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Key protein responsible for controlling nerve cell protection discovered

Date:
April 22, 2012
Source:
University of Bristol
Summary:
A key protein, which may be activated to protect nerve cells from damage during heart failure or epileptic seizure, has been found to regulate the transfer of information between nerve cells in the brain. The discovery could lead to novel new therapies for stroke and epilepsy.

An image of a hippocampal neuron.
Credit: Inma Gonzalez-Gonzalez

A key protein, which may be activated to protect nerve cells from damage during heart failure or epileptic seizure, has been found to regulate the transfer of information between nerve cells in the brain. The discovery, made by neuroscientists at the University of Bristol and published in Nature Neuroscience and PNAS, could lead to novel new therapies for stroke and epilepsy.

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The research team, led by Professor Jeremy Henley and Dr Jack Mellor from Bristol's Medical School, has identified a protein, known as SUMO, responsible for controlling the chemical processes which reduce or enhance protection mechanisms for nerve cells in the brain.

These key proteins produce subtle responses to the brain's activity levels to regulate the amount of information transmitted by kainate receptors -- responsible for communication between nerve cells and whose activation can lead to epileptic seizures and nerve cell death.

Protein function is controlled by altering their structure in processes that can be independent or inter-related including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation. In the present work it is shown that phosphorylation of kainate receptors on its own promotes their activity. However, phosphorylation also facilitates SUMOylation of kainate receptors that reduces their activity. Thus there is a dynamic and delicate interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation that regulates kainate receptor function.

This fine balance between phosphorylation and SUMOylation is dependent on brain activity levels where damaging activity that occurs during stroke or epilepsy will enhance SUMOylation and therefore reduce kainate receptor function to protect nerve cells.

Dr Mellor, Senior Lecturer from the University's School of Physiology and Pharmacology, said: "Kainate receptors are a somewhat mysterious but clearly very important group of proteins that are known to be involved in a number of diseases including epilepsy. However, we currently know little about what makes kainate receptors so important. Likewise, we also know that SUMO proteins play an important role in neuroprotection. These findings provide a link between SUMO and kainate receptors that increases our understanding of the processes that nerve cells use to protect themselves from excessive and abnormal activity."

Professor Henley added: "This work is important because it gives a new perspective and a deeper understanding of how the flow of information between cells in the brain is regulated. The team has found that by increasing the amount of SUMO attached to kainate receptors -- which would reduce communication between the cells -- could be a way to treat epilepsy by preventing over-excitation of the brain's nerve cells."

The research follows on from previous findings published in Nature that discovered SUMO proteins target the brain's kainate receptors altering their cellular location.

The research teams comprised academics from the University of Bristol's MRC Centre for Synaptic Plasticity and the Division of Neuroscience in the School of Physiology & Pharmacology and the School of Biochemistry. This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), European Research Council (ERC), Medical Research Council (MRC) and EMBO.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Bristol. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Sophie E L Chamberlain, Inmaculada M Gonzαlez-Gonzαlez, Kevin A Wilkinson, Filip A Konopacki, Sriharsha Kantamneni, Jeremy M Henley, Jack R Mellor. SUMOylation and phosphorylation of GluK2 regulate kainate receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. Nature Neuroscience, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3089
  2. F. A. Konopacki, N. Jaafari, D. L. Rocca, K. A. Wilkinson, S. Chamberlain, P. Rubin, S. Kantamneni, J. R. Mellor, J. M. Henley. Agonist-induced PKC phosphorylation regulates GluK2 SUMOylation and kainate receptor endocytosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011; 108 (49): 19772 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1111575108

Cite This Page:

University of Bristol. "Key protein responsible for controlling nerve cell protection discovered." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 April 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120422135000.htm>.
University of Bristol. (2012, April 22). Key protein responsible for controlling nerve cell protection discovered. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120422135000.htm
University of Bristol. "Key protein responsible for controlling nerve cell protection discovered." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120422135000.htm (accessed January 28, 2015).

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