According to an international survey by the BBVA Foundation conducted this year, citizens in advanced societies view assisted reproduction techniques in general and in vitro fertilization in particular as firmly acceptable alternatives for people with fertility problems (over 7 points on an acceptance scale from 0 to 10 in twelve of the fifteen survey countries).
However, this strong approval for in vitro fertilization dissipates in other scenarios such as using the technique to choose a baby's sex (with scores below 3 points in almost every country).
Citizens also hold contrasting views on the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (a genetic test that can be carried out on the embryos obtained from artificial fertilization in order to select those to be implanted in the uterus of the future mother). Its use is widely accepted in all survey countries for the purpose of selecting a healthy, compatible embryo that may help cure a sibling suffering some genetic disease (mean acceptance score of around 6.5 points across the sample of countries, with Spain's score at 7.0 on a scale from 0 to 10). Conversely, its use to choose the sex of a future baby meets with widespread rejection (mean score below 4 points).
The data that follow correspond to the "Second International Study on Biotechnology ", by the BBVA Foundation. Information was gathered by surveying a representative population sample in twelve European countries (Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Austria, and the Czech Republic), the United States, Japan and Israel. 1,500 face-to-face interviews were conducted in each country with subjects aged 18 and over (around 22,500 interviewees in all), with the fieldwork concluding in February 2008. The design and analysis of the survey were the work of the BBVA Foundation's Department of Social Studies and Public Opinion.
Attitudes toward infertility
In order to obtain some background for attitudes towards assisted reproductive techniques, interviewees were asked what they thought would be the best option for a couple unable to have children due to problems of fertility:
In all countries, a majority chose either adoption or the use of assisted reproduction techniques, with only a small percentage most in favor of them accepting the situation.
However, we can observe highly significant differences between the countries surveyed as regards the first two options:
In vitro fertilization techniques
Citizens' attitudes to in vitro fertilization are keenly differentiated depending on the specific circumstances and the goals pursued:
The use of in vitro fertilization finds widespread acceptance in cases of
Attitudes towards preimplantation genetic diagnosis
The application of a genetic test to the embryos obtained from artificial fertilization before they are implanted in the uterus of the future mother is another biomedical advance that brings significant medical benefits but is also a focus of moral controversy.
Social attitudes towards preimplantation genetic testing depend strongly on the goal being pursued. Some of its main therapeutic indications – detection of genetically transmitted diseases and, more recently, the selection of a healthy, compatible embryo that can help cure a brother or sister of a genetic disease – deactivate reservations to its use, whereas its possible application in selecting the sex of the future baby activates powerful moral reservations.
A large majority of citizens are disposed to accept preimplantation genetic diagnosis:
Acceptance scores tend to be highest in all three cases in France, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Israel, and Spain.
The use of this application to select the baby's sex meets with the opposite response. Mean acceptance scores were below 4 points in all survey countries and extremely low (equal to or below 2 points) in Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and France.
Sperm banks gets approval where the male is infertile
The following scenarios register medium acceptance scores:
Universe: in each country, the general population aged 18 and over.
Methods: administered face-to-face survey in the interviewee's home.
Sample size and distribution: 1,500 cases in each of the 15 countries. Multistage sample distribution stratified by region (NUTS classification or equivalent)/size of habitat, with primary units selected at random. Selection of individual respondents by the last birthday rule.
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