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Cassini sees Saturn's moon Titan cooking up smog

Date:
February 4, 2013
Source:
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Summary:
Newly published research using data from NASA's Cassini mission describes in more detail than ever before how aerosols in the highest part of the atmosphere are kick-started at Saturn's moon Titan. Scientists want to understand aerosol formation at Titan because it could help predict the behavior of smoggy aerosol layers on Earth.

This image shows the first flash of sunlight reflected off a lake on Saturn's moon Titan. The glint off a mirror-like surface is known as a specular reflection. This kind of glint was detected by the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) on NASA's Cassini spacecraft on July 8, 2009. It confirmed the presence of liquid in the moon's northern hemisphere, where lakes are more numerous and larger than those in the southern hemisphere. Scientists using VIMS had confirmed the presence of liquid in Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in the southern hemisphere, in 2008.
Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/DLR

A paper published this week using data from NASA's Cassini mission describes in more detail than ever before how aerosols in the highest part of the atmosphere are kick-started at Saturn's moon Titan. Scientists want to understand aerosol formation at Titan because it could help predict the behavior of smoggy aerosol layers on Earth.

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According to the new paper, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Titan's trademark reddish-brown smog appears to begin with solar radiation on molecules of nitrogen and methane in the ionosphere, which creates a soup of negative and positive ions. Collisions among the organic molecules and the ions help the molecules grow into bigger and more complex aerosols. Lower down in the atmosphere, these aerosols bump into each other and coagulate, and at the same time interact with other, neutral particles. Eventually, they form the heart of the physical processes that rain hydrocarbons on Titan's surface and form lakes, channels and dunes.

The paper was led by Panayotis Lavvas, a Cassini participating scientist based at the University of Reims, Champagne-Ardenne, France. The team analyzed data from three Cassini instruments -- the plasma spectrometer, the ion and neutral mass spectrometer, and the radio and plasma wave science experiment. They compared their results to those obtained by ESA's Huygens probe on its descent through the Titan atmosphere in 2005 and found they were compatible.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of Caltech. For more information on Cassini, visit http://www.nasa.gov/cassini and http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov .


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Panayotis Lavvas, Roger V. Yelle, Tommi Koskinen, Axel Bazin, Véronique Vuitton, Erik Vigren, Marina Galand, Anne Wellbrock, Andrew J. Coates, Jan-Erik Wahlund, Frank J. Crary, and Darci Snowden. Aerosol growth in Titan’s ionosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1217059110

Cite This Page:

NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Cassini sees Saturn's moon Titan cooking up smog." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 February 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130204190539.htm>.
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (2013, February 4). Cassini sees Saturn's moon Titan cooking up smog. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 4, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130204190539.htm
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Cassini sees Saturn's moon Titan cooking up smog." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130204190539.htm (accessed March 4, 2015).

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