Today's Science News

Saturday, August 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

The Universal 'Anger Face': Each Element Makes You Look Physically Stronger and More Formidable

Aug. 28, 2014 The next time you get really mad, take a look in the mirror. See the lowered brow, the thinned lips and the flared nostrils? That's what social scientists call the "anger face," and it ... full story

Electric Current to Brain Boosts Memory: May Help Treat Memory Disorders from Stroke, Alzheimer's, Brain Injury

Aug. 28, 2014 Stimulating a region in the brain via non-invasive delivery of electrical current using magnetic pulses, called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, improves memory. The discovery opens a new field of ... full story

Home Is Where the Microbes Are

Aug. 28, 2014 A person's home is their castle, and they populate it with their own subjects: millions and millions of bacteria. Scientists have detailed the microbes that live in houses and apartments. The ... full story

Mystery Solved: 'Sailing Stones' of Death Valley Seen in Action for the First Time

Aug. 28, 2014 Racetrack Playa is home to an enduring Death Valley mystery. Littered across the surface of this dry lake, also called a "playa," are hundreds of rocks -- some weighing as much as 320 ... full story

Quantum Physics Enables Revolutionary Imaging Method

Aug. 28, 2014 Researchers have developed a fundamentally new quantum imaging technique with strikingly counter-intuitive features. For the first time, an image has been obtained without ever detecting the light ... full story

Flapping Baby Birds Give Clues to Origin of Flight

Aug. 28, 2014 The origin of flight is a contentious issue: some argue that tree-climbing dinosaurs learned to fly in order to avoid hard falls. Others favor the story that theropod dinosaurs ran along the ground ... full story

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope Witnesses Asteroid Smashup

Aug. 28, 2014 NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has spotted an eruption of dust around a young star, possibly the result of a smashup between large asteroids. This type of collision can eventually lead to the ... full story

How the Zebrafish Gets Its Stripes: Uncovering How Beautiful Color Patterns Can Develop in Animals

Aug. 28, 2014 The zebrafish, a small fresh water fish, owes its name to a striking pattern of blue stripes alternating with golden stripes. Three major pigment cell types, black cells, reflective silvery cells, ... full story

Astronomy: Radio Telescopes Settle Controversy Over Distance to Pleiades

Aug. 28, 2014 A worldwide network of radio telescopes measured the distance to the famous star cluster the Pleiades to an accuracy within 1 percent. The result resolved a controversy raised by a satellite's ... full story

Genomic Sequencing Reveals Mutations, Insights Into 2014 Ebola Outbreak

Aug. 28, 2014 In response to an ongoing, unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, a team of researchers has rapidly sequenced and analyzed more than 99 Ebola virus genomes. Their findings ... full story

Prehistoric Migrations: DNA Study Unravels the Settlement History of the New World Arctic

Aug. 28, 2014 A new DNA study unravels the settlement history of the New World Arctic. We know people have lived in the New World Arctic for about 5,000 years. Archaeological evidence clearly shows that a variety ... full story

New Research Reveals How Wild Rabbits Were Genetically Transformed Into Tame Rabbits

Aug. 28, 2014 The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes ... full story

Paleontology: Oldest Representative of a Weird Arthropod Group

Aug. 28, 2014 Biologists have assigned a number of 435-million-year-old fossils to a new genus of predatory arthropods. These animals lived in shallow marine habitats and were far less eye-catching than related ... full story

From Nose to Knee: Engineered Cartilage Regenerates Joints

Aug. 28, 2014 Human articular cartilage defects can be treated with nasal septum cells. Researchers now report that cells taken from the nasal septum are able to adapt to the environment of the knee joint and can ... full story

Inside the Teenage Brain: New Studies Explain Risky Behavior

Aug. 27, 2014 It’s common knowledge that teenage boys seem predisposed to risky behaviors. Now, a series of new studies is shedding light on specific brain mechanisms that help to explain what might be going on ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Scientists Have Figured Out Why Rocks Move In Death Valley

Scientists Have Figured Out Why Rocks Move In Death Valley

Newsy (Aug. 28, 2014) The mystery of the moving rocks in Death Valley, California, has finally been solved. Scientists are pointing to a combo of water, ice and wind. Video provided by Newsy
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Minds Blown: Scientists Develop Fish That Walk On Land

Minds Blown: Scientists Develop Fish That Walk On Land

Newsy (Aug. 28, 2014) Canadian scientists looking into the very first land animals took a fish out of water and forced it to walk. Video provided by Newsy
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Bad Memories Turn Good In Weird Mouse Brain Study

Bad Memories Turn Good In Weird Mouse Brain Study

Newsy (Aug. 27, 2014) MIT researchers were able to change whether bad memories in mice made them anxious by flicking an emotional switch in the brain. Video provided by Newsy
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Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Reuters - Business Video Online (Aug. 22, 2014) UK-based Malloy Aeronautics is preparing to test a manned quadcopter capable of out-manouvering a helicopter and presenting a new paradigm for aerial vehicles. A 1/3-sized scale model is already gaining popularity with drone enthusiasts around the world, with the full-sized manned model expected to take flight in the near future. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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last updated on 2014-08-30 at 6:28 am EDT

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Second-Hand E-Cig Smoke Compared to Regular Cigarette Smoke

Aug. 28, 2014 Second-hand e-cig smoke has 10 times less particulate matter than regular cigarette smoke; but higher levels of certain toxic metals, a new study ... full story

From Bite Site to Brain: How Rabies Virus Hijacks and Speeds Up Transport in Nerve Cells

Aug. 28, 2014 Rabies is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal into muscle tissue of the new host. From there, the virus travels all the way to the brain where it multiplies and causes the ... full story

Small Molecule Acts as on-Off Switch for Nature's Antibiotic Factory: Tells Streptomyces to Either Veg out or Get Busy

Aug. 28, 2014 Biochemists have identified the developmental on-off switch for Streptomyces, a group of soil microbes that produce more than two-thirds of the world's naturally derived antibiotic medicines. Their ... full story

Up to 3,000 Times the Bacterial Growth on Hollow-Head Toothbrushes

Aug. 28, 2014 Solid-head power toothbrushes retain less bacteria compared to hollow-head toothbrushes, according to new ... full story

Synthesis Produces New Fungus-Derived Antibiotic

Aug. 28, 2014 A fortuitous collaboration has led to the total synthesis of a recently discovered natural antibiotic. The laboratory recreation of a fungus-derived antibiotic, viridicatumtoxin B, may someday help ... full story

Indoor Mold Poses Health Risk to Asthma Sufferers

Aug. 28, 2014 By critically reviewing the findings from 17 studies in eight different countries, the research has found that the presence of several types of mould can lead to breathing problems in asthma ... full story

Readers With Dyslexia Have Disrupted Network Connections in the Brain, Map the Circuitry of Dyslexia Shows

Aug. 28, 2014 Dyslexia, the most commonly diagnosed learning disability in the United States, is a neurological reading disability that occurs when the regions of the brain that process written language don't ... full story

Protein Glue Shows Potential for Use With Biomaterials

Aug. 27, 2014 Scientists have shown that a synthetic protein called AGMA1 has the potential to promote the adhesion of brain cells in a laboratory setting. It is also cheaper and easier to produce on a large ... full story

Three-Quarters of Depressed Cancer Patients Do Not Receive Treatment for Depression; New Approach Could Transform Care

Aug. 27, 2014 Three papers reveal that around three-quarters of cancer patients who have major depression are not currently receiving treatment for depression, and that a new integrated treatment program is ... full story

First Study of Brain Activation in Multiple Sclerosis Using fNIRS

Aug. 27, 2014 Using functional near infrared spectroscopy, researchers showed differential brain activation patterns between people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. This is first MS study to ... full story

How Nerve Cells Communicate With Each Other Over Long Distances: Travelling by Resonance

Aug. 29, 2014 How nerve cells within the brain communicate with each other over long distances has puzzled scientists for decades. The way networks of neurons connect and how individual cells react to incoming ... full story

Neuroscientists Watch Imagination Happening in the Brain

Aug. 28, 2014 By showing people their own photos during MRI sessions, neuroscientists distinguished between brain activity that is specific to memory and activity that is specific to ... full story

Social Class Makes a Difference in How Children Tackle Classroom Problems

Aug. 27, 2014 Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities ... full story

Stop and Listen: Study Shows How Movement Affects Hearing

Aug. 27, 2014 When we want to listen carefully to someone, the first thing we do is stop talking. The second thing we do is stop moving altogether. The interplay between movement and hearing has a counterpart deep ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

Stone-Tipped Spears Lethal, May Indicate Early Cognitive and Social Skills

Aug. 27, 2014 Attaching a stone tip on to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and ... full story

Xenon Exposure Shown to Erase Traumatic Memories

Aug. 27, 2014 Xenon gas, used in humans for anesthesia and diagnostic imaging, has the potential to be a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder and other memory-related disorders, researchers report. "We ... full story

Alcohol-Dependence Gene Linked to Neurotransmitter

Aug. 27, 2014 Scientists have solved the mystery of why a specific signaling pathway can be associated with alcohol dependence. The new research shows the gene, Nf1, regulates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a ... full story

Marijuana Compound May Offer Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease, Study Suggests

Aug. 27, 2014 Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a recent study from neuroscientists ... full story

Neuroscientists Reverse Memories' Emotional Associations: Brain Circuit That Links Feelings to Memories Manipulated

Aug. 27, 2014 Most memories have some kind of emotion associated with them: Recalling the week you just spent at the beach probably makes you feel happy, while reflecting on being bullied provokes more negative ... full story

Lifetime of Fitness: Fountain of Youth for Bone, Joint Health?

Aug. 27, 2014 Being physically active may significantly improve musculoskeletal and overall health, and minimize or delay the effects of aging. "An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates that we can modulate ... full story

Parents, Listen Next Time Your Baby Babbles

Aug. 27, 2014 Parents who try to understand their baby's babbling let their infants know they can communicate, which leads to children forming complex sounds and using language more quickly. The study's results ... full story

How to Prevent Organic Food Fraud

Aug. 27, 2014 A growing number of consumers are willing to pay a premium for fruits, vegetables and other foods labelled 'organic,' but whether they're getting what the label claims is another matter. Now ... full story

Fighting Prostate Cancer With Tomato-Rich Diet

Aug. 27, 2014 Men who eat over 10 portions a week of tomatoes have an 18 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer, new research suggests. With 35,000 new cases every year in the UK, and around 10,000 ... full story

Gamblers Are Greedy Bird-Brains, New Research Finds

Aug. 27, 2014 Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions, new research has shown. Researchers conducted tests that found that both human gamblers and pigeons were 35% more likely ... full story

New Estrogen-Based Compound Suppresses Binge-Like Eating Behavior in Female Mice

Aug. 26, 2014 The hormone estrogen can specifically trigger brain serotonin neurons to inhibit binge eating in female mice, researchers report. They add that this result is consistent with data in humans. "We can ... full story

Study Finds Less Domestic Violence Among Married Couples Who Smoke Pot

Aug. 26, 2014 New research findings from a study of 634 couples found that the more often they smoked marijuana, the less likely they were to engage in domestic violence. "These findings suggest that marijuana use ... full story

Link Between Prenatal Antidepressant Exposure, Autism Risk Called Into Question

Aug. 26, 2014 Previous studies that have suggested an increased risk of autism among children of women who took antidepressants during pregnancy may actually reflect the known increased risk associated with severe ... full story

Ever Growing Number of Women With Gestational Diabetes Suggests Future Will Be Filled With Children With Early Diabetes

Aug. 25, 2014 Children exposed to gestational diabetes in the wombs of their mothers are themselves around six times more likely to develop diabetes or prediabetes than children not exposed, research shows. With ... full story

New Gluten-Free Ingredient May Cause Allergic Reaction, Expert Warns

Aug. 25, 2014 A popular legume used in other countries is showing up in more U.S. gluten-free products. A food safety specialist explains why people with peanut and soybean allergies need to be cautious: "Lupin is ... full story

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Copper Shines as Flexible Conductor

Aug. 29, 2014 By turning instead to copper, both abundant and cheap, researchers have developed a way of making flexible conductors cost-effective enough for commercial ... full story

Simpler Process to Grow Germanium Nanowires Could Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

Aug. 29, 2014 Researchers have developed what they call “a simple, one-step method” to grow nanowires of germanium from an aqueous solution. Their process could make it more feasible to use germanium in ... full story

Breakthrough in Light Sources for New Quantum Technology

Aug. 29, 2014 One of the most promising technologies for future quantum circuits are photonic circuits, i.e. circuits based on light (photons) instead of electrons (electronic circuits). First, it is necessary to ... full story

Plug 'N' Play Protein Crystals

Aug. 29, 2014 Almost a hundred years ago in 1929 Linus Pauling presented the famous Pauling’s Rules to describe the principles governing the structure of complex ionic crystals. These rules essentially describe ... full story

Precision Control of the Timing, Structure and Functions in Molecular Self-Assembly

Aug. 29, 2014 Scientists have developed a new methodology that can easily and precisely control the timing of and the structure as well as functions obtained in self-assembly of π-conjugated molecules, which ... full story

Watching the Structure of Glass Under Pressure

Aug. 28, 2014 Glass has many applications that call for different properties, such as resistance to thermal shock or to chemically harsh environments. Glassmakers commonly use additives such as boron oxide to ... full story

A New, Tunable Device for Spintronics

Aug. 28, 2014 An international team of scientists has developed a tunable spin-charge converter made of GaAs. Spin-charge converters are important devices in spintronics, an electronic which is not only based on ... full story

Inter-Dependent Networks Stress Test

Aug. 28, 2014 A new study relies on a complex systems modelling approach to analyze inter-dependent networks and improve their reliability in the event of failure. Energy production systems are good examples of ... full story

Nanoscale Assembly Line: Nanoscale Production Line for Assembly of Biological Molecules Created

Aug. 28, 2014 Researchers have realized a long-held dream: inspired by an industrial assembly line, they have developed a nanoscale production line for the assembly of biological ... full story

Doing More With Less: New Technique Uses Fraction of Measurements to Efficiently Find Quantum Wave Functions

Aug. 28, 2014 Just two years ago, with the advent of a technique called direct measurement, scientists discovered they could reliably determine a system’s wave function by “weakly” measuring one of its ... full story

Astrophysicists Report Radioactive Cobalt in Supernova Explosion

Aug. 29, 2014 Astrophysicists have detected the formation of radioactive cobalt during a supernova explosion, lending credence to a corresponding theory of supernova ... full story

Researchers Use NASA and Other Data to Look Into the Heart of a Solar Storm

Aug. 28, 2014 Scientists found that the CME contained a rare piece of dense solar filament material. This filament coupled with an unusually fast speed led to the large amount of solar material ... full story

Nanodiamonds Are Forever: Did Comet Collision Leave Layer of Nanodiamonds Across Earth?

Aug. 27, 2014 A comet collision with Earth caused abrupt environmental stress and degradation that contributed to the extinction of most large animal species then inhabiting the Americas, a group of scientists ... full story

Detecting Neutrinos, Physicists Look Into the Heart of the Sun

Aug. 27, 2014 Using one of the most sensitive neutrino detectors on the planet, physicists have directly detected neutrinos created by the 'keystone' proton-proton fusion process going on at the sun's core for the ... full story

Red Planet's Climate History Uncovered in Unique Martian Meteorite

Aug. 27, 2014 Was Mars -- now a cold, dry place -- once a warm, wet planet that sustained life? Research underway may one day answer those questions -- and perhaps even help pave the way for future colonization of ... full story

Early Growth of Giant Galaxy, Just 3 Billion Years After the Big Bang, Revealed

Aug. 27, 2014 The birth of massive galaxies, according to galaxy formation theories, begins with the buildup of a dense, compact core that is ablaze with the glow of millions of newly formed stars. Evidence of ... full story

Orion Rocks! Pebble-Size Particles May Jump-Start Planet Formation

Aug. 27, 2014 Astronomers have discovered that filaments of star-forming gas near the Orion Nebula may be brimming with pebble-size particles -- planetary building blocks 100 to 1,000 times larger than the dust ... full story

Measurement at Big Bang Conditions Confirms Lithium Problem

Aug. 27, 2014 The field of astrophysics has a stubborn problem and it's called lithium. The quantities of lithium predicted to have resulted from the Big Bang are not actually present in stars. But the ... full story

What Lit Up the Universe?

Aug. 27, 2014 New research shows we will soon uncover the origin of the ultraviolet light that bathes the cosmos, helping scientists understand how galaxies were built. The study by cosmologists shows how ... full story

Best View Yet of Merging Galaxies in Distant Universe

Aug. 26, 2014 Astronomers have obtained the best view yet of a collision between two galaxies when the Universe was only half its current age. To make this observation, the team also enlisted the help of a ... full story

New Smartphone App Can Detect Newborn Jaundice in Minutes

Aug. 27, 2014 Engineers and physicians have developed a smartphone application that checks for jaundice in newborns and can deliver results to parents and pediatricians within minutes. Skin that turns yellow can ... full story

Materials Other Than Silicon for Next Generation Electronic Devices

Aug. 27, 2014 Silicon has been the most successful material of the 20th century, with major global industries and even a valley named after it. But silicon may be running out of steam for high performance/low ... full story

New Technology May Identify Tiny Strains in Body Tissues Before Injuries Occur

Aug. 26, 2014 Algorithms to identify weak spots in tendons, muscles and bones prone to tearing or breaking have been developed by researchers. The technology, which needs to be refined before it is used in ... full story

Symphony of Nanoplasmonic and Optical Resonators Produces Laser-Like Light Emission

Aug. 26, 2014 By combining plasmonics and optical microresonators, researchers have created a new optical amplifier (or laser) design, paving the way for power-on-a-chip ... full story

Laser Pulse Turns Glass Into a Metal: New Effect Could Be Used for Ultra-Fast Logical Switches

Aug. 26, 2014 For tiny fractions of a second, quartz glass can take on metallic properties, when it is illuminated be a laser pulse. This has been shown by new calculations. The effect could be used to build ... full story

Eye Implant Could Lead to Better Glaucoma Treatments

Aug. 26, 2014 Lowering internal eye pressure is currently the only way to treat glaucoma. A tiny eye implant recently developed could pair with a smartphone to improve the way doctors measure and lower a patient's ... full story

Wii Balance Board Induces Changes in Brains of People With Multiple Sclerosis

Aug. 26, 2014 A balance board accessory for a popular video game console can help people with multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce their risk of accidental falls, according to new research. Magnetic resonance imaging ... full story

Razor-Sharp TV Images With 4K Definition

Aug. 26, 2014 The future of movie, sports and concert broadcasting lies in 4K definition, which will bring cinema quality TV viewing into people’s homes. 4K Ultra HD has four times as many pixels as today’s ... full story

Better Than CAPTCHA: Improved Method to Let Computers Know You Are Human

Aug. 25, 2014 Researchers are investigating game-based verification that may improve computer security and reduce user frustration compared to typical “type-what-you-see” CAPTCHA tools that use static ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

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Snails Tell of the Rise and Fall of the Tibetan Plateau

Aug. 29, 2014 The rise of the Tibetan plateau -- the largest topographic anomaly above sea level on Earth -- is important for both its profound effect on climate and its reflection of continental dynamics. ... full story

Marine Protected Areas Inadequate for Protecting Fish and Ocean Ecology, Study Finds

Aug. 28, 2014 A new study reports that an expansion of marine protected areas is needed to protect fish species that perform key ecological functions. According to investigators, previous efforts at protecting ... full story

Study Shows Where on the Planet New Roads Should and Should Not Go

Aug. 28, 2014 Researchers have created a ‘large-scale zoning plan’ that aims to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human ... full story

Endangered Siamese Crocodiles Released in Wild

Aug. 28, 2014 Biologists have just released 17 juvenile critically endangered Siamese crocodiles into a protected wetland in Lao PDR. The one-to-two-year-old crocodiles, which range between 50-100 cm (20-39 ... full story

From Water to Land and Back, the Mosquitofish Is on a Roll

Aug. 27, 2014 Some fish will leap out of water to escape a predator, but biologists have observed that the mosquitofish chooses the most energy-efficient method for returning -- a finding that has evolutionary ... full story

A Touching Story: Ancient Conversation Between Plants, Fungi and Bacteria

Aug. 27, 2014 The mechanical force that a single fungal cell or bacterial colony exerts on a plant cell may seem vanishingly small, but it plays a heavy role in setting up some of the most fundamental symbiotic ... full story

Water 'Thermostat' Could Help Engineer Drought-Resistant Crops

Aug. 27, 2014 A gene that could help engineer drought-resistant crops has been identified by researchers. The gene, called OSCA1, encodes a protein in the cell membrane of plants that senses changes in water ... full story

Junk Food Makes Rats Lose Appetite for Balanced Diet

Aug. 27, 2014 A diet of junk food not only makes rats fat, but also reduces their appetite for novel foods, a preference that normally drives them to seek a balanced diet, reports a study. "The interesting thing ... full story

Cheetah Menu: Wildlife Instead of Cattle

Aug. 27, 2014 Cheetahs primarily prefer wildlife on their menu to cattle, scientists have confirmed. The cheetah is a vulnerable species that only exists on Namibia’s commercial farmland in large populations. ... full story

Bronze Age Wine Cellar Found: Wine Residue, Herbal Additives Found in Palace Cellar Jars

Aug. 27, 2014 A Bronze Age palace excavation reveals an ancient wine cellar. Wine production, distribution, and consumption are thought to have played a role in the lives of those living in the Mediterranean and ... full story

Rubber Meets the Road With New Carbon, Battery Technologies

Aug. 27, 2014 Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say researchers. By modifying the ... full story

Wolves Susceptible to Yawn Contagion: Social Bonds May Increase Yawning Contagion Between Wolves

Aug. 27, 2014 Wolves may be susceptible to yawn contagion, according to a new study. Researchers suggest that contagious yawning may be linked to human capacity for empathy, but little evidence apart from studies ... full story

More Wolf Spiders Feasting on American Toads Due to Invasive Grass, Study Shows

Aug. 27, 2014 An invasive grass species frequently found in forests has created a thriving habitat for wolf spiders, who then feed on American toads, a new study has found. Japanese stiltgrass, which was ... full story

Snowfall in a Warmer World: Big Snowstorms Will Still Occur in Northern Hemisphere, Study Shows

Aug. 27, 2014 Big snowstorms will still occur in the Northern Hemisphere following global warming, a study shows. While most areas in the Northern Hemisphere will likely experience less snowfall throughout a ... full story

Walking Fish Reveal How Our Ancestors Evolved Onto Land

Aug. 27, 2014 About 400 million years ago a group of fish began exploring land and evolved into tetrapods – today's amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. But just how these ancient fish used their fishy ... full story

Yellowstone Supereruption Would Send Ash Across North America

Aug. 27, 2014 In the unlikely event of a volcanic supereruption at Yellowstone National Park, the northern Rocky Mountains would be blanketed in meters of ash, and millimeters would be deposited as far away as New ... full story

Southwest U.S. May Face 'Megadrought' This Century

Aug. 27, 2014 Because of global warming, scientists say, the chances of the southwestern United States experiencing a decade long drought is at least 50 percent, and the chances of a “megadrought” -- one that ... full story

NOAA's Marine Debris Program Reports on National Issue of Derelict Fishing Traps

Aug. 27, 2014 Thousands of fishing traps are lost or abandoned each year in US waters. A new NOAA report is the first of its kind to examine the derelict fish trap problem, nationally, and recommends actions to ... full story

Pacific Plate Shrinking as It Cools

Aug. 27, 2014 The Pacific tectonic plate is not as rigid as scientists believe, according to new calculations. Scientists have determined that cooling of the lithosphere -- the outermost layer of Earth -- makes ... full story

Greenhouse Gases: New Group of Soil Micro-Organisms Can Contribute to Their Elimination

Aug. 27, 2014 The ability of soils to eliminate N2O can mainly be explained by the diversity and abundance of a new group of micro-organisms that are capable of transforming it into atmospheric nitrogen ... full story

Ancient Metal Workers Were Not Slaves but Highly Regarded Craftsmen

Aug. 28, 2014 In the course of ongoing excavations at Timna Valley, archaeologists analyzed remnants of food eaten by copper smelters 3,000 years ago. This analysis indicates that the laborers operating the ... full story

Shared Biology in Human, Fly and Worm Genomes: Powerful Commonalities in Biological Activity, Regulation

Aug. 27, 2014 Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings offer insights into ... full story

Evolution Used Similar Molecular Toolkits to Shape Flies, Worms, and Humans

Aug. 27, 2014 Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related ... full story

Paleontologists Describe a Possible Dinosaur Nest and Young 'Babysitter'

Aug. 27, 2014 A new examination of a rock slab containing fossils of 24 very young dinosaurs and one older individual is suggestive of a group of hatchlings overseen by a caretaker, according to a new ... full story

Museum Specimens, Modern Cities Show How an Insect Pest Will Respond to Climate Change

Aug. 27, 2014 Century-old museum specimens hold clues to how global climate change will affect a common insect pest that can weaken and kill trees -- and the news is not good. "Recent studies found that scale ... full story

The Evolutionary Roots of Human Altruism

Aug. 27, 2014 Scientists have long been searching for the factor that determines why humans often behave so selflessly. It was known that humans share this tendency with species of small Latin American primates of ... full story

Animals First Flex Their Muscles: Earliest Fossil Evidence for Animals With Muscles

Aug. 26, 2014 A new fossil discovery identifies the earliest evidence for animals with muscles. An unusual new fossil discovery of one of the earliest animals on earth may also provide the oldest evidence of ... full story

What Can 14th Century Venice Teach Us About Ebola, Other Emerging Threats?

Aug. 26, 2014 The way in which the Italian city of Venice dealt with the outbreak of the plague in the 14th century holds lessons on how to even mitigate the consequences of today's emerging threats, like climate ... full story

Taung Child's Brain Development Not Human-Like? CT Scan Casts Doubt on Similarity to That of Modern Humans

Aug. 25, 2014 By subjecting the skull of the famous Taung Child to the latest CT scan technology, researchers are now casting doubt on theories that Australopithecus africanus shows the same cranial adaptations ... full story

Cold Snap in the Tropics: How Tropical Glaciers Respond to Cooling Periods

Aug. 25, 2014 Tropical glaciers have responded to episodes of cooling in Greenland and the Antarctic over the past 20,000 years, according to a study that covers 21 Andean glaciers. As elsewhere on the planet, ... full story

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Impact of Cultural Diversity in Brain Injury Research

Aug. 27, 2014 The implications for cultural diversity and cultural competence in brain injury research and rehabilitation has been the focus of recent study. Risk for brain injury is higher among minorities, as is ... full story

Group Identity Emphasized More by Those Who Just Make the Cut

Aug. 27, 2014 People and institutions who are marginal members of a high-status or well-esteemed group tend to emphasize their group membership more than those who are squarely entrenched members of the group, ... full story

Marching in Unison May Increase Risk of Use of Excessive Force in Policing Protests

Aug. 27, 2014 What if the simple act of marching in unison -- as riot police commonly do -- increases the likelihood that law enforcement will use excessive force in policing protests? That's the suggestion of a ... full story

Leading Scientists Call for a Stop to Non-Essential Use of Fluorochemicals

Aug. 27, 2014 A number of leading international researchers recommend that fluorochemicals are only used where they are absolutely essential, until better methods exist to measure the chemicals and more is known ... full story

Potential Influences on Recent UK Winter Floods Investigated by New Scientific Review

Aug. 26, 2014 A comprehensive review of all potential factors behind the 2013/2014 UK winter floods has been published by researchers. The paper does not definitively answer whether human activity played a role in ... full story

Existing Power Plants Will Spew 300 Billion More Tons of Carbon Dioxide During Use

Aug. 26, 2014 Existing power plants around the world will pump out more than 300 billion tons of carbon dioxide over their expected lifetimes, significantly adding to atmospheric levels of the climate-warming gas, ... full story

Young Driver's Gender Linked to Crash Type, Injury Severity

Aug. 26, 2014 Gender differences do exist in young drivers when it comes to safety, a study finds. Gender is often related to what type of severe or fatal crash a young male or young female driver will be involved ... full story

Trash Burning Worldwide Significantly Worsens Air Pollution

Aug. 26, 2014 Unregulated trash burning around the globe is pumping far more pollution into the atmosphere than shown by official records. A new study estimates that more than 40 percent of the world's garbage is ... full story

Key to Speed? Elite Sprinters Unlike Other Athletes, Deliver Forceful Punch to Ground

Aug. 26, 2014 The world's fastest sprinters have a distinctive ability unlike other runners to attack the ground and attain faster speeds, according to new research. The new findings indicate that sprinters use a ... full story

25 Percent Fewer Opioid-Related Deaths in States Allowing Medical Marijuana

Aug. 25, 2014 On average, states allowing the medical use of marijuana have lower rates of deaths resulting from opioid analgesic overdoses than states without such laws. Opioid analgesics, such as OxyContin, ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Study Measures Steep Coastal Costs of China's GDP Growth

Aug. 8, 2014 Economic reforms declared in 1978 led to a surge of growth in China, but resulting increases in human impact activities are seriously degrading the nation's coastal ecosystems, according to a newly ... full story

Geography Matters: Model Predicts How Local 'Shocks' Influence U.S. Economy

Aug. 6, 2014 Hurricanes. Foreclosures. Factory shutdowns. How do these local industry 'shocks' influence the country as a whole? A new model measures the power of industry dips and boosts nationwide. Overall, ... full story

All-in-One Energy System Offers Greener Power for Off–grid Homes, Farms and Businesses

July 30, 2014 An innovative ‘trigeneration’ system fuelled entirely by raw plant oils could have great potential for isolated homes and businesses operating outside grid ... full story

Kill Switch in Cell Phones Could Save Consumers More Than $3.4 Billion Annually

July 29, 2014 A new study shows consumer savings from the Kill Switch legislation exceed initial projections and now points to well over $3 billion. This savings to consumers comes at the expense of insurance and ... full story

Google Searches May Hold Key to Future Market Crashes, Researchers Find

July 28, 2014 A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

Children's Drawings Indicate Later Intelligence, Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 How 4-year-old children draw pictures of a child is an indicator of intelligence at age 14, according to a new study. The researchers studied 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical twins and ... full story

How Children's Brains Memorize Math Facts

Aug. 17, 2014 As children learn basic arithmetic, they gradually switch from solving problems by counting on their fingers to pulling facts from memory. The shift comes more easily for some kids than for others, ... full story

Expecting to Teach Enhances Learning, Recall

Aug. 8, 2014 People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that ... full story

Musical Training Offsets Some Academic Achievement Gaps, Research Says

Aug. 8, 2014 Learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills, according to research. The findings, which involved hundreds of kids ... full story

New Insights Into How Young and Developing Readers Make Sense of Words

Aug. 7, 2014 Skilled readers are often able to make sense of words suffering from 'typos' and jumbled up letter orders as long as the beginning and end letters of the words are ... full story

Video-Game Playing for Less Than an Hour a Day Is Linked With Better-Adjusted Children, Study Finds

Aug. 4, 2014 A new study suggests video game-playing for less than an hour a day is linked with better-adjusted children and teenagers. The research found that young people who indulged in a little video ... full story

Removing Vending Machines from Schools Is Not Enough to Reduce Soda Consumption

Aug. 1, 2014 Banning vending machines from schools can actually increase soda and fast food consumption among students if it’s the only school food policy change implemented, according to new ... full story

Preterm Children Do Not Have an Increased Risk for Dyscalculia, New Research Suggests

Aug. 1, 2014 Preterm children do not suffer from dyscalculia more often than healthy full-term children, experts say, contrary to previous studies. Unlike most other studies, the researchers took the children’s ... full story

Numerical Learning Disability: Dyscalculia Linked to Difficulties in Reading and Spelling

July 30, 2014 Between three and six percent of schoolchildren suffer from an arithmetic-related learning disability. Researchers now show that these children are also more likely to exhibit deficits in reading and ... full story

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