Today's Science News

Saturday, August 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Water Splitter Runs on an Ordinary AAA Battery

Aug. 22, 2014 — Although touted as zero-emissions vehicles, most fuel cell vehicle run on hydrogen made from natural gas. Now scientists have developed a low-cost, emissions-free device that uses an ordinary AAA ... full story

Fish and Coral Smell a Bad Neighborhood: Marine Protected Areas Might Not Be Enough to Help Overfished Reefs Recover

Aug. 21, 2014 — Pacific corals and fish can both smell a bad neighborhood, and use that ability to avoid settling in damaged reefs. Damaged coral reefs emit chemical cues that repulse young coral and fish, ... full story

Laser Device May End Pin Pricks, Improve Quality of Life for Diabetics

Aug. 21, 2014 — Researchers have developed a way to use a laser to measure people's blood sugar, and, with more work to shrink the laser system to a portable size, the technique could allow diabetics to check ... full story

Hot-Spring Bacteria Reveal Ability to Use Far-Red Light for Photosynthesis

Aug. 21, 2014 — Bacteria growing in near darkness use a previously unknown process for harvesting energy and producing oxygen from sunlight, scientists have discovered. The discovery lays the foundation for further ... full story

X-Ray Laser Probes Tiny Quantum Tornadoes in Superfluid Droplets

Aug. 21, 2014 — An experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory revealed a well-organized 3-D grid of quantum 'tornadoes' inside microscopic droplets of supercooled ... full story

Fossil Arthropod Went on the Hunt for Its Prey

Aug. 22, 2014 — A new species of carnivorous crustacean has been identified, which roamed the seas 435 million years ago, grasping its prey with spiny limbs before devouring ... full story

Spectacular Supernova's Mysteries Revealed

Aug. 22, 2014 — Astronomers are delving into the mystery of what caused a spectacular supernova in a galaxy 11 million light years away, seen earlier this year. The supernova, a giant explosion of a star and the ... full story

Sunlight, Not Microbes, Key to Carbon Dioxide in Arctic

Aug. 21, 2014 — The vast reservoir of carbon stored in Arctic permafrost is gradually being converted to carbon dioxide after entering the freshwater system in a process thought to be controlled largely by microbial ... full story

How Hummingbirds Evolved to Detect Sweetness

Aug. 21, 2014 — Hummingbirds' ability to detect sweetness evolved from an ancestral savory taste receptor that is mostly tuned to flavors in amino acids. Feasting on nectar and the occasional insect, the tiny ... full story

Cause of Global Warming Hiatus Found Deep in the Atlantic Ocean

Aug. 21, 2014 — Observations show that the heat absent from the Earth's surface for more than a decade is plunging deep in the north and south Atlantic Ocean, and is part of a naturally occurring cycle. ... full story

First Direct Evidence of 'Spin Symmetry' in Atoms

Aug. 21, 2014 — Physicists have observed the first direct evidence of symmetry in the magnetic properties -- or nuclear 'spins' -- of atoms. The advance could spin off practical benefits such as the ... full story

Alternate Mechanism of Species Formation Picks Up Support, Thanks to a South American Ant

Aug. 21, 2014 — A newly discovered species of ant supports a controversial theory of species formation. The ant, only found in a single patch of eucalyptus trees on the São Paulo State University campus in Brazil, ... full story

Viruses Take Down Massive Algal Blooms, With Big Implications for Climate

Aug. 21, 2014 — Humans are increasingly dependent on algae to suck up climate-warming carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sink it to the bottom of the ocean. Now, by using a combination of satellite imagery and ... full story

Polio: Mutated Virus Breaches Vaccine Protection

Aug. 21, 2014 — Thanks to effective vaccination, polio is considered nearly eradicated. Each year only a few hundred people are stricken worldwide. However, scientists are reporting alarming findings: a mutated ... full story

3-D Printers Used to Create Custom Medical Implants That Deliver Drugs, Chemo

Aug. 21, 2014 — An innovative method for using affordable, consumer-grade 3D printers and materials has been developed to fabricate custom medical implants that can contain antibacterial and chemotherapeutic ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Is It a Plane? No, It's a Hoverbike

Reuters - Business Video Online (Aug. 22, 2014) — UK-based Malloy Aeronautics is preparing to test a manned quadcopter capable of out-manouvering a helicopter and presenting a new paradigm for aerial vehicles. A 1/3-sized scale model is already gaining popularity with drone enthusiasts around the world, with the full-sized manned model expected to take flight in the near future. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
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Neanderthals Probably Died Out Earlier Than We Thought

Neanderthals Probably Died Out Earlier Than We Thought

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) — A new study is packed with interesting Neanderthal-related findings, including a "definitive answer" to when they went extinct. Video provided by Newsy
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Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — A U.S. team found nearly 4,000 species in a subglacial lake that hasn't seen sunlight in millennia, showing life can thrive even under the ice. Video provided by Newsy
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Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Unsustainable Elephant Poaching Killed 100K In 3 Years

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — Poachers have killed 100,000 elephants between 2010 and 2012, as the booming ivory trade takes its toll on the animals in Africa. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-08-23 at 1:48 am EDT

jump to:    Health  |  Tech  |  Enviro  |  Society

Women With Severe, Chronic Health Issues Are Screened for Breast Cancer Less Often

Aug. 22, 2014 — Women with severe disabilities and multiple chronic conditions are screened for breast cancer less often than women with no disabilities or no chronic conditions, a new study has found. Worldwide, ... full story

Creating Pomegranate Drug to Stem Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

Aug. 22, 2014 — Research will look to produce compound derivatives of punicalagin for a drug that would treat neuro-inflammation and slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease, scientists report. The onset of ... full story

Epigenetic Changes in Children With Crohn's Disease Seen in Study

Aug. 22, 2014 — A wide range of epigenetic changes -— alterations in DNA across the genome that may be related to key environmental exposures -— in children with Crohn's disease (CD), has been observed and ... full story

Playing Hunger Games: Are Gamified Health Apps Putting Odds in Your Favor?

Aug. 22, 2014 — For many people, finding motivation to exercise is a challenge. Thankfully, there are Zombies chasing you. At least that's the approach of Zombies, Run! -- one of more than 31,000 health and fitness ... full story

Low Birth Weight Linked to Higher Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in African American Women

Aug. 22, 2014 — African American women born at a low or very low birth weight may be at a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The findings may explain in part the higher occurrence of type 2 diabetes in ... full story

Fungus Deadly to AIDS Patients Found to Grow on Trees

Aug. 22, 2014 — Researchers have pinpointed the environmental source of fungal infections that have been sickening HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California for decades. It literally grows on trees. The discovery is ... full story

Coronary Calcium Predicts Heart Disease Risk in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Aug. 22, 2014 — Calcium build-up in the coronary artery walls was more useful for correctly predicting kidney disease patients' risk of heart disease than other measures of atherosclerosis, such as thickness of the ... full story

Climate Change Could See Dengue Fever Come to Europe

Aug. 22, 2014 — Dengue fever could make headway in popular European holiday destinations if climate change continues on its predicted trajectory, according to research. The study used current data from Mexico, where ... full story

Water Quality in Glass, Plastic Bottles: Better Than Expected in Spanish Study

Aug. 22, 2014 — Bottled water sold in Spain is practically free of constituents given off by plastic packaging or glass bottle lids. They are only detected in some cases, albeit in quantities much lower than limits ... full story

Genetics, Lifestyle Have a Strong Impact on Biomarkers for Inflammation, Cancer

Aug. 22, 2014 — For the first time, results from a large-scale study of the significance of genetic, clinical and lifestyle factors for protein levels in the bloodstream have been shown. The results show that ... full story

In Our Digital World, Are Young People Losing the Ability to Read Emotions?

Aug. 22, 2014 — Are young people losing the ability to read emotions in our digital world? Scientists report that sixth-graders who went five days without even glancing at a smartphone, television or other screen ... full story

Striatum Acts as Hub for Multisensory Integration

Aug. 22, 2014 — A new study provides insight on how the brain processes external input such as touch, vision or sound from different sources and sides of the body, in order to select and generate adequate movements. ... full story

Difficulty Assessing Effort Drives Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia, Study Finds

Aug. 21, 2014 — Individuals with schizophrenia often have trouble engaging in daily tasks or setting goals for themselves, and a new study suggests the reason might be their difficulty in assessing the amount of ... full story

Children With Autism Have Extra Synapses in Brain: May Be Possible to Prune Synapses With Drug After Diagnosis

Aug. 21, 2014 — Children and adolescents with autism have a surplus of synapses in the brain, and this excess is due to a slowdown in a normal brain “pruning” process during development, according to a new ... full story

Reading 'Fifty Shades' Linked to Unhealthy Behaviors

Aug. 21, 2014 — Young adult women who read 'Fifty Shades of Grey' are more likely than nonreaders to exhibit signs of eating disorders and have a verbally abusive partner, finds a new study. Further, women who read ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Learning to Play the Piano? Sleep on It!

Aug. 21, 2014 — According to new research the regions of the brain below the cortex play an important role as we train our bodies’ movements and, critically, they interact more effectively after a night of sleep. ... full story

Does Your Computer Know How You're Feeling?

Aug. 21, 2014 — Researchers have designed a computer program that can accurately recognize users’ emotional states as much as 87% of the time, depending on the emotion. The study combined -- for the first time -- ... full story

Important Clue Found for Potential Treatments for Absence Seizures

Aug. 21, 2014 — A group of researchers has succeeded in revealing a principle mechanism of a neural network in the human brain, which will provide an important clue to potential treatments for absence seizures. ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

Potential Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infections in Young Girls

Aug. 21, 2014 — Young girls with an intense, red, itchy rash on their outer genital organs may be at increased risk of developing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The treatment may be as simple as better hygiene and ... full story

Exercise May Protect Older Women from Irregular Heartbeat

Aug. 20, 2014 — Increasing the amount or intensity of physical activity can cut the chances of older women developing a life-threatening irregular heartbeat, according to new research. Researchers found that ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

Targeted Brain Training May Help You Multitask Better

Aug. 20, 2014 — The area of the brain involved in multitasking and ways to train it have been identified by a research team. The research includes a model to better predict the effectiveness of this ... full story

Growing Up Poor Affects Adults' Sense of Control, Impulsiveness When Faced With Economic Uncertainty

Aug. 20, 2014 — Growing up poor can influence people's sense of control and in turn may lead them to more impulsive decision-making and quickly give up on challenging tasks in uncertain situations, according to new ... full story

'Tickling' Your Ear Could Be Good for Your Heart

Aug. 19, 2014 — Stimulating nerves in your ear could improve the health of your heart, researchers have discovered. Scientists used a standard TENS machine like those designed to relieve labour pains to apply ... full story

Does Love Make Sex Better for Most Women?

Aug. 19, 2014 — Love and commitment can make sex physically more satisfying for many women, according to a sociologist. The benefits of being in love with a sexual partner are more than just emotional. Most of the ... full story

Hand Gestures Improve Learning in Both Signers, Speakers

Aug. 19, 2014 — Spontaneous gesture can help children learn, whether they use a spoken language or sign language, according to a new report. "Children who can hear use gesture along with speech to communicate as ... full story

Physically Fit Kids Have Beefier Brain White Matter Than Their Less-Fit Peers

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new study of 9- and 10-year-olds finds that those who are more aerobically fit have more fibrous and compact white-matter tracts in the brain than their peers who are less fit. 'White matter' ... full story

Bacteria Detected in Food May Cause Risks to Unborn Children

Aug. 19, 2014 — At least 10 percent of the fresh cheese, sausages and meats sold in markets and on the street may be contaminated, Mexican research suggests. Human listeriosis is a disease with a high mortality rate ... full story

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Proteins: New Class of Materials Discovered

Aug. 22, 2014 — Scientists have characterized a new class of materials called protein crystalline frameworks. Thanks to certain helper substances, in PCFs proteins are fixated in a way so as to align themselves ... full story

Breakthrough in Imaging Gold Nanoparticles to Atomic Resolution by Electron Microscopy

Aug. 22, 2014 — Nanometer-scale gold particles are intensively investigated for application as catalysts, sensors, drug delivery devices, biological contrast agents and components in photonics and molecular ... full story

Extracorporeal Support Can Significantly Increase Number of Organs for Transplant

Aug. 22, 2014 — Using heart-lung support technology, one Transplant Center was able to increase the number of kidneys, livers and pancreases available for transplant by about 20 percent. As of Aug. 6, 2014, 123,191 ... full story

Shaping the Future of Nanocrystals: First Direct Observation of Facet Formation in Nanocubes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Researchers have recorded the first direct observations of how facets form and develop on platinum nanocubes in solution, pointing the way towards more sophisticated and effective nanocrystal design ... full story

Clues to Role of Magnetism in Iron-Based Superconductors Uncovered

Aug. 21, 2014 — New measurements of atomic-scale magnetic behavior in iron-based superconductors are challenging conventional wisdom about superconductivity and ... full story

Novel Recycling Methods: Fluorescent Fingerprint of Plastics

Aug. 21, 2014 — A new process has been developed that will greatly simplify the process of sorting plastics in recycling plants. The method enables automated identification of polymers, facilitating rapid separation ... full story

Physicists Have Chilled the World's Coolest Molecule

Aug. 21, 2014 — Physicists have chilled the world's coolest molecules. The tiny titans in question are bits of strontium monofluoride, dropped to 2.5 thousandths of a degree above absolute zero through a laser ... full story

Water Window Imaging Opportunity

Aug. 21, 2014 — Ever heard of the water window? It consists of radiations in the 3.3 to 4.4 nanometer range, which are not absorbed by the water in biological tissues. A new theoretical study identifies the physical ... full story

Delivery by Drone: New Algorithm Lets Drones Monitor Their Own Health During Long Package-Delivery Missions

Aug. 21, 2014 — In the near future, the package that you ordered online may be deposited at your doorstep by a drone: Last December, online retailer Amazon announced plans to explore drone-based delivery, suggesting ... full story

Your Toothpaste's Fluorine Formed in the Stars

Aug. 21, 2014 — The fluorine that is found in products such as toothpaste was likely formed billions of years ago in now-dead stars of the same type as our sun, according to new research by ... full story

Voyager Map Details Neptune's Strange Moon Triton

Aug. 22, 2014 — NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft gave humanity its first close-up look at Neptune and its moon Triton in the summer of 1989. Like an old film, Voyager's historic footage of Triton has been "restored" and ... full story

Electric Sparks May Alter Evolution of Lunar Soil

Aug. 21, 2014 — The moon appears to be a tranquil place, but new modeling suggests that, over the eons, periodic storms of solar energetic particles may have significantly altered the properties of the soil in the ... full story

First LOFAR Observations of 'Whirlpool Galaxy'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Using a radio telescope with frequencies just above those of commercial FM radio stations, a European team of astronomers has obtained the most sensitive image of a galaxy below 1 ... full story

A Spectacular Landscape of Star Formation

Aug. 20, 2014 — A new image shows two dramatic star formation regions in the southern Milky Way. The first is of these, on the left, is dominated by the star cluster NGC 3603, located 20,000 light-years away, in the ... full story

Martian Meteorite: Implications of a Newly Discovered Mineral-Rich Structure

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new ovoid structure discovered in the Nakhla Martian meteorite is made of nanocrystalline iron-rich clay, contains a variety of minerals, and shows evidence of undergoing a past shock event from ... full story

What Are Stars Made Of? Determining Stellar Compositions Made Easier With New Catalog

Aug. 19, 2014 — An astronomer has devised the largest catalog ever produced for stellar compositions. The work is critical to understanding the properties of stars, how they form, and possible connections with ... full story

Immune System Is Dazed and Confused During Spaceflight, Study Reveals

Aug. 18, 2014 — Research indicates that crew members aboard the International Space Station have changes in blood cytokines that persist during ... full story

Sun's Activity Influences Natural Climate Change, Ice Age Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new study has, for the first time, reconstructed solar activity during the last ice age. The study shows that the regional climate is influenced by the sun and offers opportunities to better ... full story

Fascinating Rhythm: Light Pulses Illuminate a Rare Black Hole

Aug. 17, 2014 — Astronomers have accurately measured -- and thus confirmed the existence of -- a rare intermediate-mass black hole about 400 times the mass of our sun in a galaxy 12 million light years from the ... full story

Hubble Stirs Up Galactic Soup

Aug. 16, 2014 — A new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a whole host of colorful and differently shaped galaxies; some bright and nearby, some fuzzy, and some so far from us they appear as small specks in ... full story

Electronic Alerts Significantly Reduce Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Aug. 22, 2014 — Targeted automated alerts in electronic health records significantly reduce urinary tract infections in hospital patients with urinary catheters. In addition, when the design of the alert was ... full story

Hacking Gmail With 92 Percent Success

Aug. 21, 2014 — Computer scientists have identified a weakness believed to exist in Android, Windows and iOS mobile operating systems that could be used to obtain personal information from unsuspecting users. They ... full story

Paving the Way for Cyborg Moth 'Biobots'

Aug. 20, 2014 — Researchers have developed methods for electronically manipulating the flight muscles of moths and for monitoring the electrical signals moths use to control those muscles. The work opens the door to ... full story

Wildland Fire Modeling Can Lead to Better Predictions

Aug. 19, 2014 — If we can better understand scientifically how wildland fires behave, we’ll have a better chance to accurately predict their evolution, researchers say. When wildland fuel distribution and ignition ... full story

Major Step Toward Optical Computing: Non-Metallic Metamaterial Used to 'Compress' and Contain Light

Aug. 19, 2014 — Engineering researchers are designing nano-optical cables small enough to replace the copper wiring on computer chips. The advance could result in radical increases in computing speeds and reduced ... full story

How Worms Crawl: Mathematical Model Challenges Traditional View

Aug. 19, 2014 — A new mathematical model for earthworms and insect larvae challenges the traditional view of how these soft bodied animals get around. Researchers say that there is a far greater role for the body's ... full story

First Indirect Evidence of So-Far Undetected Strange Baryons

Aug. 19, 2014 — New supercomputing calculations provide the first evidence that particles predicted by the theory of quark-gluon interactions but never before observed are being produced in heavy-ion collisions at ... full story

A New Wireless Energy Transfer Device Can Charge Any Device Without Using Cables

Aug. 19, 2014 — Researchers have designed a new device for wireless energy transfer that will, for example, charge mobile phones or laptops without needing ... full story

Most Complete Antarctic Map for Climate Research Made Public

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new satellite image of Antarctica has been made available to the public, and the imagery will help scientists all over the world gain new insight into the effects of climate change. Using Synthetic ... full story

New 'Invisibility Cloak': Octopus-Inspired Camouflage Systems Automatically Read Surroundings and Mimic Them

Aug. 18, 2014 — Researchers have developed a technology that allows a material to automatically read its environment and adapt to mimic its surroundings. Cunjiang Yu, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at ... full story

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Canola Genome Sequence Reveals Evolutionary 'Love Triangle'

Aug. 22, 2014 — Scientists recently published the genome of Brassica napus -- commonly known as canola -- in the journal Science. Their discovery paves the way for improved versions of the plant, which is used ... full story

Plants: Calcium and Reproduction Go Together Like the Birds and the Bees

Aug. 22, 2014 — Everyone's heard of the birds and the bees. But that old expression leaves out the flowers that are being fertilized. The fertilization process for flowering plants is particularly complex and ... full story

From Dandruff to Deep Sea Vents, an Ecologically Hyper-Diverse Fungus

Aug. 21, 2014 — A ubiquitous skin fungus linked to dandruff, eczema and other itchy, flaky maladies in humans has now been tracked to even further global reaches -- including Hawaiian coral reefs and the extreme ... full story

The Marmoset Animal Model Recapitulates Disease Symptoms of MERS Infection in Humans

Aug. 21, 2014 — A new article reports the first animal model that recapitulates the severe and sometimes lethal respiratory symptoms seen in human patients and suggests that the common marmoset will play an ... full story

Of Bees, Mites, and Viruses: Virus Infections After Arrival of New Parasitic Mite in New Zealand Honeybee Colonies

Aug. 21, 2014 — Honeybee colonies are dying at alarming rates worldwide. A variety of factors have been proposed to explain their decline, but the exact cause -- and how bees can be saved -- remains unclear. A new ... full story

Experts Question Value of Common Superbug Control Practices

Aug. 21, 2014 — The jury is still out on the effectiveness of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) superbug control policies in hospitals, according to leading infectious disease experts. In particular, ... full story

Ibuprofen Posing Potential Threat to Fish, Researchers Say

Aug. 21, 2014 — Many rivers contain levels of ibuprofen that could be adversely affecting fish health, researchers report. In what is believed to be the first study to establish the level of risk posed by ibuprofen ... full story

Adherence to Diet Can Be Measured from Blood

Aug. 21, 2014 — New results show that it's possible to assess dietary compliance from a blood sample. This is especially useful in controlled dietary intervention studies investigating the health benefits of ... full story

Songbirds: Juveniles Delay Departure, Make Frequent Stopovers During First Migration

Aug. 20, 2014 — Juvenile songbirds on spring migration travel from overwintering sites in the tropics to breeding destinations thousands of kilometres away with no prior experience to guide them. Now, a new study ... full story

Paleolithic Diet May Have Included Snails 10,000 Years Earlier Than Previously Thought

Aug. 20, 2014 — Paleolithic inhabitants of modern-day Spain may have eaten snails 10,000 years earlier than their Mediterranean neighbors. Snails were widespread in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, but it is still ... full story

Severe Drought Is Causing the Western US to Rise Like a Spring Uncoiling

Aug. 21, 2014 — The severe drought gripping the western United States in recent years is changing the landscape well beyond localized effects of water restrictions and browning lawns. Scientists have used GPS data ... full story

Arctic Sea Ice Influenced Force of Gulf Stream

Aug. 21, 2014 — The force of the Gulf Stream was significantly influenced by the sea ice situation in the Fram Strait in the past 30,000 years. On the basis of biomarkers in deposits on the seafloor, geologists ... full story

Water and Sunlight: The Formula for Sustainable Fuel

Aug. 21, 2014 — Scientists have replicated one of the crucial steps in photosynthesis, opening the way for biological systems powered by sunlight which could manufacture hydrogen as a ... full story

Ozone-Depleting Compound Persists, NASA Research Shows

Aug. 20, 2014 — NASA research shows Earth's atmosphere contains an unexpectedly large amount of an ozone-depleting compound from an unknown source decades after the compound was banned ... full story

New Satellite Data Will Help Farmers Facing Drought

Aug. 20, 2014 — NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission, scheduled to launch this winter, will collect the kind of local data agricultural and water managers worldwide need. SMAP uses two ... full story

Orb-Weaving Spiders Living in Urban Areas May Be Larger

Aug. 20, 2014 — A common orb-weaving spider may grow larger and have an increased ability to reproduce when living in urban ... full story

Water Leads to Chemical That Gunks Up Biofuels Production

Aug. 20, 2014 — Trying to understand the chemistry that turns plant material into the same energy-rich gasoline and diesel we put in our vehicles, researchers have discovered that water in the conversion process ... full story

Seals and Sea Lions Likely Spread Tuberculosis to Humans

Aug. 20, 2014 — Scientists who study tuberculosis have long debated its origins. New research shows that tuberculosis likely spread from humans in Africa to seals and sea lions that brought the disease to South ... full story

Life Can Persist in Cold, Dark World: Life Under Antarctic Ice Explored

Aug. 20, 2014 — The first breakthrough article to come out of a massive U.S. expedition to one of Earth's final frontiers shows that there's life and an active ecosystem one-half mile below the surface of the West ... full story

Signs of Deforestation in Brazil

Aug. 20, 2014 — Multiple fires are visible in in this image of the Para and Mato Grosso states of Brazil. Many of these were most likely intentionally set in order to deforest the ... full story

Neanderthals 'Overlapped' With Modern Humans for Up to 5,400 Years

Aug. 21, 2014 — Neanderthals and modern humans were both living in Europe for between 2,600 and 5,400 years, according to a new article. For the first time, scientists have constructed a robust timeline showing when ... full story

One of Oldest Metal Objects Found to Date in Middle East

Aug. 21, 2014 — A copper awl, one of the oldest metal objects found to date in the Middle East, has been discovered during the excavations at Tel Tsaf. The awl dates back to the late 6th millennium or the early 5th ... full story

Jurassic Mammals Were Picky Eaters, New Study Finds

Aug. 20, 2014 — New analyses of tiny fossil mammals from Glamorgan, South Wales are shedding light on the function and diets of our earliest ancestors, a team reports. Mammals and their immediate ancestors from the ... full story

Neither Too Hot nor Too Cold: Evolution of Marine Crocodilians Constrained by Ocean Temperatures

Aug. 19, 2014 — The ancestors of today's crocodiles colonized the seas during warm phases and became extinct during cold phases, according to a new Anglo-French study which establishes a link between marine ... full story

Minor Variations in Ice Sheet Size Can Trigger Abrupt Climate Change

Aug. 18, 2014 — Small fluctuations in the sizes of ice sheets during the last ice age were enough to trigger abrupt climate change, scientists have found. The team compared simulated model data with that retrieved ... full story

500-Million-Year Reset for Immune System

Aug. 18, 2014 — A single factor can reset the immune system of mice to a state likely similar to what it was 500 million years ago, when the first vertebrates emerged. The model, researchers report, could provide an ... full story

Toothless 'Dragon' Pterosaurs Dominated the Late Cretaceous Skies

Aug. 18, 2014 — A new study provides an exciting insight into the diversity and distribution of pterosaurs from the Azhdarchidae family. Dominating the Late Cretaceous skies this group of toothless flying 'dragons' ... full story

Evolutionary Misfit: Misunderstood Worm-Like Fossil Finds Its Place in the Tree of Life

Aug. 17, 2014 — One of the most bizarre-looking fossils ever found -- a worm-like creature with legs, spikes and a head difficult to distinguish from its tail -- has found its place in the evolutionary tree of life, ... full story

Bone Chemistry Reveals Royal Lifestyle of Richard III

Aug. 16, 2014 — A recent study has delved into the bone and tooth chemistry of King Richard III and uncovered fascinating new details about the life and diet of Britain's last Plantagenet king. The study indicates a ... full story

New Species of Flying Pterosaur: Bones from Nearly 50 Ancient Flying Reptiles Discovered

Aug. 13, 2014 — Scientists discovered the bones of nearly 50 winged reptiles from a new species, Caiuajara dobruskii, that lived during the Cretaceous in southern ... full story

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Experts Denounce Clinical Trials of Unscientific, 'Alternative' Medicines

Aug. 20, 2014 — Experts call for an end to clinical trials of 'highly implausible treatments' such as homeopathy and reiki. Over the last two decades, such complementary and alternative medicine treatments have been ... full story

Is China's 50 Percent Cesarean Section Delivery Rate Too High?

Aug. 20, 2014 — Efforts must be made to decrease China's increasing cesarean section rate, suggests a new article. China has one of the highest caesarean delivery rates in the world. Of 16 million babies born in ... full story

More Than 100,000 African Elephants Killed in Three Years, Study Verifies

Aug. 19, 2014 — New research has revealed that an estimated 100,000 elephants in Africa were killed for their ivory between 2010 and 2012. The study shows these losses are driving population declines of the world's ... full story

Exporting U.S. Coal to Asia Could Drop Emissions 21 Percent

Aug. 19, 2014 — Under the right scenario, exporting U.S. coal to power plants in South Korea could lead to a 21 percent drop in greenhouse gas emissions compared to burning it at less energy-efficient U.S. plants. ... full story

Economists: Shale Oil 'Dividend' Could Pay for Smaller Carbon Footprint

Aug. 19, 2014 — Unanticipated economic benefits from the shale oil and gas boom could help offset the costs of substantially reducing the US's carbon footprint, agricultural economists say. Using an economic model, ... full story

Bigger Weddings, Fewer Partners, Less 'Sliding' Linked to Better Marriages

Aug. 19, 2014 — The more people who attend your wedding and the fewer relationships you had prior to marriage, the more likely you are to report a high-quality marriage, a study concludes. The study challenges the ... full story

Electronic 'Noses' to Detect Chemical Warfare Gases

Aug. 19, 2014 — Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic "nose" for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Daughters Provide as Much Elderly Parent Care as They Can, Sons Do as Little as Possible

Aug. 19, 2014 — Parents are better off having daughters if they want to be cared for in their old age suggests a new study, which finds that women appear to provide as much elderly parent care as they can, while men ... full story

Neglected Boys May Turn Into Violent Adolescents

Aug. 18, 2014 — Parents who physically neglect their boys may increase the risk that they will raise violent adolescents, according to sociologists. Examples of physical neglect include not taking a sick or injured ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Study Measures Steep Coastal Costs of China's GDP Growth

Aug. 8, 2014 — Economic reforms declared in 1978 led to a surge of growth in China, but resulting increases in human impact activities are seriously degrading the nation's coastal ecosystems, according to a newly ... full story

Geography Matters: Model Predicts How Local 'Shocks' Influence U.S. Economy

Aug. 6, 2014 — Hurricanes. Foreclosures. Factory shutdowns. How do these local industry 'shocks' influence the country as a whole? A new model measures the power of industry dips and boosts nationwide. Overall, ... full story

All-in-One Energy System Offers Greener Power for Off–grid Homes, Farms and Businesses

July 30, 2014 — An innovative ‘trigeneration’ system fuelled entirely by raw plant oils could have great potential for isolated homes and businesses operating outside grid ... full story

Kill Switch in Cell Phones Could Save Consumers More Than $3.4 Billion Annually

July 29, 2014 — A new study shows consumer savings from the Kill Switch legislation exceed initial projections and now points to well over $3 billion. This savings to consumers comes at the expense of insurance and ... full story

Google Searches May Hold Key to Future Market Crashes, Researchers Find

July 28, 2014 — A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market ... full story

It Takes More Than Practice to Excel

July 28, 2014 — Psychologists have overturned a 20-year-old theory that people who excel in their fields are those who practiced the ... full story

Shift Work Linked to Heightened Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

July 24, 2014 — Shift work is linked to a heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes, with the risk seemingly greatest among men and those working rotating shift patterns, indicates an analysis of the available ... full story

Powerful New Source of Up-to-Date Information on Economic Activity

July 10, 2014 — Researchers have developed a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure uses aggregated and de-identified data on transactions and account balances from Check, a ... full story

Children's Drawings Indicate Later Intelligence, Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — How 4-year-old children draw pictures of a child is an indicator of intelligence at age 14, according to a new study. The researchers studied 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical twins and ... full story

How Children's Brains Memorize Math Facts

Aug. 17, 2014 — As children learn basic arithmetic, they gradually switch from solving problems by counting on their fingers to pulling facts from memory. The shift comes more easily for some kids than for others, ... full story

Expecting to Teach Enhances Learning, Recall

Aug. 8, 2014 — People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that ... full story

Musical Training Offsets Some Academic Achievement Gaps, Research Says

Aug. 8, 2014 — Learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills, according to research. The findings, which involved hundreds of kids ... full story

New Insights Into How Young and Developing Readers Make Sense of Words

Aug. 7, 2014 — Skilled readers are often able to make sense of words suffering from 'typos' and jumbled up letter orders as long as the beginning and end letters of the words are ... full story

Video-Game Playing for Less Than an Hour a Day Is Linked With Better-Adjusted Children, Study Finds

Aug. 4, 2014 — A new study suggests video game-playing for less than an hour a day is linked with better-adjusted children and teenagers. The research found that young people who indulged in a little video ... full story

Removing Vending Machines from Schools Is Not Enough to Reduce Soda Consumption

Aug. 1, 2014 — Banning vending machines from schools can actually increase soda and fast food consumption among students if it’s the only school food policy change implemented, according to new ... full story

Preterm Children Do Not Have an Increased Risk for Dyscalculia, New Research Suggests

Aug. 1, 2014 — Preterm children do not suffer from dyscalculia more often than healthy full-term children, experts say, contrary to previous studies. Unlike most other studies, the researchers took the children’s ... full story

Numerical Learning Disability: Dyscalculia Linked to Difficulties in Reading and Spelling

July 30, 2014 — Between three and six percent of schoolchildren suffer from an arithmetic-related learning disability. Researchers now show that these children are also more likely to exhibit deficits in reading and ... full story

Social Origins of Intelligence in the Brain

July 29, 2014 — By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, scientists are tackling -- and beginning to answer -- longstanding questions about ... full story

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