Today's Science News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

NASA's Fermi Finds a 'Transformer' Pulsar

July 22, 2014 — In late June 2013, an exceptional binary containing a rapidly spinning neutron star underwent a dramatic change in behavior never before observed. The pulsar's radio beacon vanished, while at ... full story

Bats Use Polarized Light to Navigate: First Mammal Known to Use Polarization Patterns in the Sky to Navigate

July 22, 2014 — The bats use the way the sun's light is scattered in the atmosphere at sunset to calibrate their internal magnetic compass, which helps them to fly in the right direction, a new study has ... full story

Study Reveals 'Unhappiest' Cities in the U.S.

July 22, 2014 — New research identifies the unhappiest cities in the U.S., but finds that some young people are still willing to relocate to them for a good job opportunity or lower housing prices. The analysis ... full story

Global Temperature Reaches Record High in June Following Record Warmth in May

July 22, 2014 — According to NOAA scientists, the globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest for June since record keeping began in 1880. It also marked the 38th ... full story

Science and Art Bring Back to Life 300-Million-Year-Old Specimens of a Primitive Reptile-Like Vertebrate

July 21, 2014 — Paleontologists have recreated the cranial structure of a 308-million-year-old lizard-like vertebrate that could be the earliest example of a reptile and explain the origin of all vertebrates that ... full story

Therapeutic Bacteria Prevent Obesity in Mice, Study Finds

July 22, 2014 — A probiotic that prevents obesity could be on the horizon. Bacteria that produce a therapeutic compound in the gut inhibit weight gain, insulin resistance and other adverse effects of a high-fat diet ... full story

Viral Relics Show Cancer's 'Footprint' on Our Evolution

July 17, 2014 — Cancer has left its 'footprint' on our evolution, according to a study which examined how the relics of ancient viruses are preserved in the genomes of 38 mammal species. The team found ... full story

Region, Pathway Found Crucial for Facial Development in Vertebrate Embryos

July 17, 2014 — A signaling pathway once thought to have little if any role during embryogenesis is a key player in the formation of the front-most portion of developing vertebrate embryos. Moreover, signals ... full story

Hubble Traces Halo of a Galaxy More Accurately Than Ever Before: An in-Depth Look at Giant Elliptical Galaxy Centaurus A

July 22, 2014 — Astronomers have probed the extreme outskirts of the stunning elliptical galaxy Centaurus A. The galaxy's halo of stars has been found to extend much further from the galaxy's center than ... full story

Schizophrenia's Genetic 'Skyline' Rising as Genetic Code Linked to Illness Grows

July 22, 2014 — The largest genomic dragnet of any psychiatric disorder to date has unmasked 108 chromosomal sites harboring inherited variations in the genetic code linked to schizophrenia, 83 of which had not been ... full story

HIV, Malaria, and Tuberculosis: Success of the Millennium Shown in Most Comprehensive Study to Date

July 22, 2014 — Accelerated progress against the global burden of HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB) has been made since 2000 when governments worldwide adopted Millennium Development Goal 6 to combat HIV/AIDS, ... full story

Massive Neutrinos and New Standard Cosmological Model: No Concordance Yet

July 22, 2014 — Neutrinos, also known as ‘ghost particles’ because they barely interact with other particles or their surroundings, are massless particles according to the standard model of particle physics. ... full story

Mammoth and Mastodon Behavior Was Less Roam, More Stay at Home

July 21, 2014 — Their scruffy beards weren't ironic, but there are reasons mammoths and mastodons could have been the hipsters of the Ice Age. According to new research, the famously fuzzy relatives of ... full story

Human Platelets Successfully Generated Using Next-Generation Bioreactor

July 21, 2014 — A scalable, next-generation platelet bioreactor has been created to generate fully functional human platelets in vitro. The work is a major biomedical advancement that will help address blood ... full story

Transiting Exoplanet With Longest Known Year: 704 Earth Days

July 21, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered a transiting exoplanet with the longest known year. Kepler-421b circles its star once every 704 days. In comparison, Mars orbits our Sun once every 780 days. Most of the ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Scientists Find New Way To Make Human Platelets

Scientists Find New Way To Make Human Platelets

Newsy (July 22, 2014) — Boston scientists have discovered a new way to create fully functioning human platelets using a bioreactor and human stem cells. Video provided by Newsy
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Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Newsy (July 19, 2014) — Research on plaque from ancient teeth shows that our prehistoric ancestor's had a detailed understanding of plants long before developing agriculture. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Investigating Mysterious Giant Hole In Siberia

Scientists Investigating Mysterious Giant Hole In Siberia

Newsy (July 17, 2014) — Scientists have launched an investigation into a giant crater that suddenly appeared in Siberia. Internet speculation on the hole's origins abounds. Video provided by Newsy
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Japanese Androids Take Us Closer to 'Blade Runner' Future

Japanese Androids Take Us Closer to 'Blade Runner' Future

AFP (July 16, 2014) — A future in which it is difficult to tell man and machine apart is moving closer to reality after recent robotic breakthroughs in Japan. Duration 02:08 Video provided by AFP
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last updated on 2014-07-22 at 9:28 pm EDT

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Dopamine Transporter: Stampede Supercomputer Used to Study Common Link Between Addiction, Neurological Disease

July 22, 2014 — The XSEDE-allocated Stampede supercomputer has been used to study the dopamine transporter. Stampede is ranked seventh on the Top 500 list of supercomputers. Its research links altered dopamine ... full story

Vaccine for Dust-Mite Allergies Created

July 22, 2014 — A vaccine for dust-mite allergies has been created, researchers report. In lab tests and animal trials, the nano-sized vaccine package was readily absorbed by immune cells and dramatically lowered ... full story

Potential Genetic Link Between Epilepsy, Neurodegenerative Disorders

July 22, 2014 — A potential link between epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders has been uncovered by new research. "This is, to our knowledge, the first direct genetic evidence demonstrating that mutations in the ... full story

Extra Exercise Helps Depressed Smokers Kick the Habit Faster

July 22, 2014 — People diagnosed with depression need to step out for a cigarette twice as often as smokers who are not dealing with a mood disorder. And those who have the hardest time shaking off the habit may ... full story

Enhanced Instrument Enables High-Speed Chemical Imaging of Tissues

July 22, 2014 — A research team has demonstrated a dramatically improved technique for analyzing biological cells and tissues based on characteristic molecular vibrations. The new technique is an advanced form of ... full story

Vitamin D Deficiency Raises Risk of Schizophrenia Diagnosis

July 22, 2014 — Vitamin D-deficient individuals are twice as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as people who have sufficient levels of the vitamin, according to a new study. Vitamin D helps the body absorb ... full story

High-Salt Diet Doubles Threat of Cardiovascular Disease in People With Diabetes

July 22, 2014 — People with Type 2 diabetes who eat a diet high in salt face twice the risk of developing cardiovascular disease as those who consume less sodium, according to a new study. Diabetes occurs when there ... full story

Understanding How Neuro Cells Turn Cancerous

July 22, 2014 — New research, for the first time, brings scientists nearer to understanding how some cells in the brain and nervous system become cancerous. The team studied a tumor suppressor called Merlin. Their ... full story

Communication Between Nostril/skin Microbiome Bacteria Can Influence Pathogen Behavior

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have made an important discovery about the molecular interactions that occur between generally benign species of Propionibacterium bacteria and the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus ... full story

Report on Viruses Looks Beyond Disease

July 22, 2014 — In contrast to their negative reputation as disease causing agents, some viruses can perform crucial biological and evolutionary functions that help to shape the world we live in today, according to ... full story

How Children Categorize Living Things

July 22, 2014 — "Name everything you can think of that is alive." How would a child respond to this question? Would his or her list be full of relatives, animals from movies and books, or perhaps neighborhood pets? ... full story

Neuroprotective Role of Immune Cell Discovered

July 22, 2014 — A type of immune cell widely believed to exacerbate chronic adult brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, can actually protect the brain from traumatic brain injury and ... full story

High School Lacrosse Players at Risk for Concussions, Other Injuries, Study Finds

July 22, 2014 — High school players experienced 1,406 injuries over the four academic years from 2008 through 2012, a new study reports. The overall injury rate was 20 per 10,000 lacrosse competitions and practices. ... full story

Low Strength Brain Stimulation May Be Effective for Depression

July 22, 2014 — Brain stimulation treatments, like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are often effective for the treatment of depression. Like antidepressant medications, ... full story

Rigid Connections: Molecular Basis of Age-Related Memory Loss Explained

July 22, 2014 — From telephone numbers to foreign vocabulary, our brains hold a seemingly endless supply of information. However, as we get older, our ability to learn and remember new things declines. A team of ... full story

Innovative System Anticipates Driver Fatigue in the Vehicle to Prevent Accidents

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have created a devise integrated in smart materials capable of monitoring cardiac and respiratory rhythms in order to prevent drivers from falling ... full story

Children's Impulsive Behaviour Is Related to Brain Connectivity

July 22, 2014 — The changes in the brain that are associated with impulsiveness -- a personality trait that causes difficulties in inhibiting a response in the face of a stimulus and leads to unplanned actions ... full story

Epigenetic Tie to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Found

July 21, 2014 — Dysfunction in dopamine signaling profoundly changes the activity level of about 2,000 genes in the brain's prefrontal cortex and may be an underlying cause of certain complex neuropsychiatric ... full story

Try, Try Again? Study Says No: Trying Harder Makes It More Difficult to Learn Some Aspects of Language, Neuroscientists Find

July 21, 2014 — Neuroscientists find that trying harder makes it more difficult to learn some aspects of language. When it comes to learning languages, adults and children have different strengths. Adults excel at ... full story

New Research Links Bad Diet to Loss of Smell

July 21, 2014 — Could stuffing yourself full of high-fat foods cause you to lose your sense of smell? A new study by neuroscientists says so, and it has researchers taking a closer look at how our diets could impact ... full story

Computer Privacy: Share Button May Share Your Browsing History, Too

July 22, 2014 — One in 18 of the world’s top 100,000 websites track users without their consent using a previously undetected cookie-like tracking mechanism embedded in ‘share’ buttons. The researchers traced ... full story

Eating Probiotics Regularly May Improve Your Blood Pressure

July 21, 2014 — Probiotics -- a bacteria in yogurt and supplements -- appear to modestly lower blood pressure, according to a review of nine studies. The blood pressure-lowering effect from probiotics was greatest ... full story

Parents Rank Their Obese Children as 'Very Healthy'

July 21, 2014 — Parents of obese children often do not recognize the potentially serious health consequences of childhood weight gain or the importance of daily physical activity in helping their child reach a ... full story

Missing Sleep May Hurt Your Memory

July 21, 2014 — Lack of sleep, already considered a public health epidemic, can also lead to errors in memory, finds a new study that found participants deprived of a night’s sleep were more likely to flub the ... full story

Brain Waves Show Learning to Read Does Not End in 4th Grade, Contrary to Popular Theory

July 21, 2014 — Teachers-in-training have long been taught that fourth grade is when students stop learning to read and start reading to learn. But a new study tested the theory by analyzing brain waves and found ... full story

Children as Young as Three Recognize 'Cuteness' in Faces of People, Animals

July 21, 2014 — Children as young as three are able to recognize the same ‘cute’ infantile facial features in humans and animals which encourage caregiving behavior in adults, new research has shown. A study ... full story

Large Twin Study Suggests That Language Delay Due More to Nature Than Nurture

July 21, 2014 — A study of 473 sets of twins followed since birth found twins have twice the rate of language delay as do single-born children. Moreover, identical twins have greater rates of language delay than do ... full story

New Trigger for Ovulation Could Make IVF Safer

July 18, 2014 — A new and potentially safer method to stimulate ovulation in women undergoing IVF treatment has been developed by researchers. Twelve babies have been born after their mothers were given an injection ... full story

Negative HPV Test May Predict Lower Cervical Cancer Risk Than a Negative Pap

July 18, 2014 — In the US, cotesting for human papilloma virus and Pap testing for cervical cancer every 5 years for women aged 30-65 years is now recommended. However, human papilloma virus testing alone may ... full story

Choosing Cheese: Research Identifies Microbial Communities in Cheese

July 17, 2014 — After studying 137 varieties of cheese collected in 10 different countries, researchers have been able to identify three general types of microbial communities that live on cheese, opening the door ... full story

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Safeguarding Belize's Barrier Reef With Conservation Drones

July 22, 2014 — Seeking to gain a high-tech edge over illegal fishers, the Government of Belize will use “eyes in the sky” to enforce fishing regulations in the biodiverse Glover’s Reef Marine Reserve and ... full story

Ultrasonically Propelled Nanorods Spin Dizzyingly Fast

July 22, 2014 — Vibrate a solution of rod-shaped metal nanoparticles in water with ultrasound and they'll spin around their long axes like tiny drill bits. Why? No one yet knows exactly. But researchers have clocked ... full story

Technique Simplifies Creation of High-Tech Crystals

July 22, 2014 — Highly purified crystals that split light with uncanny precision are key parts of high-powered lenses, specialized optics and, potentially, computers that manipulate light instead of electricity. But ... full story

Quantum Leap in Lasers Brightens Future for Quantum Computing

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have devised a breakthrough laser that uses a single artificial atom to generate and emit particles of light. The laser may play a crucial role in the development of quantum computers, ... full story

'Comb on a Chip' Powers New Atomic Clock Design

July 22, 2014 — Researchers have demonstrated a novel design for a small atomic clock that is based on a chip-scale frequency comb, or a ... full story

Law of Physics Governs Airplane 'Evolution': Constructal Law Explains Progression of Passenger Jets, Sets Guidelines for Future Aircraft

July 22, 2014 — Scientists have found that a law of physics predicts the evolution of commercial airliners and also provides guidelines for future ... full story

Fly-Inspired Sound Detector: New Device Based on a Fly's Freakishly Acute Hearing for Futuristic Hearing Aids

July 22, 2014 — The fly can pinpoint the location of a chirping cricket with remarkable accuracy because of its freakishly acute hearing, which relies upon a sophisticated sound processing mechanism that really sets ... full story

A New Multi-Bit 'Spin' for Magnetic Random Access Memory Storage

July 22, 2014 — Interest in magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is escalating, thanks to demand for fast, low-cost, nonvolatile, low-consumption, secure memory devices. MRAM boasts all of these advantages as an ... full story

Creating Optical Cables out of Thin Air

July 22, 2014 — Imagine being able to instantaneously run an optical cable or fiber to any point on Earth, or even into space. Researchers now report using an 'air waveguide' to enhance light signals collected from ... full story

Self-Cooling Solar Cells Boost Power, Last Longer

July 22, 2014 — Scientists may have overcome one of the major hurdles in developing high-efficiency, long-lasting solar cells -- keeping them cool, even in the blistering heat of the noonday sun. By adding a ... full story

Boosting the Force of Empty Space: Theorists Propose Way to Amplify Force of Vacuum Fluctuations

July 22, 2014 — Vacuum fluctuations may be among the most counter-intuitive phenomena of quantum physics. Theorists have now proposed a way to amplify their force. The researchers believe that their proposed ... full story

Mysterious Dance of Dwarf Galaxies May Force a Cosmic Rethink

July 21, 2014 — The discovery that many small galaxies throughout the universe do not 'swarm' around larger ones like bees do but 'dance' in orderly disc-shaped orbits is a challenge to our understanding of how the ... full story

Oceans Vital for Possibility for Alien Life

July 20, 2014 — Researchers have made an important step in the race to discover whether other planets could develop and sustain life. New research shows the vital role of oceans in moderating climate on Earth-like ... full story

Astronauts to Test Free-Flying 'Housekeeper' Robots

July 20, 2014 — Inspired by science fiction, three bowling ball-size free-flying Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) have been flying inside the International Space ... full story

Rosetta Spacecraft Approaching Twofold Comet

July 18, 2014 — As the European Space Agency's spacecraft Rosetta is slowly approaching its destination, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the comet is again proving to be full of surprises. New images obtained by ... full story

Lunar Pits Could Shelter Astronauts, Reveal Details of How 'Man in the Moon' Formed

July 17, 2014 — While the moon's surface is battered by millions of craters, it also has over 200 holes -- steep-walled pits that in some cases might lead to caves that future astronauts could explore and use for ... full story

Scientists Experimentally Re-Create Conditions Deep Inside Giant Planets, Such as Jupiter and Many Exo-Planets

July 17, 2014 — Using the largest laser in the world, scientists for the first time have experimentally re-created the conditions that exist deep inside giant planets, such as Jupiter, Uranus and many of the planets ... full story

Earth-Like Soils on Mars? Ancient Fossilized Soils Potentially Found Deep Inside Impact Crater Suggest Microbial Life

July 17, 2014 — Soil deep in a crater dating to some 3.7 billion years ago contains evidence that Mars was once much warmer and wetter, says a geologist based on images and data captured by the rover ... full story

Is the Universe a Bubble? Let's Check: Making the Multiverse Hypothesis Testable

July 17, 2014 — Scientists are working to bring the multiverse hypothesis, which to some sounds like a fanciful tale, firmly into the realm of testable science. Never mind the Big Bang; in the beginning was the ... full story

Sharpest Map of Mars Surface Properties

July 16, 2014 — A heat-sensing camera has provided data to create the most detailed global map yet made of Martian surface properties. Surface properties tell geologists about the physical nature of a planet or ... full story

High-Precision Software Developed for Diagnosing Eye Sensitivity

July 22, 2014 — High-precision software for diagnosing eye sensitivity has been developed by researchers. This is a new technology that allows to quantify the degree of opacity in the posterior capsule of the eye ... full story

Chemists Eye Improved Thin Films With Metal Substitution

July 21, 2014 — The yield so far is small, but chemists have developed a low-energy, solution-based mineral substitution process to make a precursor to transparent thin films that could find use in electronics and ... full story

Philosopher Uses Game Theory to Understand How Words, Actions Acquire Meaning

July 21, 2014 — Why does the word "dog" have meaning? If you say "dog" to a friend, why does your friend understand you? A philosopher aims to address these types of questions in his latest research, which focuses ... full story

Size and Age of Plants Impact Their Productivity More Than Climate

July 20, 2014 — The size and age of plants has more of an impact on their productivity than temperature and precipitation, according to a landmark study. They show that variation in terrestrial ecosystems is ... full story

Mixing It Up: Study Provides New Insight Into Southern Ocean Behavior

July 20, 2014 — Turbulent mixing in the deep waters of the Southern Ocean, which has a profound effect on global ocean circulation and climate, varies with the strength of surface eddies -- the ocean equivalent of ... full story

Speedy Computation Enables Scientists to Reconstruct an Animal's Development Cell by Cell

July 20, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new computational method that can rapidly track the three-dimensional movements of cells in such data-rich images. Using the method, scientists can essentially automate ... full story

Researchers Identify Brain Network With Mapping Technique

July 18, 2014 — A new image-based strategy has been used to identify and measure placebo effects in randomized clinical trials for brain disorders. The researchers used a network mapping technique to identify ... full story

Universal Three-Body Relation: Physicists Succeed in Revealing the Scaling Behavior of Exotic Giant Molecules

July 18, 2014 — When a two-body relation becomes a three-body relation, the behavior of the system changes and typically becomes more complex. While the basic physics of two interacting particles is well understood, ... full story

New Material Puts a Twist in Light

July 18, 2014 — Scientists have uncovered the secret to twisting light at will. It is the latest step in the development of photonics, the faster, more compact and less carbon-hungry successor to electronics. A ... full story

Getting a Grip on Robotic Grasp: New Wrist-Mounted Device Augments the Human Hand With Two Robotic Fingers

July 18, 2014 — Twisting a screwdriver, removing a bottle cap, and peeling a banana are just a few simple tasks that are tricky to pull off single-handedly. Now a new wrist-mounted robot can provide a helping hand ... full story

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Alaska Frogs Reach Record Lows in Extreme Temperature Survival

July 22, 2014 — "Alaska wood frogs spend more time freezing and thawing outside than a steak does in your freezer, and the frog comes back to life in the spring in better shape than the steak," said the lead author ... full story

Vulnerability of Sharks as Collateral Damage in Commercial Fishing Shown by Study

July 22, 2014 — A new study that examined the survival rates of 12 different shark species when captured as unintentional bycatch in commercial longline fishing operations found large differences in survival rates ... full story

African Elephant Genome Suggests They Are Superior Smellers

July 22, 2014 — Sense of smell is critical for survival in many mammals. In a new study, researchers examined the olfactory receptor repertoire encoded in 13 mammalian species and found that African elephants have ... full story

Radio Frequency ID Tags on Honey Bees Reveal Hive Dynamics

July 22, 2014 — Scientists attached radio-frequency identification tags to hundreds of individual honey bees and tracked them for several weeks. The effort yielded two discoveries: Some foraging bees are much busier ... full story

Dangers of Desert Dust: New Diagnostic Tool for Valley Fever

July 22, 2014 — Valley fever has been the focus of new research that describes a promising strategy known as immunosignaturing, which can provide clinicians with an accurate identification of valley fever, a ... full story

Asian Genes in European Pigs Result in More Piglets

July 22, 2014 — Pigs that are bred commercially in Europe are found to have a highly varied mosaic of different European and Asian gene variants. The Asian genes in particular result in a large number of piglets in ... full story

Meerkats' Sinister Side Is Secret to Their Success, Study Shows

July 22, 2014 — The darker side of meerkats -- which sees them prevent their daughters from breeding, and kill their grandchildren -- is explained in a new study. Research into the desert creatures -- which live in ... full story

Mixed Genes Mix Up the Migrations of Hybrid Birds

July 22, 2014 — Mixed genes appear to drive hybrid birds to select more difficult routes than their parent species, according to new research. "Instead of taking well-trodden paths through fertile areas, these birds ... full story

Viral Therapy Could Boost Limb-Saving Cancer Treatment

July 22, 2014 — Viruses designed to target and kill cancer cells could boost the effectiveness of chemotherapy to the arms and legs and help avoid amputation, a new study reports. Researchers tested the ... full story

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus Detected in Air of Saudi Arabian Camel Barn

July 22, 2014 — Saudi Arabian researchers have detected genetic fragments of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in the air of a barn holding a camel infected with the virus. The work indicates that further ... full story

New Water Balance Calculation for Dead Sea

July 22, 2014 — The drinking water resources on the eastern, Jordanian side of the Dead Sea could decline more severely as a result of climate change than those on the western, Israeli and Palestinian side. This is ... full story

Jeju Island, Korea Is a Live Volcano

July 22, 2014 — In Jeju, Korea, a place emerging as a world-famous vacation spot with natural tourism resources, a recent study revealed a volcanic eruption occurred on the island as recently as 5,000 years ago. ... full story

Is Antarctic Sea Ice Cover Really Setting Record Highs? Processing Errors May Be Confusing the Matter

July 22, 2014 — Antarctic sea ice may not be expanding as fast as previously thought, new research suggests. A team of scientists say much of the increase measured for Southern Hemisphere sea ice could be due to a ... full story

Global Warming 'Pause' Since 1998 Reflects Natural Fluctuation

July 21, 2014 — Statistical analysis of average global temperatures between 1998 and 2013 shows that the slowdown in global warming during this period is consistent with natural variations in temperature, according ... full story

Real Price of Steak: Comparing Environmental Costs of Livestock-Based Foods

July 21, 2014 — New research reveals the comparative environmental costs of livestock-based foods. While we are told that eating beef is bad for the environment, do we know its real cost? Are the other animal or ... full story

Climate: Meat Turns Up the Heat as Livestock Emit Greenhouse Gases

July 21, 2014 — Eating meat contributes to climate change, due to greenhouse gasses emitted by livestock. New research finds that livestock emissions are on the rise and that beef cattle are responsible for far more ... full story

Mammals Metabolize Some Pesticides to Limit Their Biomagnification

July 21, 2014 — The concentrations of many historically used, and now widely banned, pesticides and other toxic chemicals -- called legacy contaminants -- can become magnified in an animal that eats contaminated ... full story

Replacing Coal, Oil With Natural Gas Will Not Help Fight Global Warming, Expert Argues

July 21, 2014 — Both shale gas and conventional natural gas have a larger greenhouse gas footprint than do coal or oil, especially for the primary uses of residential and commercial heating. "While emissions of ... full story

Process to Purify Water Using Seed Extracts Now Simplified

July 21, 2014 — Researchers have streamlined and simplified a process that uses extracts from seeds of Moringa oleifa trees to purify water, reducing levels of harmful bacteria by 90 percent to 99 percent. The hardy ... full story

New Meteorological Insight Into Mid-Level Clouds

July 21, 2014 — At medium altitudes ranging from 6,000 feet to 20,000 feet above mean sea level, water droplets in altocumulus clouds can remain in a supercooled liquid phase that cannot be reasonably resolved in ... full story

Tooth Plaque Provides Unique Insights Into Our Prehistoric Ancestors' Diet

July 16, 2014 — An international team of researchers has found new evidence that our prehistoric ancestors had a detailed understanding of plants long before the development of agriculture. By extracting chemical ... full story

Brain of World's First Known Predators Discovered

July 16, 2014 — Scientists have found the fossilized remains of the brain of the world's earliest known predators, from a time when life teemed in the oceans but had not yet colonized the land. The discovery reveals ... full story

Animal Foraging Tactics Unchanged for 50 Million Years

July 15, 2014 — Animals have used the same technique to search for food that's in short supply for at least 50 million years, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed fossilized sea urchin trails from northern ... full story

Dodos and Spotted Green Pigeons Are Descendants of an Island Hopping Bird

July 15, 2014 — The mysterious spotted green pigeon was a relative of the dodo, according to scientists who have examined its genetic make-up. The authors say their results support a theory that both birds are ... full story

New Feathered Predatory Fossil Sheds Light on Dinosaur Flight

July 15, 2014 — A new raptorial dinosaur fossil with exceptionally long feathers has provided exciting insights into dinosaur flight. A new article asserts that the fossil has a long feathered tail that scientists ... full story

Little Too Late: Pathogenic Bacterium in 700-Year-Old Skeleton Identified

July 15, 2014 — Researchers have recovered a genome of the bacterium Brucella melitensis from a 700-year-old skeleton found in the ruins of a Medieval Italian village. Researchers used a technique called shotgun ... full story

Ötzi's Non-Human DNA: Opportunistic Pathogen Discovered in Iceman Tissue Biopsy

July 15, 2014 — Ötzi’s human genome was decoded from a hip bone sample taken from the 5,300 year old mummy. However the tiny sample weighing no more than 0.1 g provides so much more information. A team of ... full story

Bones of Elephant Ancestor Unearthed: Meet the Gomphothere

July 14, 2014 — An ancient ancestor of the elephant, once believed to have disappeared from North America before humans ever arrived there, might actually have roamed the continent longer than previously thought. ... full story

Running for Life: How Speed Restricts Evolutionary Change of the Vertebral Column

July 14, 2014 — One of the riddles of mammal evolution is explained: the conservation of the number of trunk vertebrae. Dutch and American researchers have shown that this conservation is due to the role of speed in ... full story

Serendipity at the Smithsonian: The 107-Year 'Journey' of the Beetle Rhipidocyrtus Muiri

July 14, 2014 — Serendipity leads scientists to the discovery and description of Rhipidocyrtus muiri -- a 107 year old, lost in collections specimen, which turned out to represent a new genus and species. The long ... full story

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Seals Forage at Offshore Wind Farms

July 21, 2014 — By using sophisticated GPS tracking to monitor seals' every movement, researchers have shown for the first time that some individual seals are repeatedly drawn to offshore wind farms and pipelines. ... full story

Sea Level Rising in Western Tropical Pacific Anthropogenic as Result of Human Activity, Study Concludes

July 20, 2014 — Sea levels likely will continue to rise in the tropical Pacific Ocean off the coasts of the Philippines and northeastern Australia as humans continue to alter the climate, a study concludes. The ... full story

Rate of HIV Diagnosis in U.S. Examined in Study

July 19, 2014 — The annual HIV diagnosis rate in the U.S. decreased more than 30 percent from 2002-2011, with declines observed in several key populations, although increases were found among certain age groups of ... full story

No Evidence That California Cellphone Ban Decreased Accidents, Says Researcher

July 17, 2014 — No evidence has been found that a California ban on using hand-held cellphones while driving decreased the number of traffic accidents in the state in the first six months following the ban. The ... full story

How Existing Cropland Could Feed Billions More

July 17, 2014 — Feeding a growing human population without increasing stresses on Earth's strained land and water resources may seem like an impossible challenge. But according to a new report focusing efforts to ... full story

Should You Should Talk to Strangers? Doing So Increases Positive Experience, Study Shows

July 17, 2014 — An interesting social paradox plays out every morning around the world as millions of people board commuter trains and buses: Human beings are one of the most social species on the planet, yet when ... full story

Forty Percent of Ontario Female Prisoners Enter Correctional System With a Traumatic Brain Injury

July 17, 2014 — Almost 40 per cent of Ontario female prisoners have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a study has shown. Unlike the men participating in the study, half of these women sustained a TBI before ... full story

Anti-Tank Missile Detector Joins Fight Against Malaria

July 17, 2014 — State-of-the-art military hardware could soon fight malaria, one of the most deadly diseases on the planet. Researchers have used an anti-tank Javelin missile detector, more commonly used in warfare ... full story

Cooperation: Preteens, Teens Most Fickle, Older People Most Cooperative

July 15, 2014 — A new experimental study analyzed how cooperative attitudes evolve in different age ranges. Researchers found that young people between the ages of ten and sixteen demonstrate more fickle behavior ... full story

Socio-Economic Change More of a Problem for Nomads Than Climate Change

July 15, 2014 — Socio-economic change could have a much bigger impact than climate change on grazing lands in the world’s arid regions. This is the conclusion reached by scientists who simulated ecological and ... full story

Powerful New Source of Up-to-Date Information on Economic Activity

July 10, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure uses aggregated and de-identified data on transactions and account balances from Check, a ... full story

Computer Security: 'Melbourne Shuffle' Secures Data in the Cloud

July 10, 2014 — Encryption might not be enough for all that data stored in the cloud. Usage patterns -- which files are accessed and when -- can give away secrets as well. Computer scientists have developed an ... full story

Neuroeconomists Confirm Warren Buffett's Wisdom: Brain Research Suggests an Early Warning Signal Tips Off Smart Traders

July 7, 2014 — Investment magnate Warren Buffett has famously suggested that investors should try to 'be fearful when others are greedy and be greedy only when others are fearful.' That turns out to be excellent ... full story

Putting a Price Tag on the 2 Degree Celsius Climate Target

July 2, 2014 — Addressing climate change will require substantial new investment in low-carbon energy and energy efficiency -- but no more than what is currently spent on today's fossil-dominated energy system, ... full story

Oil Palm Plantations Threaten Water Quality, Scientists Say

June 30, 2014 — Indonesia pays a price for a lucrative crop used in many household products. Palm plantations damage freshwater streams that supply drinking water to millions of people. Found in thousands of ... full story

Are You Seen as a Jerk at Work? Many People Are Oblivious to How They Come Across to Counterparts and Colleagues

June 30, 2014 — New research shows that many people seen by others as under-assertive or over-assertive think they're appropriately assertive. The study also reveals that people seen as getting assertiveness right ... full story

Back Away, Please: Humans Tend to Fear Things Approaching, Even If Non-Threatening

June 23, 2014 — We still have negative feelings about things that approach us -- even if they objectively are not threatening, according to new research. Though we modern humans don't really consider such fear, it ... full story

New Research Proves Gender Bias Extraordinarily Prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Fields

June 23, 2014 — With everyone from the federal government to corporate America working to encourage more women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math fields, you would think the doors would ... full story

Android Security Weaknesses Caused by Performance Design Identified

June 19, 2014 — Researchers have identified a weakness in one of Android’s security features. The research identifies an Android performance feature that weakens a software protection called Address Space Layout ... full story

Crucial Security Problem in Google Play: Thousands of Secret Keys Found in Android Apps

June 18, 2014 — Researchers have discovered a crucial security problem in Google Play, the official Android app store. The study is the first to make a large-scale measurement of the huge marketplace, using ... full story

Months Before Their First Words, Babies' Brains Rehearse Speech Mechanics

July 14, 2014 — New research in 7- and 11-month-old infants shows that speech sounds stimulate areas of the brain that coordinate and plan motor movements for speech. The study suggests that baby brains start laying ... full story

Want a Higher GPA in College? Join a Gym

July 10, 2014 — For those students looking to bump up their grade point averages during college, the answer may not be spending more time in a library or study hall, but in a gym. New research shows that students ... full story

Same Genes Drive Mathematics and Reading Ability

July 8, 2014 — About half of the genes that influence how well a child can read also play a role in their mathematics ability, say scientists who led a study into the genetic basis of cognitive traits. While ... full story

Working Memory Is Key to Early Academic Achievement

July 8, 2014 — Working memory in children is linked strongly to reading and academic achievement, a new study has shown. Moreover, this finding holds true regardless of socio-economic status. This suggests that ... full story

3-D Printer to Aid the Visually Impaired Students in Their Educational Endeavors

July 2, 2014 — New technology has been developed to make tactile objects with ease thanks to the convergence technology of 3-D printing and 3-D thermal reflow treatment, which can be denoted as the revolution in ... full story

Learn Dutch in Your Sleep: Listening to Lessons While Sleeping Reinforces Memory

June 30, 2014 — When you have learned words in another language, it may be worth listening to them again in your sleep. A study has now shown that this method reinforces memory. "Our method is easy to use in daily ... full story

The Secrets of Children's Chatter: Research Shows Boys and Girls Learn Language Differently

June 27, 2014 — Experts believe language uses both a mental dictionary and a mental grammar.  The mental ‘dictionary’ stores sounds, words and common phrases, while mental ‘grammar’ involves the real-time ... full story

Increased Nearsightedness Linked to Higher Education Levels and More Years Spent in School

June 26, 2014 — Researchers have found strong evidence that attaining a higher level of education and spending more years in school are two factors associated with a greater prevalence and severity of ... full story

First Year University Students Struggle to Remember Basic Concepts Learned the Year Before

June 25, 2014 — University freshers struggle to remember basic concepts from their A-level studies according to new U.K. research. A new report shows that even grade-A students could only remember 40 percent of ... full story

Learning by Repetition Impairs Recall of Details, Study Shows

June 23, 2014 — While repetition enhances the factual content of memories, it can reduce the amount of detail stored with those memories, neurobiologists report following a recent study. This means that with ... full story

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