Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Manipulation Of Molecule Protects Intestinal Cells From Radiation

Date:
June 7, 2008
Source:
Cell Press
Summary:
A new study identifies a signaling molecule that plays a major role in radiation-induced intestinal damage. The research may lead to new strategies for protecting normal tissues from radiation during cancer therapies.

A new study identifies a signaling molecule that plays a major role in radiation-induced intestinal damage. The research, published in the June issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell, may lead to new strategies for protecting normal tissues from radiation during cancer therapies.

Although radiation is one of the most effective treatments for cancer, damage to the cells that line the gastrointestinal tract is a major limiting factor for patients undergoing pelvic or abdominal radiotherapy. The specific mechanisms that underlie radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity, known as gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, are not well understood. Previous studies have suggested that damage to intestinal stem cells and/or damage to intestinal blood vessel cells, called endothelial cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of GI syndrome.

The group led by Drs. Jian Yu and Lin Zhang from the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and School of Medicine found that the protein "p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis" (PUMA) plays a key role in the radiation-induced damage of intestinal cells. PUMA is an established player in the apoptosis pathway, a process by which cells undergo a type of programmed self-destruction.

Dr. Yu and colleagues found that mice with a deficiency of PUMA exhibited impaired apoptosis in intestinal stem and progenitor cells, and enhanced intestinal regeneration following injury. The mutant mice thus retained better intestinal integrity and survived longer following lethal doses of radiation. Although endothelial cells displayed a rapid induction of PUMA upon exposure to radiation, deletion of the protein did not alter apoptosis in these specific cells.

These results provide a mechanistic explanation of intestinal radiosensitivity and suggest that apoptosis of epithelial cells, and not endothelial cells, is the primary event that underlies the rapid onset of GI syndrome. "We were really excited to learn that deficiency in a single gene significantly protects against GI syndrome," explains Dr. Yu. "Selectively curbing radiosensitivity in the normal tissues transiently by PUMA inhibitors might be particularly beneficial in cancer therapy."

The researchers include Wei Qiu, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Eleanor B. Carson-Walter, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY; Hongtao Liu, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Michael Epperly, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Joel S. Greenberger, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Gerard P. Zambetti, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Lauderdale, Memphis, TN; Lin Zhang, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; and Jian Yu, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA .


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Cell Press. "Manipulation Of Molecule Protects Intestinal Cells From Radiation." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 June 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080604141029.htm>.
Cell Press. (2008, June 7). Manipulation Of Molecule Protects Intestinal Cells From Radiation. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080604141029.htm
Cell Press. "Manipulation Of Molecule Protects Intestinal Cells From Radiation." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080604141029.htm (accessed July 25, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Friday, July 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Newsy (July 24, 2014) Sheik Umar Khan has treated many of the people infected in the Ebola outbreak, and now he's become one of them. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

AFP (July 24, 2014) America's death penalty debate raged Thursday after it took nearly two hours for Arizona to execute a prisoner who lost a Supreme Court battle challenging the experimental lethal drug cocktail. Duration: 00:55 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Can Watching TV Make You Feel Like A Failure?

Can Watching TV Make You Feel Like A Failure?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) A study by German researchers claims watching TV while you're stressed out can make you feel guilty and like a failure. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile: iPhone Android Web
          Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins