Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Compressed Sulfur Found To Be A Superconductor

Date:
December 3, 1997
Source:
Carnegie Institution
Summary:
A group of scientists from the Carnegie Institution and Russian Academy of Sciences report in this week's Nature magazine the surprising observation that sulfur becomes a superconductor at 93 GPa (9.3 million atmospheres). At this pressure, pure sulfur transforms to a superconductor with a Tc (critical temperature) of 10 K, or -273C.

A group of scientists from the Carnegie Institution and Russian Academy of Sciences report in this week's Nature magazine the surprising observation that sulfur becomes a superconductor at 93 GPa (9.3 million atmospheres). At this pressure, pure sulfur transforms to a superconductor with a Tc (critical temperature) of 10 K, or -263C. As pressure increases, so does the superconducting temperature, at a rate of .06 K per GPa (up to 14K). At a pressure of 160 GPa (the highest measured in the current experiments), Tc again increases--to 17 K. In a related study, appearing in this week's Physical Review Letters, the same authors report the first measurements on a known superconductor, the metal niobium, above one million atmospheres (or one megabar)--to 132 GPa.

A material is said to be a superconductor when it loses resistance to electrical current flow. The phenomenon, one of the most non-intuitive in physics, has been recognized since 1911. Within the last decade, superconducting materials have been found at temperatures high enough to hold promise for energy-related applications, especially in the computer and electric energy fields. Most studies have focused on oxide-based ceramics.

The mechanisms of superconductivity in materials are of great theoretical interest but are, in many cases, in dispute. Studies of simple materials such as the pure elements that might superconduct, including an examination of the effects of pressure on Tc, are essential for understanding the underlying physics. Such studies in turn are crucial for designing new, technologically useful superconductors.

The authors of both papers are Viktor Struzhkin, Russell Hemley, Ho-kwang Mao, all of Carnegie's Geophysical Laboratory and NSF Center for High Pressure Research, and Yuri Timofeev, of the Institute of High-Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The group used the Geophysical Laboratory's megabar high-pressure diamond-anvil cell in conjunction with a magnetic susceptibility technique they have perfected over the past few years. The technique allowed them to determine the superconducting transition temperature without the need for placing electrical leads on the sample. Thus, they could perform their measurements on very small samples (down to 0.04 of a millimeter in diameter and a few thousandths of a millimeter in thickness). Tests of the method in the megabar pressure range (above 100 GPa) were done on niobium, which has a Tc of 9.5 K at atmospheric pressure but decreases to 4.5 K at 132 GPa (rather than increases).

Sulfur's transition from insulator to superconductor at 93 GPa was unexpected. Several years ago, scientists elsewhere had observed changes in optical properties of sulfur that suggested that the material transforms to a metal at about 90 GPa (at room temperature), with a corresponding change in crystal structure, and that it transformed to another structure at about 160 GPa. Recent theoretical calculations had predicted that sulfur would become a superconductor only at much higher pressures (above 550 GPa). The new results show that the material transforms directly from an insulator to a superconductor at the first transition (at 90 GPa). The results provide an important example of the large-scale changes in physical properties that can be induced by pressure.

The authors write in their Nature paper that their results are particularly notable because the metallic phases of sulfur have the highest Tc's of any elemental solid measured to date. Sulfur now joins the heavier members of its family in the Periodic Table of the Elements (the chalcogenide family, including selenium and tellurium), as a superconductor. This fact should provide critical tests for theories of superconductivity. In closing their paper, the authors write: "Given the comparative simplicity of elemental sulfur for electronic structure calculations and knowledge of its high-pressure crystal structures, this element should provide important tests of possible new mechanisms." The work is part of a much larger effort at the Geophysical Laboratory devoted to studying the behavior of materials at ultrahigh pressures, including those that prevail deep within the planets.

The research was supported partially by the National Science Foundation (Division of Materials Science and Center for High-Pressure Research).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Carnegie Institution. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Carnegie Institution. "Compressed Sulfur Found To Be A Superconductor." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 December 1997. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971203061221.htm>.
Carnegie Institution. (1997, December 3). Compressed Sulfur Found To Be A Superconductor. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971203061221.htm
Carnegie Institution. "Compressed Sulfur Found To Be A Superconductor." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971203061221.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Monday, July 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

AFP (July 25, 2014) Europe's highest train, the little train of Artouste in the French Pyrenees, celebrates its 80th birthday. Duration: 01:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

AP (July 24, 2014) TSA administrator, John Pistole's took part in the Aspen Security Forum 2014, where he answered questions on lifting of the ban on flights into Israel's Tel Aviv airport and whether politics played a role in lifting the ban. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Creative Makeovers for Ugly Cellphone Towers

Creative Makeovers for Ugly Cellphone Towers

AP (July 24, 2014) Mobile phone companies and communities across the country are going to new lengths to disguise those unsightly cellphone towers. From a church bell tower to a flagpole, even a pencil, some towers are trying to make a point. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Algonquin Power Goes Activist on Its Target Gas Natural

Algonquin Power Goes Activist on Its Target Gas Natural

TheStreet (July 23, 2014) When The Deal's Amanda Levin exclusively reported that Gas Natural had been talking to potential suitors, the Ohio company responded with a flat denial, claiming its board had not talked to anyone about a possible sale. Lo and behold, Canadian utility Algonquin Power and Utilities not only had approached the company, but it did it three times. Its last offer was for $13 per share as Gas Natural's was trading at a 60-day moving average of about $12.50 per share. Now Algonquin, which has a 4.9% stake in Gas Natural, has taken its case to shareholders, calling on them to back its proposals or, possibly, a change in the target's board. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins