Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New Techniques Study The Brain's Chemistry, Neuron By Neuron

Date:
September 12, 2005
Source:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Summary:
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed tools for studying the chemistry of the brain, neuron by neuron. The analytical techniques can probe the spatial and temporal distribution of biologically important molecules, such as vitamin E, and explore the chemical messengers behind thought, memory and emotion.

Jonathan Sweedler, a William H. and Janet Lycan Professor of Chemistry and director of the Biotechnology Center at the U. of I., and colleagues have developed tools for studying the chemistry of the brain, neuron by neuron. The analytical techniques can probe the spatial and temporal distribution of biologically important molecules, such as vitamin E, and explore the chemical messengers behind thought, memory and emotion.
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- The human brain is composed of billions of cells,each a separate entity that communicates with others. The chemicalinteraction of those cells determines personality, controls behaviorand encodes memory; but much remains to be understood.

Related Articles


Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign havedeveloped tools for studying the chemistry of the brain, neuron byneuron. The analytical techniques can probe the spatial and temporaldistribution of biologically important molecules, such as vitamin E,and explore the chemical messengers behind thought, memory and emotion.

"In most organ tissues of the body, adjacent cells do not havesignificant differences in their chemical contents," said JonathanSweedler, a William H. and Janet Lycan Professor of Chemistry anddirector of the Biotechnology Center at the U. of I. "In the brain,however, chemical differences between neurons are critical for theiroperation, and the connections between cells are crucial for encodinginformation or controlling functions."

By dismantling a slice of brain tissue into millions of singlecell-size pieces, each of which can be interrogated by massspectrometric imaging techniques, Sweedler's research group can performcellular profiling, examine intercellular signaling, map thedistribution of new neuropeptides, and follow the release of chemicalsin an activity-dependent manner.

Sweedler will describe the techniques and present new results at the230th American Chemical Society national meeting in Washington, D.C.Using these techniques, Sweedler's group has already discoveredmultiple novel neuropeptides in a range of neuronal models frommollusks to mammals.

"We work with sea slugs, whose simple brains contain 10,000neurons; we work with insects possessing one million neurons; and wework with mice having 100 million neurons," said Sweedler, who also isa researcher at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science andTechnology. "Working with these model organisms allows us to examinethe functioning of such basic operations as the neuronal control ofbehavior and long-term memory."

Sweedler's group also developed an approach for looking at thedistribution of smaller molecules in brain cells. In a paper acceptedfor publication in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, andposted on its Web site, they report the subcellular imaging of vitaminE in the sea slug Aplysia californica.

The researchers utilized novel sampling protocols and single celltime-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and map thepresence of vitamin E in the membranes of isolated neurons.

"To our surprise, we found that vitamin E was not distributed uniformlyin the neuronal membrane," Sweedler said. "Instead, vitamin E wasconcentrated in the neuron right where it extends to connect with otherneurons."

The subcellular localization of vitamin E, which had been impossible toobtain in the past, supports other work that suggested vitamin Eperformed an active role in transport mechanisms and cellular signalingof neurons.

"Our technique doesn't tell us how or why vitamin E is distributed thisway, but suggests that it is under active control and tightregulation," Sweedler said. "Understanding the chemistry that takesplace within and between neurons, including small molecules likevitamin E, will no doubt lead to a better understanding of brainfunction in healthy and diseased brains."

###

Co-authors of the paper are Sweedler, research scientists Jinju Lee andStanislav Rubakhin, postdoctoral research associate John Jurchen andgraduate student Eric Monroe. The U.S. Department of Energy and theNational Institute on Drug Abuse funded the work.



Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "New Techniques Study The Brain's Chemistry, Neuron By Neuron." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 September 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050911105532.htm>.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (2005, September 12). New Techniques Study The Brain's Chemistry, Neuron By Neuron. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050911105532.htm
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "New Techniques Study The Brain's Chemistry, Neuron By Neuron." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050911105532.htm (accessed November 27, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Mind & Brain News

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Newsy (Nov. 24, 2014) — A new study links greater authority with increased depressive symptoms among women in the workplace. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Winter Can Cause Depression — Here's How To Combat It

Winter Can Cause Depression — Here's How To Combat It

Newsy (Nov. 23, 2014) — Millions of American suffer from seasonal depression every year. It can lead to adverse health effects, but there are ways to ease symptoms. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Could Your Genes Be The Reason You're Single?

Could Your Genes Be The Reason You're Single?

Newsy (Nov. 21, 2014) — Researchers in Beijing discovered a gene called 5-HTA1, and carriers are reportedly 20 percent more likely to be single. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Milestone Birthdays Can Bring Existential Crisis, Study Says

Milestone Birthdays Can Bring Existential Crisis, Study Says

Newsy (Nov. 21, 2014) — Researchers find that as people approach new decades in their lives they make bigger life decisions. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins