Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Young 'cultured mini brain' develops activity peaks while it is still growing

Date:
November 7, 2012
Source:
University of Twente
Summary:
After a short period of growth, cultured networks of neurons regularly exhibit major activity in the absence of external stimulation. These "bursts" are entirely related to growth. At this stage, they have little to do with learning behavior, as the network is still too young to sustain a process of memory formation. This has now for the first time been simulated for networks ranging in size from 10,000 to 50,000 neurons. The simulations provide insight into the role of the growth process in initial activity.

Simulation of neurite morphology in the field-guided network of 10,000 neurons. A: The neuronal somas are indicated in green. For 0.5% of these neurons, marked with a large black dot, the neurite structures are shown: axons (black) and dendrites (red). B: Close-up of A, showing bundles of axons that occur in field-guided growth models. C: Axon (black line) and dendritic tree (red lines) of a pyramidal neuron (large black dot). Neurons that receive input from this pyramidal neuron are indicated by blue dots.
Credit: Gritsun et al. Growth Dynamics Explain the Development of Spatiotemporal Burst Activity of Young Cultured Neuronal Networks in Detail. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (9): e43352 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043352

After a short period of growth, cultured networks of neurons regularly exhibit major activity in the absence of external stimulation. These "bursts" are entirely related to growth. At this stage, they have little to do with learning behaviour, as the network is still too young to sustain a process of memory formation. This has now for the first time been simulated for networks ranging in size from 10,000 to 50,000 neurons. The simulations provide insight into the role of the growth process in initial activity.

Related Articles


Researchers at the University of Twente's MIRA Institute recently published details of this work in PLOS ONE.

"Isolated" neurons, which have yet to form any interconnections, soon put out cell extensions (axons and dendrites) that connect them to other neurons. The resultant network starts to show signs of activity after just one week. The researchers made these observations in networks that they had cultured from neurons extracted from the brains of young rats. These cells were grown in culture dishes whose bases had been fitted with electrodes. Here, the network grows in a single plane, as far as possible. If it were to grow "upwards" (3D), it would be difficult to determine what was actually being measured. After a week, observations show that the neurons have become active and that they start to "fire." This activity can be seen to pass through the entire network in the form of a "burst."

Spontaneous

The question was whether these bursts might be related to the development of a long-term memory, by a process of synapse strengthening. This process of memory formation begins to develop after three weeks. Now, for the first time, substantial computer capacity has been used to simulate larger networks (10,000-50,000 neurons). This showed that the bursts really do arise during the first few weeks of growth. The simulations reveal a correlation between the growth of the network and the occurrence of the first bursts, which is in line with the observations. The burst runs through the network like a wave, at enormous speed. As in the experiments, no external stimulation was applied to the network. However, the simulations do include certain types of neurons that act as "pacemakers" by initiating a process. This corresponds to what happens in reality.

A realistic simulation model that simultaneously calculates both growth and activity provides a better picture of the workings of a "brain" of limited size. Bursts are the expression of coordinated action in networks. They are generally seen as building blocks of human brain function. If coordination between networks is disrupted, bursts can degenerate into total discharges of the type seen in brain abnormalities such as strokes or epileptic seizures. One particularly exciting research question being explored by Prof. Wim Rutten's group is whether artificially cultured brains could be linked to robots, for example, as they learn more efficiently than any existing algorithms. The use of reliable simulations will also help to reduce the number of experiments involving living neural networks.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Twente. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Taras A. Gritsun, Joost le Feber, Wim L. C. Rutten. Growth Dynamics Explain the Development of Spatiotemporal Burst Activity of Young Cultured Neuronal Networks in Detail. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (9): e43352 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043352

Cite This Page:

University of Twente. "Young 'cultured mini brain' develops activity peaks while it is still growing." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 November 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121107101715.htm>.
University of Twente. (2012, November 7). Young 'cultured mini brain' develops activity peaks while it is still growing. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121107101715.htm
University of Twente. "Young 'cultured mini brain' develops activity peaks while it is still growing." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121107101715.htm (accessed October 30, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Fauci Says Ebola Risk in US "essentially Zero"

Fauci Says Ebola Risk in US "essentially Zero"

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) NIAID Director Anthony Fauci said the risk of Ebola becoming an epidemic in the U.S. is essentially zero Thursday at the Washington Ideas Forum. He also said an Ebola vaccine will be tested in West Africa in the next few months. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Nurse Defies Ebola Quarantine With Bike Ride

Nurse Defies Ebola Quarantine With Bike Ride

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) A nurse who vowed to defy Maine's voluntary quarantine for health care workers who treated Ebola patients followed through on her promise Thursday, leaving her home for an hour-long bike ride. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Microsoft Launches Fitness Band After Accidental Reveal

Microsoft Launches Fitness Band After Accidental Reveal

Newsy (Oct. 30, 2014) Microsoft accidentally revealed its upcoming fitness band on Wednesday, so the company went ahead and announced it. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Studying Effects of Music on Dementia Patients

Studying Effects of Music on Dementia Patients

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is studying the popular Music and Memory program to see if music, which helps improve the mood of Alzheimer's patients, can also reduce the use of prescription drugs for those suffering from dementia. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

    Technology News



    Save/Print:
    Share:

    Free Subscriptions


    Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

    Get Social & Mobile


    Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

    Have Feedback?


    Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
    Mobile: iPhone Android Web
    Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
    Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
    Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins