Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Excessive nerve cell pruning leads to disease

Date:
October 8, 2013
Source:
McGill University
Summary:
Scientists have made important discoveries about a cellular process that occurs during normal brain development and may play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. The study's findings point to new pathways and targets for novel therapies for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases that affect millions of people world-wide.

Studies have shown that protecting cell bodies from death has no impact on disease progression whereas blocking preceding axon breakdown has a significant benefit.
Credit: © Andrii Muzyka / Fotolia

Scientists at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital-The Neuro, McGill University, have made important discoveries about a cellular process that occurs during normal brain development and may play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. The study's findings, published in Cell Reports, a leading scientific journal, point to new pathways and targets for novel therapies for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases that affect millions of people world-wide.

Related Articles


Research into neurodegenerative disease has traditionally concentrated on the death of nerve cell bodies. However, it is now certain that in most cases that nerve cell body death represents the final event of an extended disease process. Studies have shown that protecting cell bodies from death has no impact on disease progression whereas blocking preceding axon breakdown has a significant benefit. The new study by researchers at The Neuro shifts the focus to the loss or degeneration of axons, the nerve-cell 'branches' that receive and distribute neurochemical signals among neurons.

During early development, axons are pruned to ensure normal growth of the nervous system. Emerging evidence suggests that this pruning process becomes reactivated in neurodegenerative disease, leading to the aberrant loss of axons and dendrites. Axonal pruning in development is significantly influenced by proteins called caspases. "The idea that caspases are even involved in axonal degeneration during development is very recent" said Dr. Philip Barker, a principal investigator at The Neuro and senior author of the study.

Dr. Barker and his colleagues show that the activity of certain 'executioner' caspases (caspase-3 and caspase-9) induce axonal degeneration and that their action is suppressed by a protein termed XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis). "We found that caspase-3- and -9 play crucial roles in axonal degeneration and that their activities are regulated by XIAP. XIAP acts as a brake on caspase activity and must be removed for degeneration to proceed" added Dr. Barker.

This balancing act between caspases and XIAP ensure that caspases do not cause unnecessary or excessive destruction. However, this balance may shift during neurodegenerative disease. "If we understand the pathways that regulate XIAP levels, we may be able to develop therapies that reduce caspase-dependent degeneration during neurodegenerative disease."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by McGill University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Nicolas Unsain, Julia M. Higgins, Kristen N. Parker, Aaron D. Johnstone, Philip A. Barker. XIAP Regulates Caspase Activity in Degenerating Axons. Cell Reports, 2013; 4 (4): 751 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.07.015

Cite This Page:

McGill University. "Excessive nerve cell pruning leads to disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 October 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131008123152.htm>.
McGill University. (2013, October 8). Excessive nerve cell pruning leads to disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 17, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131008123152.htm
McGill University. "Excessive nerve cell pruning leads to disease." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131008123152.htm (accessed April 17, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, April 17, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Our Love Of Puppy Dog Eyes Explained By Science

Our Love Of Puppy Dog Eyes Explained By Science

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2015) — Researchers found a spike in oxytocin occurs in both humans and dogs when they gaze into each other&apos;s eyes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Scientists Find Link Between Gestational Diabetes And Autism

Scientists Find Link Between Gestational Diabetes And Autism

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2015) — Researchers who analyzed data from over 300,000 kids and their mothers say they&apos;ve found a link between gestational diabetes and autism. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Video Messages Help Reassure Dementia Patients

Video Messages Help Reassure Dementia Patients

AP (Apr. 17, 2015) — Family members are prerecording messages as part of a unique pilot program at the Hebrew Home in New York. The videos are trying to help victims of Alzheimer&apos;s disease and other forms of dementia break through the morning fog of forgetfulness. (April 17) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Boy or Girl? Intersex Awareness Is on the Rise

Boy or Girl? Intersex Awareness Is on the Rise

AP (Apr. 17, 2015) — At least 1 in 5,000 U.S. babies are born each year with intersex conditions _ ambiguous genitals because of genetic glitches or hormone problems. Secrecy and surgery are common. But some doctors and activists are trying to change things. (April 17) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins