Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Boys And Girls Are Cruel To Each Other In Different Ways -- But The Effects Are Equally Harmful

Date:
March 26, 1998
Source:
American Psychological Association
Summary:
The vast majority of past studies on peer victimization have focused on boys and physical aggression. But new research illustrates that girls also experience peer victimization, usually relational aggression, in which a person is harmed through hurtful manipulation of their peer relationships or friendships.

WASHINGTON - The vast majority of past studies on peer victimization have focused on boys and physical aggression. But new research illustrates that girls also experience peer victimization, usually relational aggression, in which a person is harmed through hurtful manipulation of their peer relationships or friendships. Examples of relational aggression include retaliating against a peer by purposefully excluding her from one's social group or badmouthing her to her peers. Girls who are relationally victimized are rejected by their peers, feel lonely, experience social anxiety, are socially distressed, and are significantly more submissive than their peers, according to a study in the April issue of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Related Articles


Researchers Nicki R. Crick, Ph.D., of the University of Minnesota, and Maureen A. Bigbee, M.S./M.S.W., of Ramsey Elementary School examined 383 fourth and fifth graders' (194 boys and 189 girls) self-reports of victimization and assessed peer perception of children's positive and negative treatment by classmates. While most past studies concentrated on the initiators of aggressive behavior, the researchers focused their efforts on the children who are targets of such behavior and they examined how such aggression affects their adjustment. The authors found that girls were significantly more relationally victimized, while boys were significantly more overtly victimized (overt aggression harms others through physical damage or the threat of such damage).

The researchers note that victims of relational aggression experience significant adjustment problems, and all victimized children report relatively high levels of emotional distress and loneliness. Relationally victimized children also report more self-restraint problems than their peers, including more difficulty inhibiting anger and greater impulsivity. The authors say assessment of relational victimization provides valuable insights into children's adjustment difficulties that are not evident when examining overt aggression, overt victimization, or relational aggression. "These insights demonstrate the value of studying relational victimization in order to increase our knowledge of social contributors to children's mental health problems, particularly for girls," says Dr. Crick, lead author of the study.

The researchers suggest that those who work with children, including teachers and clinicians, must pay attention to victims not only of physically aggressive attacks, but also to those who are victimized by relational slights, for both types of victims may be at risk for adjustment difficulties. Future research should examine the preceding factors and consequences of both forms of peer victimization in order to develop effective treatment programs for victimized boys and girls.

Article: "Relational and Overt Forms of Peer Victimization: A Multiinformant Approach," by Nicki R. Crick, Ph.D., University of Minnesota and Maureen A. Bigbee, M.S./M.S.W., Ramsey Elementary School, in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 66, No. 2.

The American Psychological Association (APA), in Washington, DC is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's largest association of psychologists. APA's membership includes more than 150,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 50 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 58 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Psychological Association. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Psychological Association. "Boys And Girls Are Cruel To Each Other In Different Ways -- But The Effects Are Equally Harmful." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 March 1998. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/03/980326075743.htm>.
American Psychological Association. (1998, March 26). Boys And Girls Are Cruel To Each Other In Different Ways -- But The Effects Are Equally Harmful. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 24, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/03/980326075743.htm
American Psychological Association. "Boys And Girls Are Cruel To Each Other In Different Ways -- But The Effects Are Equally Harmful." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/03/980326075743.htm (accessed January 24, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Mind & Brain News

Saturday, January 24, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Smart Wristband to Shock Away Bad Habits

Smart Wristband to Shock Away Bad Habits

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Jan. 23, 2015) — A Boston start-up is developing a wristband they say will help users break bad habits by jolting them with an electric shock. Ben Gruber reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Amazing Technology Allows Blind Mother to See Her Newborn Son

Amazing Technology Allows Blind Mother to See Her Newborn Son

RightThisMinute (Jan. 23, 2015) — Not only is Kathy seeing her newborn son for the first time, but this is actually the first time she has ever seen a baby. Kathy and her sister, Yvonne, have been legally blind since childhood, but thanks to an amazing new technology, eSight glasses, which gives those who are legally blind the ability to see, she got the chance to see the birth of her son. It&apos;s an incredible moment and an even better story. Video provided by RightThisMinute
Powered by NewsLook.com
One Dose, Then Surgery to Test Tumor Drugs Fast

One Dose, Then Surgery to Test Tumor Drugs Fast

AP (Jan. 23, 2015) — A Phoenix hospital is experimenting with a faster way to test much needed medications for deadly brain tumors. Patients get a single dose of a potential drug, and hours later have their tumor removed to see if the drug had any affect. (Jan. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Bedtime Rituals For a Good Night's Sleep

The Best Bedtime Rituals For a Good Night's Sleep

Buzz60 (Jan. 22, 2015) — What you do before bed can effect how well you sleep. TC Newman (@PurpleTCNewman) has bedtime rituals to induce the best night&apos;s sleep. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins