Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Spintronic Materials Show Their First Move

Date:
April 21, 2005
Source:
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Summary:
How much energy does it take for an electron to hop from atom to atom, and how do the magnetic properties of the material influence the rate or ease of hopping? Answers to those questions could help explain why some materials, like those used in a computer hard drive, become conductors only in a magnetic field while they are very strong insulators otherwise.

Stephane Grenier.
Credit: Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory

LOS ANGELES, CA - How much energy does it take for an electron to hop from atom to atom, and how do the magnetic properties of the material influence the rate or ease of hopping? Answers to those questions could help explain why some materials, like those used in a computer hard drive, become conductors only in a magnetic field while they are very strong insulators otherwise. They might also help scientists learn how to use the electron’s “spin” (a property analogous to the spinning of a child’s toy top), as well as its charge, to carry information in a new field known as spintronics.

Stιphane Grenier, a postdoctoral fellow studying electronic excitations, or “electron hopping,” at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, will describe the techniques he uses and the properties of these materials at the March 2005 meeting of the American Physical Society in Los Angeles, California. His talk will take place on Monday, March 21, at 2:30 p.m. in room 151 of the Los Angeles Convention Center.

“We are looking at something very local, electrons hopping between a pair of atoms, to help us understand important macroscopic effects,” Grenier says. “This information could help predict which materials might have the properties needed for particular applications — say, increasing the storage capacity of computer hard drives — and direct the fabrication of new materials in which these properties are optimized.”

To determine the energy needed by an electron to hop from one atom to another atom, Grenier used a technique called inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. He shines x-ray light onto the sample and measures the tiny difference in energy between the incoming and outgoing photons. This difference is the amount of energy needed to move the electrons.

He used this technique to study materials with different magnetic “lattices” — ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. In ferromagnetic materials, the atoms’ magnetic moments (that is, their spins) are all aligned in the same direction. In antiferromagnetic materials, the magnetic moments of the adjacent atoms point in opposite directions. “When the magnetic moments are aligned, the electron hopping is increased between particular atoms. That is, more electrons make the jump to their neighbors, and it takes less energy to move them,” Grenier says. “While this has been known for a while, we have shown the direction in which the electrons move and exactly what price they ‘pay,’ in terms of energy, to move, and the influence the magnetic lattice of the material has on this hopping.”

The electrons want to align their own magnetic moments, or spins, with that of the atoms in the lattice, he explains. “They will do so only if all the atoms’ magnetic moments are aligned — that is when the ‘fare’ for hopping has its lowest price,” he said.

Electrons moving with their spins aligned in the same direction make a current of spins, which could be used, somewhat like currents of electrical charge are now used, to pass or transform information in future electronic components made of tailored magnetic lattices — a future generation of circuits based on the science of “spintronics,” which is also carried out at Brookhaven Lab. Grenier’s studies, along with theoretical analysis of the materials, may also help scientists understand why some materials possess properties such as superconductivity and “colossal magnetoresistance,” the ability of some strong insulators to become good conductors when induced by a magnetic field.

Studies on atomic magnetism have applications for understanding novel materials — including spintronic materials and superconductors — that will revolutionize the electronic and energy industries. Such studies using x-rays can only be performed in the U.S. at x-ray synchrotron radiation facilities built and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

This research was funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Brookhaven National Laboratory. "Spintronic Materials Show Their First Move." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 April 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050326012352.htm>.
Brookhaven National Laboratory. (2005, April 21). Spintronic Materials Show Their First Move. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 29, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050326012352.htm
Brookhaven National Laboratory. "Spintronic Materials Show Their First Move." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050326012352.htm (accessed July 29, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Lithium Battery 'Holy Grail' Could Provide 4 Times The Power

Lithium Battery 'Holy Grail' Could Provide 4 Times The Power

Newsy (July 28, 2014) — Stanford University published its findings for a "pure" lithium ion battery that could have our everyday devices and electric cars running longer. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Carbon Trap: US Exports Global Warming

The Carbon Trap: US Exports Global Warming

AP (July 28, 2014) — AP Investigation: As the Obama administration weans the country off dirty fuels, energy companies are ramping-up overseas coal exports at a heavy price. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Shipping Crates Get New 'lease' On Life

Shipping Crates Get New 'lease' On Life

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 25, 2014) — Shipping containers have been piling up as America imports more than it exports. Some university students in Washington D.C. are set to get a first-hand lesson in recycling. Their housing is being built using refashioned shipping containers. Lily Jamali reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

AFP (July 25, 2014) — Europe's highest train, the little train of Artouste in the French Pyrenees, celebrates its 80th birthday. Duration: 01:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins