Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Reducing brain activity improves memory after cognitive decline

May 10, 2012
Johns Hopkins
Research suggests a new approach to improving memory and interrupting disease progression in patients with a form of cognitive impairment that often leads to full-blown Alzheimer’s disease.

A study led by a Johns Hopkins neuroscientist and published in the May 10 issue of the journal Neuron suggests a potential new therapeutic approach for improving memory and interrupting disease progression in patients with a form of cognitive impairment that often leads to full-blown Alzheimer's disease.

Related Articles

The focus of the study was "excess brain activity" commonly associated with conditions that cause mild cognitive decline and memory loss, and are linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's. Previously, it had been thought that this neural hyperactivity in the hippocampus was the brain's attempt to compensate for a weakness in forming new memories. Instead, the team found that this excess activity is contributing to conditions such as amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), in which patients' memories are worse than would be expected in healthy people the same age.

"In the case of aMCI, it has been suggested that the increased hippocampal activation may serve a beneficial function by recruiting additional neural 'resources' to compensate for those that are lost," explains lead author Michela Gallagher, the Krieger-Eisenhower Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences in the Johns Hopkins University's Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. "However, animal studies have raised the alternative view that this excess activation may be contributing to memory impairment."

To test how a reduction in that hippocampal activity would affect human patients with aMCI, Gallagher's team administered a low dose of a drug clinically used to treat epilepsy. The goal was to reduce the test subjects' activity to levels that were similar to those of healthy, age-matched subjects in a control group. They used functional magnetic resonance imaging both to determine the levels of excess activity, and the reduction of it by way of the drug.

Gallagher and her team found that those subjects who had been treated with an effective dose of the drug did better on a memory task, pointing to the therapeutic potential of reducing this excess activation of the hippocampus in patients with aMCI. These findings in human patients with aMCI are the first to clinically demonstrate that over activity in the hippocampus has no benefit for cognition, and are consistent with Gallagher's research in an animal model of memory loss: aged rodents.

The findings may have broad clinical implications because increased hippocampal activation occurs not only in patients with aMCI, but also in other conditions of risk, such as familial Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Research in mouse models of familial AD conducted at the Gladstone Institutes of San Francisco has identified mechanisms of the brain that contribute to abnormal excitatory brain activity, as reported in a paper published in the April 27 issue of the journal Cell. In addition, the results of other studies in mice using the same drug used in aMCI patients were presented at last year's International Congress on Alzheimer's disease in Paris, showing both improved memory performance and neuronal function in the hippocampus.

"From both a scientific and clinical perspective, I am thrilled about the consistency of findings obtained in aMCI patients and related animal models," said Lennart Mucke, director of the Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease and professor of neurology and neuroscience at the University of California San Francisco.

According to Gallagher, the elevated hippocampal activity observed in conditions that precede AD may be one of the underlying mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration and memory loss. Studies have found that if patients with aMCI are followed for a number of years, those with the greatest excess activation have the greatest further decline in memory, and are more likely to receive a diagnosis of Alzheimer's over the next four to six years.

"Apart from a direct role in memory impairment, there is concern that elevated activity in vulnerable neural networks could be causing additional damage and possibly promoting the widespread disease-related degeneration that underlies cognitive decline and the conversion to Alzheimer's disease," says Gallagher. "Therefore, reducing the elevated activity in the hippocampus may help to restore memory and protect the brain. It will require a carefully monitored, lengthier clinical trial to determine if that is the case."

The team that conducted the Johns Hopkins study included Arnold Bakker, Greg Krauss, Marilyn Albert, Carolyn Speck, Lauren Jones, Michael Yassa, Amy Shelton and Susan Bassett. The team also included Craig Stark of the University of California at Irvine.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Arnold Bakker, GregoryL. Krauss, MarilynS. Albert, CarolineL. Speck, LaurenR. Jones, CraigE. Stark, MichaelA. Yassa, SusanS. Bassett, AmyL. Shelton, Michela Gallagher. Reduction of Hippocampal Hyperactivity Improves Cognition in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. Neuron, 2012; 74 (3): 467 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.023

Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins. "Reducing brain activity improves memory after cognitive decline." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 May 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120510113348.htm>.
Johns Hopkins. (2012, May 10). Reducing brain activity improves memory after cognitive decline. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120510113348.htm
Johns Hopkins. "Reducing brain activity improves memory after cognitive decline." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120510113348.htm (accessed October 24, 2014).

Share This

More Mind & Brain News

Friday, October 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Academic Scandal Shocks UNC

Academic Scandal Shocks UNC

AP (Oct. 23, 2014) A scandal involving bogus classes and inflated grades at the University of North Carolina was bigger than previously reported, a new investigation found. (Oct. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Working Mother Getaway: Beaches Turks & Caicos

Working Mother Getaway: Beaches Turks & Caicos

Working Mother (Oct. 22, 2014) Feast your eyes on this gorgeous family-friendly resort. Video provided by Working Mother
Powered by NewsLook.com
What Your Favorite Color Says About You

What Your Favorite Color Says About You

Buzz60 (Oct. 22, 2014) We all have one color we love to wear, and believe it or not, your color preference may reveal some of your character traits. In celebration of National Color Day, Krystin Goodwin (@kyrstingoodwin) highlights what your favorite colors may say about you. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

Newsy (Oct. 21, 2014) A medical team has for the first time given a man the ability to walk again after transplanting cells from his brain onto his severed spinal cord. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.


Breaking News:

More Coverage

Reduction of Excess Brain Activity Improves Memory in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

May 9, 2012 New research describes a potential new therapeutic approach for improving memory and modifying disease progression in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The study finds that excess ... read more

Strange & Offbeat Stories

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News


Free Subscriptions

Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile

Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?

Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins