Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Potential Of Tailoring Drugs To Genetic Makeup Confirmed, But Challenges Remain

Date:
November 19, 2001
Source:
University Of California - San Francisco
Summary:
At a time when harmful drug reactions are thought to rank just after strokes as a leading cause of death in the U.S., the potential benefits of tailoring drugs to a patient’s genetic makeup have been confirmed in a systematic study led by University of California, San Francisco scientists.

At a time when harmful drug reactions are thought to rank just after strokes as a leading cause of death in the U.S., the potential benefits of tailoring drugs to a patient’s genetic makeup have been confirmed in a systematic study led by University of California, San Francisco scientists.

Related Articles


The quantitative assessment of the promise of this new approach – known as pharmacogenomics –confirms that many harmful drug reactions previously thought to be non-preventable may now actually be averted using genetic information about patients to select their drug therapies.

The study, the first systematic assessment of pharmacogenomics’ potential, is paired with an analysis of many remaining hurdles: questions about the effectiveness of the practice, inadequate training, funding and sites for carrying out patient genotyping; and the risk of creating inequities when developing drugs to avert problems caused by natural genetic differences linked to race.

The report appears in the November 14 issue of JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association.

The researchers first conducted two independent systematic literature reviews: one on studies reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and one on studies reporting natural genetic variation, or variant alleles in genes for enzymes that metabolize drugs.

They then “linked” these two studies by focusing on the enzymes from the second search known to metabolize the drugs identified in the first search. This allowed them to assess the possible contribution of genetic variability to ADRs.

The results highlight a strong potential link between the genetic variants and adverse drug reactions. The scientists found that 59 percent of the drugs cited in the ADR study are metabolized by at least one enzyme with a naturally occurring variant known to cause poor metabolism.

Conversely, only 22 percent of randomly selected drugs sold in the U.S. and only 7 percent of randomly selected top-selling U.S. drugs are metabolized by enzymes with this genetic variability – differences greater than two-fold and eight-fold respectively.

“Our study confirms the powerful potential of genetic information to improve drug therapies, but it also emphasizes the importance of considering how genetics will affect both health care practice and the public,” said Kathryn A. Phillips, PhD, lead author on the report and UCSF associate professor of health economics and health services research in the UCSF School of Pharmacy and the Institute for Health Policy Studies.

“In the future,” the authors conclude, “we may all carry a ‘gene chip assay report’ that contains our unique genetic profile that would be consulted before drugs are prescribed. However, the application of pharmacogenomics information faces significant challenges, and further basic science, clinical and policy research is needed to determine in what areas pharmacogenomics can have the greatest impact, how it can be incorporated into practice, and what are its societal implications.”

One of the societal implications they highlight stems from the fact that many genetic variants cluster in racial groups. As a result, it is inevitable that some fairly small racial populations in the U.S. have genetic variants making them particularly vulnerable to some drugs.

In some cases, drug manufacturers may not find it economical to develop a new drug to aid a small potential market. Such a confluence of pharmacogenomics and commerce could cause societal stress, the authors note.

Other hurdles are the limitations in the amount of genotyping now carried out, uncertainties about its cost and the limited number of clinicians now trained to take advantage of new pharmacogenomic information as it becomes available.

Finally, the authors point out that experts are not in agreement on the degree to which knowledge of a patient’s genetic variants would actually make a difference in drug prescription because adverse drug reactions are caused by multiple factors and more needs to be known about the role of genetic variability.

The research was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Cancer Institute.

Co-authors on the paper are David Veenstra, PhD, PharmD, assistant professor of pharmacy, University of Washington; Eyal Oren, BA, and Jane K. Lee, research associates in the UCSF School of Pharmacy; and Wolfgang Sadee, PhD, UCSF professor of biopharmaceutical sciences.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University Of California - San Francisco. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University Of California - San Francisco. "Potential Of Tailoring Drugs To Genetic Makeup Confirmed, But Challenges Remain." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 November 2001. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/11/011114071430.htm>.
University Of California - San Francisco. (2001, November 19). Potential Of Tailoring Drugs To Genetic Makeup Confirmed, But Challenges Remain. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/11/011114071430.htm
University Of California - San Francisco. "Potential Of Tailoring Drugs To Genetic Makeup Confirmed, But Challenges Remain." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/11/011114071430.htm (accessed November 27, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Ebola Leaves Orphans Alone in Sierra Leone

Ebola Leaves Orphans Alone in Sierra Leone

AFP (Nov. 27, 2014) — The Ebola epidemic sweeping Sierra Leone is having a profound effect on the country's children, many of whom have been left without any family members to support them. Duration: 01:02 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Experimental Ebola Vaccine Shows Promise In Human Trial

Experimental Ebola Vaccine Shows Promise In Human Trial

Newsy (Nov. 27, 2014) — A recent test of a prototype Ebola vaccine generated an immune response to the disease in subjects. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Nov. 26, 2014) — Researchers in the United States are preparing to discover whether a drug commonly used in human organ transplants can extend the lifespan and health quality of pet dogs. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Newsy (Nov. 26, 2014) — Advances in prosthetics are making replacement body parts stronger and more lifelike than they’ve ever been. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins