Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Smoking Is Major Risk Factor For Stroke In China, Study Shows

Date:
March 10, 2008
Source:
American Heart Association
Summary:
Smoking is a major risk factor for stroke in China, accounting for about one in seven strokes in men. Many studies in western populations have shown that cigarette smoking is a strong and independent risk factor for stroke. But the relationship between cigarette smoking and stroke hasn't been well-studied in Asian populations -- including China, where stroke is the second leading cause of death.

Smoking is a major risk factor for stroke in China, accounting for about one in seven strokes in men, researchers reported in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association.

"This study shows that smoking prevention and cessation could be an important approach to reducing the societal burden of stroke," said Jiang He, M.D., Ph.D., senior author of the study.

Many studies in western populations have shown that cigarette smoking is a strong and independent risk factor for stroke. But the relationship between cigarette smoking and stroke hasn't been well-studied in Asian populations -- including China, where stroke is the second leading cause of death.

"The study findings were consistent with reports from other populations, but in China this risk creates a huge public health problem," said He, the Joseph S. Copes Chair and professor of epidemiology at Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in New Orleans, La. "In addition to being the world's most populous nation, China is the world's leading producer and consumer of cigarettes."

Researchers from Tulane and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in Beijing studied a representative sample of 83,533 men and 86,336 women, 40 years and older, from 17 provinces in mainland China. The participants were part of the third China National Hypertension Survey.

Researchers collected information on cigarette smoking and other health data when the study began in 1991. At that time, 59.1 percent of men and 13 percent of women reported being current smokers. The researchers followed participants for an average 8.3 years, during which time 6,780 strokes occurred, 3,979 of them fatal. After adjusting for other stroke-related factors, such as age and blood pressure, cigarette smoking was found to be a significant predictor of stroke.

Cigarette smoking accounted for 14.2 percent of strokes and 7.1 percent of stroke fatalities in men, and 3.1 percent of strokes and 2.4 percent of stroke deaths in women.

The longer and heavier a person's smoking habit, the higher the risk of stroke, the researchers found. Compared with never-smokers, the risk of stroke increased:

  • 21 percent for those smoking 1--19 cigarettes per day and
  • 36 percent for those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day.

Researchers also analyzed "pack-years," a measure of the number of 20-cigarette packs smoked per day times the number of years smoked. Smoking half a pack daily for 20 years or one pack daily for 10 years would both be calculated as 10 pack-years. They found that, compared with never-smokers, the risk of stroke increased:

  • 18 percent for those smoking 1--11 pack-years;
  • 25 percent for those smoking 12--26 pack-years; and
  • 34 percent for those smoking more than 26 pack-years.

The relationship between the amount of smoking and stroke risk was strongest for ischemic stroke, caused when a blood clot blocks the circulation of blood to part of the brain. Participants who smoked a pack or more per day were 51 percent more likely to suffer an ischemic stroke.

Researchers found a less significant association between the amount a person had smoked and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, caused by rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. Smoking a pack or more per day raised the risk of hemorrhagic stroke by 20 percent.

"Of the stroke risk factors that can be modified, cigarette smoking is probably second only to hypertension," He said.

"Anti-smoking campaigns are ongoing, but it is rare to see any anti-smoking message in government-owned television or newspapers. Most Chinese still do not understand the risk associated with cigarette smoking."

Based on relative risk and prevalence of cigarette smoking, authors conclude that prevention and cessation efforts could reduce stroke deaths by almost 5 percent, according to the study.

Participants in the National China Hypertension Study included people from all 30 provinces of mainland China, but this analysis could only be performed on those from the 17 provinces that collected contact information. The researchers found that the complete group was similar to the group analyzed in the initial evaluation.

Co-authors include: Tanika N. Kelly, M.P.H.; Dongfeng Gu, M.D., M.Sc.; Jing Chen, M.D.; Jian-feng Huang, M.D.; Ji-chun Chen, M.D.; Xiufang Duan, M.D.; Xigui Wu, M.D.; and Chung-Shiuan Chen, M.S.

The study was supported by the American Heart Association; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the Chinese Ministry of Health and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Heart Association. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Heart Association. "Smoking Is Major Risk Factor For Stroke In China, Study Shows." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080306162752.htm>.
American Heart Association. (2008, March 10). Smoking Is Major Risk Factor For Stroke In China, Study Shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080306162752.htm
American Heart Association. "Smoking Is Major Risk Factor For Stroke In China, Study Shows." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080306162752.htm (accessed September 1, 2014).

Share This




More Mind & Brain News

Monday, September 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) Researchers say having a cup of coffee then taking a nap is more effective than a nap or coffee alone. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Young Entrepreneurs Get $100,000, If They Quit School

Young Entrepreneurs Get $100,000, If They Quit School

AFP (Aug. 29, 2014) Twenty college-age students are getting 100,000 dollars from a Silicon Valley leader and a chance to live in San Francisco in order to work on the start-up project of their dreams, but they have to quit school first. Duration: 02:20 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Baby Babbling Might Lead To Faster Language Development

Baby Babbling Might Lead To Faster Language Development

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) A new study suggests babies develop language skills more quickly if their parents imitate the babies' sounds and expressions and talk to them often. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Electrical Stimulation Boosts Brain Function, Study Says

Electrical Stimulation Boosts Brain Function, Study Says

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) Researchers found an improvement in memory and learning function in subjects who received electric pulses to their brains. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins