Pathfinder

Apr. 16, 2014 — Waves in your brain make smells stick to your memories and inner maps. Researchers have recently discovered the process behind this phenomenon. The brain, it turns out, connects smells to memories ... full story

Scientists Re-Define What's Healthy in Newest Analysis for Human Microbiome Project

Apr. 16, 2014 — A new look at the Human Microbiome Project shows wide variation in the types of bacteria found in healthy people. Based on their findings, there is no single healthy microbiome. Rather each person ... full story

Scientists Achieve First Direct Observations of Excitons in Motion

Apr. 16, 2014 — A quasiparticle called an exciton -- responsible for the transfer of energy within devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and semiconductor circuits -- has been understood theoretically for decades. But ... full story

Functional Brain Imaging Reliably Predicts Which Vegetative Patients Have Potential to Recover Consciousness

Apr. 15, 2014 — A functional brain imaging technique known as positron emission tomography is a promising tool for determining which severely brain damaged individuals in vegetative states have the potential to ... full story

Gut Capacity Limits Bird's Ability to Adapt to Rapid Climate Change

Apr. 15, 2014 — An ornithologist has found that the capacity of a bird’s gut to change with environmental conditions is a primary limiting factor in their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing climate. And he ... full story

SSRI Use During Pregnancy Linked to Autism and Developmental Delays in Boys

Apr. 15, 2014 — In a study of nearly 1,000 mother-child pairs, researchers found that prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a frequently prescribed treatment for depression, anxiety ... full story

Hair from Infants Gives Clues About Life in Womb

Apr. 15, 2014 — Like rings of a tree, hair can reveal a lot of information about the past. And, as a team of researchers show in a study of rhesus monkeys, it can also reveal the womb environment in which an infant ... full story

Regenerated Esophagus Transplanted in Rats

Apr. 15, 2014 — Tissue engineering has been used to construct natural esophagi, which in combination with bone marrow stem cells have been safely and effectively transplanted in rats. The study shows that the ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could Even Casual Marijuana Use Alter Your Brain?

Could Even Casual Marijuana Use Alter Your Brain?

Newsy (Apr. 16, 2014) — A new study conducted by researchers at Northwestern and Harvard suggests even casual marijuana use can alter your brain. Video provided by Newsy
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New Baby Moon 'Peggy' Spotted In Saturn's Rings

New Baby Moon 'Peggy' Spotted In Saturn's Rings

Newsy (Apr. 15, 2014) — A bump in the rings could be a half-mile-wide miniature moon. It was found by accident in Cassini probe images. Video provided by Newsy
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Cognitive Function: Is It All Downhill From Age 24?

Cognitive Function: Is It All Downhill From Age 24?

Newsy (Apr. 15, 2014) — A new study out of Canada says cognitive motor performance begins deteriorating around age 24. Video provided by Newsy
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Carpenter's Injury Leads To Hundreds Of 3-D-Printed Hands

Carpenter's Injury Leads To Hundreds Of 3-D-Printed Hands

Newsy (Apr. 14, 2014) — Richard van As lost all fingers on his right hand in a woodworking accident. Now, he's used the incident to create a prosthetic to help hundreds. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-04-16 at 10:03 pm EDT

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Changing Where a Baby Is Held Immediately After Birth Could Lead to Improved Uptake of Procedure That Reduces Infant Iron Deficiency

Apr. 16, 2014 — Changing where a newborn baby is held before its umbilical cord is clamped could lead to improved uptake in hospitals of delayed cord clamping, leading to a decreased risk of iron deficiency in ... full story

Surprising Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk

Apr. 16, 2014 — Eliminating chocolate milk from elementary schools decreased total milk sales by 10 percent, and increased milk waste by 29 percent, a study has shown. Additionally, the ban may have been a factor in ... full story

How Kids' Brain Structures Grow as Memory Develops

Apr. 16, 2014 — Our ability to store memories improves during childhood, associated with structural changes in the hippocampus and its connections with prefrontal and parietal cortices. New research is exploring how ... full story

Cancer Drugs Block Dementia-Linked Brain Inflammation, Study Finds

Apr. 16, 2014 — A class of drugs developed to treat immune-related conditions and cancer -- including one currently in clinical trials for glioblastoma and other tumors -- eliminates neural inflammation associated ... full story

Sperm Meets Egg: Protein Essential for Fertilization Discovered

Apr. 16, 2014 — Interacting proteins on the surface of the sperm and the egg have been discovered by researchers. These are essential to begin mammalian life. These proteins, which allow the sperm and egg to ... full story

HIV-Positive Women Respond Well to HPV Vaccine, Study Shows

Apr. 16, 2014 — A vaccine can safely help the vast majority of HIV-positive women produce antibodies against the cancer-causing human papillomavirus, even if their immune system is weak and even if they've had some ... full story

Synapses: Stability in Transformation

Apr. 16, 2014 — Synapses are the points of contact at which information is transmitted between neurons. Without them, we would not be able to form thoughts or remember things. For memories to endure, synapses ... full story

DNA Looping Damage Tied to HPV Cancer, Researcher Discovers

Apr. 16, 2014 — Certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) are known to cause about five percent of all cancer cases, yet all the mechanisms aren't completely understood. Now, researchers have leveraged Ohio ... full story

Trials of the Cherokee Were Reflected in Their Skulls

Apr. 16, 2014 — Researchers have found that environmental stressors -- from the Trail of Tears to the Civil War -- led to significant changes in the shape of skulls in the eastern and western bands of the Cherokee ... full story

Expect Changes in Appetite, Taste of Food After Weight Loss Surgery

Apr. 16, 2014 — Changes in appetite, taste and smell are par for the course for people who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery during which one's stomach is made smaller and small intestines shortened. ... full story

Family Ties in the Language Jungle: Amazon Language Relationships Revealed

Apr. 16, 2014 — Relationships between rare languages in the Colombian Amazon have been revealed by researchers. The only linguistic data available for Carabayo, a language spoken by an indigenous group that lives in ... full story

How Toddlers Learn Verbs: New Insight

Apr. 16, 2014 — Parents can help toddlers' language skills by showing them a variety of examples of different actions, according to new research. Previous research has shown that verbs pose particular difficulties ... full story

Fighting Neuroblastomas by Blocking DNA Replication, Repair

Apr. 16, 2014 — PCNA is a protein essential to DNA repair and replication, and researchers are targeting it in neuroblastoma cells in order to halt tumor growth and induce cell death. Neuroblastoma is one of the ... full story

Computer Software Analyzing Facial Expressions Accurately Predicts Student Test Performance

Apr. 16, 2014 — Real-time engagement detection technology that processes facial expressions can perform with accuracy comparable to that of human observers, according to new research. The study used automatic ... full story

Fish Exposed to Antidepressants Exhibit Altered Behavioral Changes

Apr. 16, 2014 — Fish exposed to the antidepressant Fluoxetine, an active ingredient in prescription drugs such as Prozac, exhibited a range of altered mating behaviours, repetitive behaviour and aggression towards ... full story

Brain Anatomy Differences Between Deaf, Hearing Depend on First Language Learned

Apr. 15, 2014 — In the first known study of its kind, researchers have shown that the language we learn as children affects brain structure, as does hearing status. 'What we've learned to date about differences in ... full story

Teenagers Who Have Had a Concussion Also Have Higher Rates of Suicide Attempts

Apr. 15, 2014 — Teenagers who have suffered a traumatic brain injury such as a concussion are at 'significantly greater odds' of attempting suicide, being bullied and engaging in a variety of high-risk behaviors, a ... full story

Neuroscientists Disprove Important Idea About Brain-Eye Coordination

Apr. 15, 2014 — By predicting our eye movements, our brain creates a stable world for us. Researchers used to think that those predictions had so much influence that they could cause us to make errors in estimating ... full story

Chrono, the Last Piece of the Circadian Clock Puzzle?

Apr. 15, 2014 — All organisms, from mammals to fungi, have daily cycles controlled by a tightly regulated internal clock, called the circadian clock. The whole-body circadian clock, influenced by the exposure to ... full story

Brain Changes Associated With Casual Marijuana Use in Young Adults: More 'Joints' Equal More Damage

Apr. 15, 2014 — The size and shape of two brain regions involved in emotion and motivation may differ in young adults who smoke marijuana at least once a week, according to a new study. The findings suggest that ... full story

Shade Grown Coffee Shrinking as a Proportion of Global Coffee Production

Apr. 16, 2014 — Over the past couple of decades, global coffee production has been shifting towards a more intensive, less environmentally friendly style, a new study has found. That's pretty surprising if you live ... full story

Multiple Births Don't Have to Be an Inevitable Result of Fertility Treatments

Apr. 16, 2014 — While fertility treatments have helped many people become parents, they commonly result in multiple births, increasing the risk of prematurity, and leading to lifelong complications. But this doesn't ... full story

Body Mass Index Associated With Breast Cancer, Regardless of Body Shape

Apr. 16, 2014 — A larger waist circumference is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but not beyond its contribution to BMI, a new study of predominantly white women finds. The study fails to ... full story

Pathogenic E. Coli Binds to Fresh Vegetables

Apr. 15, 2014 — Between 20-30 percent of food-poisoning outbreaks linked to disease-causing strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli are caused by people eating contaminated vegetables. Research shows that the ... full story

Prolonged, Heavy Bleeding During Menopause Is Common

Apr. 15, 2014 — Women going through menopause most likely think of it as the time for an end to predictable monthly periods. Researchers say it's normal, however, for the majority of them to experience an increase ... full story

Real-Time Audio of Corporal Punishment Shows Kids Misbehave Within 10 Minutes of Spanking

Apr. 15, 2014 — Real-time audio recordings of children being spanked showed parents responded impulsively or emotionally, rather than being intentional with their discipline, says a psychologist and parenting ... full story

Kids' Earliest Memories Might Be Earlier Than They Think

Apr. 15, 2014 — The very earliest childhood memories might begin even earlier than anyone realized -- including the one remembering, his or her parents and memory researchers. Four- to 13-year-olds in upstate New ... full story

Cultivating Happiness Often Misunderstood

Apr. 15, 2014 — The concept of maximizing happiness has been explored by researchers, who have found that pursuing concrete 'giving' goals rather than abstract ones leads to greater satisfaction. One path to ... full story

Lifestyle Determines Gut Microbes: Study With Modern Hunter-Gatherers Tells Tale of Bacteria Co-Evolution

Apr. 15, 2014 — The intestinal bacteria of present-day hunter-gatherers has for the first time been deciphered by an international team of researchers. Bacterial populations have co-evolved with humans over millions ... full story

How Mothers Help Children Explore Right and Wrong

Apr. 15, 2014 — Moms want their kids to grow up to be good people -- but how do they actually help their offspring sort out different types of moral issues? A new study shows many moms talk to their kids in ways ... full story

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Information Storage for the Next Generation of Plastic Computers: Efficient Conversion from Magnetic Storage to Light Is Key

Apr. 16, 2014 — Inexpensive computers, cell phones and other systems that substitute flexible plastic for silicon chips may be one step closer to reality, thanks to new research. Scientists have made a new proposal ... full story

Theoretical Biophysics: Adventurous Bacteria Decide How to Preserve Species?

Apr. 16, 2014 — To reproduce or to conquer the world? Surprisingly, bacteria also face this problem. Theoretical biophysicists have now shown how these organisms should decide how best to preserve their ... full story

Quantum Computing? Progress in the Fight Against Quantum Dissipation

Apr. 16, 2014 — Scientists have confirmed a 50-year-old, previously untested theoretical prediction in physics and improved the energy storage time of a quantum switch by several orders of magnitude. High-quality ... full story

Scientists Capture Ultrafast Snapshots of Light-Driven Superconductivity

Apr. 16, 2014 — A new study pins down a major factor behind the appearance of superconductivity -- the ability to conduct electricity with 100 percent efficiency -- in a promising copper-oxide material. Scientists ... full story

Floating Nuclear Plants Could Ride out Tsunamis: New Design for Enhanced Safety, Easier Siting and Centralized Construction

Apr. 16, 2014 — When an earthquake and tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant complex in 2011, neither the quake nor the inundation caused the ensuing contamination. Rather, it was the aftereffects -- ... full story

Making New Materials an Atomic Layer at a Time

Apr. 16, 2014 — Researchers have shown the ability to grow high quality, single-layer materials one on top of the other using chemical vapor deposition. This highly scalable technique, often used in the ... full story

Global Scientific Team 'Visualizes' a New Crystallization Process

Apr. 16, 2014 — By combining a synchrotron's bright X-ray beam with high speed X-ray cameras, scientists shot a 'movie' showing how organic molecules form into crystals. This is a first. Their new techniques will ... full story

Relieving Electric Vehicle Range Anxiety With Improved Batteries

Apr. 16, 2014 — A new nanomaterial called a metal organic framework could extend the lifespan of lithium-sulfur batteries, which could be used to increase the driving range of electric vehicles. Researchers added ... full story

Potential Use of Google Glass in Surgical Settings

Apr. 16, 2014 — A new article shows the potential applications for Google Glass in the surgical setting, particularly in relation to training. Personal portable information technology is advancing at a breathtaking ... full story

Repeated Self-Healing Now Possible in Composite Materials

Apr. 15, 2014 — Internal damage in fiber-reinforced composites, materials used in structures of modern airplanes and automobiles, is difficult to detect and nearly impossible to repair by conventional methods. A ... full story

Red Moon at Night: Stargazer's Delight

Apr. 16, 2014 — Monday night's lunar eclipse proved just as delightful as expected to those able to view it. On the East Coast, cloudy skies may have gotten in the way, but at the National Science Foundation's ... full story

A Study in Scarlet: Hot Newborn Stars Formed out of the Clouds

Apr. 16, 2014 — An area of the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur), is home to many bright nebulae, each associated with hot newborn stars that formed out of the clouds of hydrogen gas. The ... full story

Astronomers: 'Tilt-a-Worlds' Could Harbor Life

Apr. 15, 2014 — A fluctuating tilt in a planet's orbit does not preclude the possibility of life, according to new research. In fact, sometimes it may help. That's because such "tilt-a-worlds," as astronomers ... full story

NASA Cassini Images May Reveal Birth of a Saturn Moon

Apr. 14, 2014 — NASA's Cassini spacecraft has documented the formation of a small icy object within the rings of Saturn that may be a new moon, and may also provide clues to the formation of the planet's known ... full story

Cosmic Slurp: Supercomputers Help Astronomers Understand and Predict How Black Holes Swallow Stars

Apr. 14, 2014 — A 'tidal disruption' occurs when a star orbits too close to a black hole and gets usurped. Researchers are using supercomputers to simulate tidal disruptions to better understand the dynamics of the ... full story

SpaceX’s Dragon Headed to Space Station to Create Astronaut Farmers

Apr. 14, 2014 — "Enter the Dragon" takes on a whole new meaning this month as SpaceX's Dragon capsule heads to the International Space Station for its third commercial resupply mission on April 14. During the ... full story

International Space Station to Beam Video Via Laser Back to Earth

Apr. 14, 2014 — A team of about 20 working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., through the lab's Phaeton early-career-hire program, led the development of the Optical Payload for Lasercomm ... full story

Faraway Moon or Faint Star? Possible Exomoon Found

Apr. 12, 2014 — Titan, Europa, Io and Phobos are just a few members of our solar system's pantheon of moons. Are there are other moons out there, orbiting planets beyond our sun? Researchers have spotted the first ... full story

NASA's Hubble Extends Stellar Tape Measure 10 Times Farther Into Space

Apr. 11, 2014 — Astronomers now can precisely measure the distance of stars up to 10,000 light-years away -- 10 times farther than previously possible. Astronomers have developed yet another novel way to use the ... full story

Microgravity Research Helping to Understand the Fungi Within

Apr. 10, 2014 — You may not recognize it by name, but if you have ever had a child with a diaper rash, that child was likely a host to Candida albicans (C. albicans). This unwelcome "guest" can be hard to control, ... full story

Ant Colonies Help Evacuees in Disaster Zones

Apr. 16, 2014 — An escape route mapping system based on the behavior of ant colonies could give evacuees a better chance of reaching safe harbor after a natural disaster or terrorist attack by building a map showing ... full story

Augmented Reality: Bringing History and the Future to Life

Apr. 16, 2014 — Have you ever wished you had a virtual time machine that could show you how your street looked last century? Or have you wanted to see how your new furniture might look, before you’ve even bought ... full story

Lens Turns Any Smartphone Into a Portable Microscope

Apr. 15, 2014 — The Micro Phone Lens can turn any smartphone or tablet computer into a hand-held microscope. The soft, pliable lens sticks to a device's camera without any adhesive or glue and makes it possible to ... full story

Flaw in 'Secure' Cloud Storage Could Put Privacy at Risk

Apr. 15, 2014 — Computer scientists have found a flaw in the way that secure cloud storage companies protect their customers’ data. The scientists say this weakness jeopardizes the privacy protection these digital ... full story

Intelligent Prosthetic Liners Could Ease Pain for Lower Limb Amputees

Apr. 15, 2014 — A new device could help to relieve the pain and discomfort experienced by thousands of amputees as a result of poorly fitting replacement lower limbs. Researchers are developing a prototype of the ... full story

Futuristic Robots Allow Doctors to Examine Patients from Anywhere

Apr. 14, 2014 — A fleet of telemedicine robots to improve efficiency and patient care is being deployed to physicians, who will use them to examine patients remotely. Using a laptop, tablet or smartphone, doctors ... full story

New Fusion Technology Increases Prostate Cancer Detection Accuracy to 97 Percent

Apr. 14, 2014 — A powerful new tool for visualizing and monitoring the prostate in men who have high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and in detecting prostate cancer more accurately is now available in some ... full story

Cybersecurity Researchers Roll out a New Heartbleed Solution: Red Herring Creates Decoy Servers, Entraps, Monitors Hackers

Apr. 14, 2014 — As companies scrambled in recent days to address the latest cybersecurity bug known as Heartbleed, researchers demonstrate a solution that fixes the vulnerability, and also detects and entraps ... full story

Surgeons Develop Personalized 3-D Printed Kidney to Simulate Surgery Prior to Cancer Operation

Apr. 14, 2014 — For the first time, surgeons have used 3-D printing to produce exact models of tumor-containing kidneys, allowing them to simulate surgery prior to the real operation. These models can be ... full story

Look Who's Evolving Now: Using Robots to Study Evolution

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have demonstrated the usefulness of robots in studying evolution.  They successfully used a colony of rodent-like robots to watch different mating strategies evolve.  The work not only ... full story

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Declining Catch Rates in Caribbean Nicaragua Green Turtle Fishery May Be Result of Overfishing

Apr. 16, 2014 — A 20-year assessment of Nicaragua’s legal, artisanal green sea turtle fishery has uncovered a stark reality: greatly reduced overall catch rates of turtles in what may have become an unsustainable ... full story

Earliest Ancestor of Land Herbivores Discovered: 300-Million-Year-Old Predator Showed Way to Modern Terrestrial Ecosystem

Apr. 16, 2014 — New research demonstrates how carnivores transitioned into herbivores for the first time on land. Previously unknown, the 300-million-year old fossilized juvenile skeleton of Eocasea martini is less ... full story

Pressure Relief Valve in Cellular Membrane Identified

Apr. 16, 2014 — Regulation of cell volume is critical for the body’s cells, for example during cellular exposure to fluids of varying salt concentrations, in cell division and cell growth, but also in diseases ... full story

Progress in Understanding Immune Response in Severe Schistosomiasis

Apr. 16, 2014 — A mechanism that may help explain the severe forms of schistosomiasis, or snail fever, has been discovered by researchers. Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the ... full story

Diverse Gene Pool Critical for Tigers' Survival, Say Experts

Apr. 16, 2014 — Increasing tigers' genetic diversity -- via interbreeding and other methods -- and not just their population numbers may be the best solution to saving this endangered species, according to research. ... full story

Gate for Bacterial Toxins Found in Cells

Apr. 16, 2014 — A molecule that smuggles toxins from intestinal pathogens into human cells has been discovered by scientists. "In order to prevent the toxin from entering the cell, it is necessary to find the ... full story

EU Must Take Urgent Action on Invasive Species, Experts Urge

Apr. 16, 2014 — The EU must take urgent action to halt the spread of invasive species that are threatening native plants and animals across Europe, according to scientists. The threats posed by these species cost an ... full story

Lemurs Match Scent of a Friend to Sound of Her Voice

Apr. 15, 2014 — Scientists report that ring-tailed lemurs respond more strongly to the scents and sounds of female lemurs when the scent they smell and the voice they hear belong to the same female -- even when ... full story

Antibiotics Improve Growth in Children in Developing Countries

Apr. 15, 2014 — Antibiotics improve growth in children at risk of undernourishment in low and middle income countries, according to researchers who have just conducted a research literature review on the subject. ... full story

New Study Outlines 'Water World' Theory of Life's Origins

Apr. 15, 2014 — Life took root more than four billion years ago on our nascent Earth, a wetter and harsher place than now, bathed in sizzling ultraviolet rays. What started out as simple cells ultimately transformed ... full story

Warm U.S. West, Cold East: 4,000-Year Pattern; Global Warming May Bring More Curvy Jet Streams During Winter

Apr. 16, 2014 — Last winter’s curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A new study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, and ... full story

New Technique Will Accelerate Genetic Characterization of Photosynthesis

Apr. 15, 2014 — Photosynthesis provides fixed carbon and energy for nearly all life on Earth, yet many aspects of this fascinating process remain mysterious. We do not know the full list of the parts of the ... full story

Drought Hormones Measured in Plants to Prepare for Food Security

Apr. 15, 2014 — Floods and droughts are increasingly in the news, and climate experts say their frequency will only go up in the future. As such, it is crucial for scientists to learn more about how these extreme ... full story

Long-Term Predictions for Miami Sea Level Rise Could Be Available Relatively Soon

Apr. 15, 2014 — Miami could know as early as 2020 how high sea levels will rise into the next century, according to a team of researchers. Scientists conclude that sea level rise is one of the most certain ... full story

Biologists Develop Nanosensors to Visualize Movements and Distribution of Plant Stress Hormone

Apr. 15, 2014 — Biologists have succeeded in visualizing the movement within plants of a key hormone responsible for growth and resistance to drought. The achievement will allow researchers to conduct further ... full story

Tiger Beetle's Chase Highlights Mechanical Law

Apr. 15, 2014 — If an insect drew a line as it chased its next meal, the resulting pattern would be a tangled mess. But there’s method to that mess: It turns out the tiger beetle, known for its speed and agility, ... full story

Bioarchaeologists Link Climate Instability to Human Mobility in Ancient Sahara

Apr. 15, 2014 — Researchers have uncovered clues to how past peoples moved across their landscape as the once lush environment deteriorated. Scientists sampled bone and teeth enamel, and used their chemical ... full story

Sibling Cooperation in Earwig Families Provides Clues to the Early Evolution of Social Behavior

Apr. 15, 2014 — Looking at the question of how social behavior has developed over the course of evolution, scientists have gained new insights from the study of earwigs. "Young earwig offspring don't simply compete ... full story

Bizarre Parasite May Provide Cuttlefish Clues

Apr. 15, 2014 — New research into parasites of cuttlefish, squid and octopus has uncovered details of the parasites’ astonishing life cycles, and shown how they may help in investigating populations of their ... full story

European Climate at the 2 Degrees Celsius Global Warming Threshold

Apr. 15, 2014 — A global warming of 2 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of ... full story

Medieval Slave Trade Routes in Eastern Europe Extended from Finland and the Baltic Countries to Central Asia

Apr. 15, 2014 — The routes of slave trade in Eastern Europe in the medieval and pre-modern period extended all the way to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. A recent study suggests that persons captured during raids ... full story

Faithful Allies Since the Cretaceous: Symbiosis Between Beewolves and Protective Bacteria Originated Millions of Years Ago

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have discovered that certain wasps tightly control mother-to-offspring transmission of their bacterial symbionts. This stabilizes the symbiotic alliance and contributed to its persistence ... full story

Ferns Borrowed Genes to Flourish in Low Light

Apr. 14, 2014 — During the age of the dinosaurs, the arrival of flowering plants as competitors could have spelled doom for primitive ferns. Instead, ferns diversified and flourished under the new canopy -- using a ... full story

Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons Did Not Coexist on the Iberian Peninsula, Suggests Re-Analysis of Dating

Apr. 14, 2014 — The meeting between a Neanderthal and one of the first humans, which we used to picture in our minds, did not happen on the Iberian Peninsula. That is the conclusion reached by an scientists after ... full story

Does Germ Plasm Accelerate Evolution?

Apr. 14, 2014 — Scientists have challenged a long held belief about the way certain species of vertebrates evolved. They found that genes evolve more rapidly in species containing germ plasm. The results came about ... full story

Computer Rendering: Graduate Student Brings Extinct Plants 'Back to Life'

Apr. 11, 2014 — Most fossilized plants are fragments indistinguishable from a stick, but a graduate student hopes a new technique will allow paleontologists to more precisely identify these fossils. A graduate ... full story

Climate Paradox Deciphered from the Miocene Era

Apr. 11, 2014 — A supposed climate paradox from the Miocene era has been deciphered by means of complex model simulations. When the Antarctic ice sheet grew to its present-day size around 14 million years ago, it ... full story

Rare Fossilized Embryos More Than 500 Million Years Old Found

Apr. 10, 2014 — The Cambrian Period is a time when most phyla of marine invertebrates first appeared. Also dubbed the 'Cambrian explosion,' fossilized records from this time provide glimpses into evolutionary ... full story

Ancient 'Spider' Images Reveal Eye-Opening Secrets

Apr. 10, 2014 — Stunning images of a 305-million-year-old harvestman fossil reveal ancestors of the modern-day arachnids had two sets of eyes rather than one. The researchers say their findings add significant ... full story

Reef Fish Arrived in Two Waves, Before and After Mass Extinction 66 Million Years Ago

Apr. 10, 2014 — The world's reefs are hotbeds of biological diversity, including over 4,500 species of fish. A new study shows that the ancestors of these fish colonized reefs in two distinct waves, before and after ... full story

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Using Video Surveillance to Measure Peoples' Hand Washing Habits

Apr. 16, 2014 — Use of video surveillance to better understand essential hygiene behavior has been pioneered by researchers. Still, despite years of global public awareness campaigns, hand washing rates remain low. ... full story

Mouse Model Would Have Predicted Toxicity of Drug That Killed 5 in 1993 Clinical Trial

Apr. 15, 2014 — Over 20 years after the fatal fialuridine trial, a new study demonstrates that mice with humanized livers recapitulate the drug's toxicity. The work suggests that this mouse model should be added to ... full story

Thyroid Disease Risk Varies Among Blacks, Asians, Whites

Apr. 15, 2014 — An analysis that included active military personnel finds that the rate of the thyroid disorder Graves disease is more common among blacks and Asian/Pacific Islanders compared with whites. The ... full story

Pre-Diabetes, Diabetes Nearly Double Over the Past Two Decades

Apr. 15, 2014 — Cases of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States have nearly doubled since 1988, suggests new research, with obesity apparently to blame for the surge. The researchers also found that the ... full story

Sensitive Detection Method May Help Impede Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

Apr. 15, 2014 — According to a new study, coupling commercially available spectral X-ray detectors with a specialized algorithm can improve the detection of uranium and plutonium in small, layered objects such as ... full story

Moth Study Suggests Hidden Climate Change Impacts

Apr. 15, 2014 — A 32-year study of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland suggests that scientists may be underestimating the impacts of climate change on animals and plants because much of the harm is hidden ... full story

Brand/type of Helmet, Mouthguard May Not Significantly Reduce Risk of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

Apr. 14, 2014 — A sports medicine physician has concluded the the brand or type of helmet or mouthguard does not significantly reduce concussion risk among high school football players. While helmet brand or age did ... full story

Plugging an Ozone Hole: Extreme Antarctic Ozone Holes Have Not Been Replicated in Arctic

Apr. 14, 2014 — Since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, scientists, policymakers, and the public have wondered whether we might someday see a similarly extreme depletion of ozone over the Arctic. But a new ... full story

Making Dams Safer for Fish Around the World

Apr. 14, 2014 — The pressure changes that many fish experience when they travel through the turbulent waters near a dam can seriously injure or kill the fish. Scientists from around the world, including areas like ... full story

Let the Sun Shine In: Redirecting Sunlight to Dark Urban Alleyways

Apr. 14, 2014 — In response to ever-crowded urban conditions in developing countries, researchers in Egypt have developed an inexpensive way of re-directing natural sunlight into dimly lit streets and alleys, where ... full story

Tiny Particles Could Help Verify Goods

Apr. 13, 2014 — Chemical engineers hope smartphone-readable microparticles could crack down on counterfeiting. Some 2 to 5 percent of all international trade involves counterfeit goods, according to a 2013 United ... full story

Should You Trust Your Financial Advisor? Pseudo-Mathematics and Financial Charlatanism

Apr. 10, 2014 — Your financial advisor calls you up to suggest a new investment scheme. Drawing on 20 years of data, he has set his computer to work on this question: If you had invested according to this scheme in ... full story

UN Climate Report: Pricing of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Critical

Apr. 4, 2014 — Despite climate change, most polluters still pay little or nothing when they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A cost $0.15 US per kilo of carbon dioxide would be enough to solve the whole ... full story

Americans Using More Energy, According to New Analysis

Apr. 2, 2014 — Americans used more renewable, fossil and even nuclear energy in 2013, according to the most recent energy flow charts. Wind energy continued to grow strongly, increasing 18 percent from 1.36 ... full story

Agroforestry Systems Can Repair Degraded Watersheds

Mar. 27, 2014 — Agroforestry, combined with land and water management practices that increase agricultural productivity, can save watersheds from degradation. A study in the Gabayan watershed in eastern Bohol, ... full story

Smoke-Free Air Policies Seem to Protect the Heart

Mar. 27, 2014 — Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces may substantially improve public health by reducing heart disease and death, according to a new study on the impact of ... full story

Keeping Secrets in a World of Spies and Mistrust

Mar. 26, 2014 — A new article reviews developments in quantum cryptography and describes how we can keep our secrets secret even when faced with the double challenge of mistrust and ... full story

Important and Complex Systems, from the Global Financial Market to Groups of Friends, May Be Highly Controllable

Mar. 20, 2014 — Scientists have discovered that all complex systems, whether they are found in the body, in international finance, or in social situations, actually fall into just three basic categories, in terms of ... full story

A Majority Prefers Letting Computers Decide

Mar. 19, 2014 — When individuals engage in risky business transactions with each other, they may end up being disappointed. This is why they'd rather leave the decision on how to divvy up jointly-owned monies to a ... full story

Quantum Physics Secures New Cryptography Scheme

Mar. 12, 2014 — The way we secure digital transactions could soon change. An international team has demonstrated a form of quantum cryptography that can protect people doing business with others they may not know or ... full story

Teaching to Optimize Learning or Control Misbehavior? Scale of Disruptive Behavior in Schools Seriously Underestimated

Apr. 14, 2014 — The true extent of poor pupil behavior in schools is seriously underestimated, according to an academic. The research raises the question of the extent to which there is a right to learn in ... full story

Procrastination and Impulsivity Genetically Linked: Exploring the Genetics of 'I'll Do It Tomorrow'

Apr. 7, 2014 — Procrastination and impulsivity are genetically linked, suggesting that the two traits stem from similar evolutionary origins, according to new research. The research indicates that the traits are ... full story

U.S. School Children Exposed to Arsenic in Well Water Have Lower IQ Scores

Apr. 7, 2014 — A study from three school districts in Maine exposed to arsenic in drinking water experienced declines in child intelligence. While earlier studies conducted by the researchers in South Asia, and ... full story

Limiting Screen Time Improves Sleep, Academics, Behavior, Study Finds

Mar. 31, 2014 — Parents may not always see it, but efforts to limit their children’s screen time can make a difference. A new study found children get more sleep, do better in school and see other health benefits ... full story

Four in 10 Infants Lack Strong Parental Attachments

Mar. 27, 2014 — In a study of 14,000 US children, 40 percent lack strong emotional bonds -- what psychologists call 'secure attachment' -- with their parents that are crucial to success later in life, according to a ... full story

Natural History Must Reclaim Its Place, Experts Say

Mar. 26, 2014 — Scientists argue that the study of natural history has waned in recent decades in developed countries. Declining course requirements and support for herbaria are among the documented evidence. Yet ... full story

Secret to Cutting Sugary Drink Use by Teens Found by New Study

Mar. 26, 2014 — A new study shows that teenagers can be persuaded to cut back on sugary soft drinks -- especially with a little help from their friends. A 30-day challenge encouraging teens to reduce sugar-sweetened ... full story

Life Lessons: Children Learn Aggressive Ways of Thinking and Behaving from Violent Video Games, Study Finds

Mar. 24, 2014 — Children who repeatedly play violent video games are learning thought patterns that will stick with them and influence behaviors as they grow older, according to a new study. The effect is the same ... full story

Preterm Children at Increased Risk of Having Math Problems

Mar. 21, 2014 — Preterm children are at an increased risk of having general cognitive and mathematic problems, research has concluded. "Teachers should be aware of these children's problems and need to work on ways ... full story

Genes Play Key Role in Parenting: Children Also Shape Parents' Behavior

Mar. 20, 2014 — Scientists have presented the most conclusive evidence yet that genes play a significant role in parenting. The study sheds light on another misconception: that parenting is solely a top-down process ... full story

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