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Non-academic young people take brain stimulants more frequently than students

Date:
March 19, 2014
Source:
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
Summary:
Three per cent of young men in Switzerland take cognitive enhancement drugs at least once each year. Students hope this consumption will improve their exam performance, while their non-academic contemporaries seek primarily to remain awake for longer. “Brain stimulants”, “Neuroenhancers” and “Smart Pills” – the terms used for chemical-induced cognitive enhancement are numerous. While these substances are actually intended for use in the treatment of attention disorders, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, they are often taken for other purposes.

Three per cent of young men in Switzerland take cognitive enhancement drugs at least once each year. Students hope this consumption will improve their exam performance, while their non-academic contemporaries seek primarily to remain awake for longer. These are the conclusions reached by a study supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).

"Brain stimulants," "Neuroenhancers" and "Smart Pills" -- the terms used for chemical-induced cognitive enhancement are numerous. While these substances are actually intended for use in the treatment of attention disorders, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, they are often taken for other purposes. In the USA, one in every 20 students uses drugs such as Ritalin or Prozac at least once a year, despite not actually suffering from an attention deficit disorder or from depression. What is the situation in Switzerland?

Less than in the USA

Researchers led by Gerhard Gmel at the University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV) surveyed young men called up for conscription to the army recruitment centres in Lausanne, Windisch and Mels, on the frequency of and reasons for their use of cognitive enhancers. In a recently published evaluation, the researchers find that the use of cognitive enhancers in Switzerland is less prevalent than in the USA; only 180 of 5,967 participants in the study (around three per cent) had used brain-stimulating drugs at least once in the previous year.

Exams and partying

The researchers detected large differences between students and non-academics of the same age. On average, students take various cognitive enhancers five times a year. Their primary aim is to improve performance, for example in exams. Their non-academic contemporaries take drugs almost weekly, or around 40 times a year on average; most use Ritalin and other drugs that are prescribed for attention disorders. Their main motivation is to remain awake for longer, at parties, for example.

New prevention strategies

Gmel and his team believe the new figures reveal a need to widen the focus of studies into the consumption of cognitive enhancers. So far, attention has been primarily oriented towards (US-based) students. However, in Switzerland cognitive enhancers are being used to a greater extent by non-academics, for whom new prevention strategies will need to be developed.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Stιphane Deline, Stιphanie Baggio, Joseph Studer, Alexandra N'Goran, Marc Dupuis, Yves Henchoz, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel. Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014; 11 (3): 3032 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110303032

Cite This Page:

Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). "Non-academic young people take brain stimulants more frequently than students." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140319093944.htm>.
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). (2014, March 19). Non-academic young people take brain stimulants more frequently than students. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140319093944.htm
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). "Non-academic young people take brain stimulants more frequently than students." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140319093944.htm (accessed October 20, 2014).

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