Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Computational intelligence opens up new avenues in Alzheimer's research

Date:
October 9, 2012
Source:
Facultad de Informática de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Summary:
Researchers have used machine learning and data mining techniques to compare gene expresssion levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in two key regions of the hippocampus: the dentate gyrus, where the disease appears to have little or no effect, and the entorhinal cortex, where Alzheimer's disease produces major neuronal damage. The results corroborate previous findings by other studies and set forth new working hypotheses for AD research.

Reconstruction of granule neurons (left). Granule neurons are estimated to account for 80% of dentate gyrus neurons. By contrast, pyramidal neurons are the most common neurons in the entorhinal cortex. Pyramidal neurons are the group most at risk from lesion in Alzheimer's disease.
Credit: Facultad de Informática, UPM

Researchers from the Computational Intelligence Group based at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid's Facultad de Informática have used machine learning and data mining techniques to compare gene expresssion levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in two key regions of the hippocampus: the dentate gyrus, where the disease appears to have little or no effect, and the entorhinal cortex, where Alzheimer's disease produces major neuronal damage. The results, published in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, corroborate previous findings by other studies and set forth new working hypotheses for AD research.

Related Articles


Dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex

The hippocampal formation is a complex structure situated in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. It plays a key role in memory, attention and spatial navigation. It is composed of six regions: presubiculum, subiculum, parasubiculum, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. A noteworthy part of this formation is the dentate gyrus, one of the few regions of the brain where new neurons continue to be born (neurogenesis) throughout adulthood. It is known that neurogenesis plays a key role in the generation of new memories. Postmortem histopathological studies have provided evidence that the dentate gyrus is the hippocampal region least affected by AD.

The entorhinal cortex is the primary interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex. This region plays a key role in memory formation and consolidation, as well as the retrieval of autobiographical, declarative and spatial memories. Today, we know that the entorhinal cortex is not only one of the first areas to be affected by AD but also where its progression produces most lesions.

Data analysis using an ensemble of Bayesian classifiers

The data mining technique used is part of the computational intelligence discipline. Thanks to the computational power available today, vast amounts of complex data can be analysed holistically to identify new findings or set forth new hypotheses. This study has used ensemble statistical techniques applied to mathematical models to search for relevant genes and gene dependency networks. In both cases, the mathematical paradigm used is called Bayesian classifier.

Results

The results identify relevant genes in different neurological diseases, as well as key metabolic mechanisms that corroborate earlier molecular research in AD. One of these findings is the deregulation of the DEC1 and BTRC genes that help to regulate the molecular clock controlling the body's circadian rhythm.

One of the most common symptoms of AD is sleep disorder, an effect of the loss of the circadian reference. Patients' brains do not correctly identify when they should sleep or be awake. Sleepless periods increase amyloid beta levels, causing the disease to progress.

Another noteworthy result is the deregulation of the S100A10 gene. This gene plays a key role in serotonin receptors, whose activity is linked to neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD patients.

Similarly, it is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and deregulation of depressive disorders. The level of this gene's differential activity between the dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex corroborates both these associations and recent findings identifying it as a new early biomarker of AD.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Facultad de Informática de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Rubén Armañanzas, Pedro Larrañaga, Concha Bielza. Ensemble transcript interaction networks: A case study on Alzheimer's disease. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 2012; 108 (1): 442 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2011.11.011

Cite This Page:

Facultad de Informática de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. "Computational intelligence opens up new avenues in Alzheimer's research." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 October 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121009101637.htm>.
Facultad de Informática de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. (2012, October 9). Computational intelligence opens up new avenues in Alzheimer's research. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121009101637.htm
Facultad de Informática de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. "Computational intelligence opens up new avenues in Alzheimer's research." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121009101637.htm (accessed October 24, 2014).

Share This



More Computers & Math News

Friday, October 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Real-Life Transformer Robot Walks, Then Folds Into a Car

Real-Life Transformer Robot Walks, Then Folds Into a Car

Buzz60 (Oct. 24, 2014) — Brave Robotics and Asratec teamed with original Transformers toy company Tomy to create a functional 5-foot-tall humanoid robot that can march and fold itself into a 3-foot-long sports car. Jen Markham has the story. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Microsoft Riding High On Strong Surface, Cloud Performance

Microsoft Riding High On Strong Surface, Cloud Performance

Newsy (Oct. 24, 2014) — Microsoft's Q3 earnings showed its tablets and cloud services are really hitting their stride. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Apps to Organize Your Life

The Best Apps to Organize Your Life

Buzz60 (Oct. 23, 2014) — Need help organizing your bills, schedules and other things? Ko Im (@konakafe) has the best apps to help you stay on top of it all! Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Nike And Apple Team Up To Create Wearable ... Something

Nike And Apple Team Up To Create Wearable ... Something

Newsy (Oct. 23, 2014) — For those looking for wearable tech that's significantly less nerdy than Google Glass, Nike CEO Mark Parker says don't worry, It's on the way. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Space & Time

Matter & Energy

Computers & Math

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins