Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Customers' Fixation On Minimum Payments Drives Up Credit Card Bills

Date:
October 8, 2008
Source:
University of Warwick
Summary:
Many credit card customers become fixated on the level of minimum payments given on credit card bills. The mere presence of a minimum payment is enough to reduce the actual amount many people choose to pay on their bills, leading to further interest payments.

Many credit card customers become fixated on the level of minimum payments given on credit card bills, new research finds.
Credit: iStockphoto/Damir Cudic

New research by the University of Warwick reveals that many credit card customers become fixated on the level of minimum payments given on credit card bills. The mere presence of a minimum payment is enough to reduce the actual amount many people choose to pay on their bills, leading to further interest payments.

The research, by University of Warwick Psychology researcher Dr Neil Stewart, is to be published in Psychological Science, in a paper entitled “The Cost of Anchoring on Credit Card Minimum Payments”. It focuses on the psychological phenomenon of “anchoring” in which arbitrary and irrelevant numbers bias people's judgments. The research reveals that anchoring affects the way people repay their credit card bills. For those people who make only partial repayments of the outstanding balance (about 35% of card holders), the suggested minimum payment on the credit card statement acts as an anchor and lowers the actual repayments people choose to make.

Dr Stewart said: “These results should be of real concern to credit card companies. Virtually all credit card statements include minimum payments. But this consumer safeguard has an unexpected negative consequence: Minimum payments distort the behavior of many customers in a way that increases interest charges and increases the duration of their debt. Those paying off the balance in full each month seem to be immune, but anyone repaying only part of the debt is at risk not just those making only the minimum payment." Dr Stewart conducted two studies.

A survey looked at repayments data and suggested minimum repayments from 248 real credit card bills. He found that the card owners split into three broad categories. The first group (58% in this case) repaid their bill in full. This group of people were not influenced in any way by the suggested minimum payment level. No matter how high or low the suggested minimum payment was they repaid their bill in full. A second group (7%) paid only the minimum payment. But it is the third group, those making payments above the suggested minimum but not enough to clear the balance (36%), who were affected by minimum payments.

Because respondents had credit cards from a variety of different providers, the level of minimum payment requested varied from person to person. Dr Stewart found that the level of repayment actually made by these card holders was closely correlated with the level of required minimum payment. The lower the required minimum payment the lower the actual payment made.

To examine whether minimum payments actually cause lower repayments, Dr Stewart conducted an experiment where some people received normal statements and others received statements with no minimum payment information. The experiment recruited 413 volunteers (54% female 46% male, with an age range of 18-68). Half were given mock credit card bills for 435.76 with a suggested minimum payment, and half the same level bill but without a suggested minimum payment. All were asked to imagine that the bill had arrived that morning and to decide, thinking about their current finances, how much they could afford to repay.

Once again the results found that the minimum payment had almost no affect on those who choose to pay their bills in full. 55% of those with minimum payments on their statement paid the bill in full. The same proportion of those without minimum payments on their statement paid the bill in full. However, the presence of a minimum payment had a large effect on those who chose to pay less than the full amount. When a suggested minimum payment was given the average repayment made by those not repaying the full amount plummeted 70% to just 99 on average (23% of the balance). Those not given any required minimum payment paid an average of 175 – 40% of the balance. Dr Stewart has calculated that, based on these data, minimum payment information could double the interest charged over the lifetime of the debt.

Dr Stewart explained, "It is hard to estimate the cost of minimum payment information. For a particular individual the effect depends on their level of debt and on their repayments, and could be much larger or could be much smaller."

Dr Stewart said: "Although minimum payments are a good idea in principle?because they protect the small number of people who would otherwise make no repayment at all?minimum payments do seem to have an adverse effect on those who repay only part of the bill, even those repaying a large fraction of the bill. From the psychology of anchoring, we know that people are less susceptible to its effects when they have greater knowledge. So helping people understand how much different possible repayments will cost them in the long term should help protect them from anchoring on minimum payments."

A tool to help people understand the link between repayments and interest charges is available at http://www.warwick.ac.uk/go/decisiontool/


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Warwick. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of Warwick. "Customers' Fixation On Minimum Payments Drives Up Credit Card Bills." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 October 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081006130542.htm>.
University of Warwick. (2008, October 8). Customers' Fixation On Minimum Payments Drives Up Credit Card Bills. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081006130542.htm
University of Warwick. "Customers' Fixation On Minimum Payments Drives Up Credit Card Bills." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081006130542.htm (accessed April 23, 2014).

Share This



More Computers & Math News

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

High Court to Hear Dispute of TV Over Internet

High Court to Hear Dispute of TV Over Internet

AP (Apr. 22, 2014) The future of Aereo, an online service that provides over-the-air TV channels, hinges on a battle with broadcasters that goes before the U.S. Supreme Court on Tuesday. (April 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Aereo Takes on Broadcast TV Titans in Supreme Court Today

Aereo Takes on Broadcast TV Titans in Supreme Court Today

TheStreet (Apr. 22, 2014) Aereo heads to the Supreme Court today to fight for its right to stream broadcast TV over the Internet -- against broadcasters who say the start-up infringes upon copyright law. TheStreet Deputy Managing Editor Leon Lazaroff explains the importance of the case in the TV industry and details what the outcome of it could mean for broadcasters and for cloud storage services -- as Aereo allows its subscribers to not just watch live TV shows but also store content to a DVR in the cloud. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com
Lytro Introduces 'Illum,' A Professional Light-Field Camera

Lytro Introduces 'Illum,' A Professional Light-Field Camera

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) The light-field photography engineers at Lytro unveiled their next innovation: a professional DSLR-like camera called "Illum." Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Netflix To Raise Prices For New Subscribers

Netflix To Raise Prices For New Subscribers

Newsy (Apr. 21, 2014) Netflix executives say they don't think a $1 or $2 price hike will hurt the service, and they have their sites set on overtaking HBO. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins