Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Peer Discussion Improves Student Performance With 'Clickers'

Date:
January 12, 2009
Source:
University of Colorado at Boulder
Summary:
Across the University of Colorado at Boulder campus students are sharing answers, checking their responses to questions against those of their neighbors and making adjustments to those answers in hopes of earning a better grade.

A new study shows University of Colorado at Boulder students who combine clicker use and peer discussions in classrooms learn more.
Credit: University of Colorado

Across the University of Colorado at Boulder campus students are sharing answers, checking their responses to questions against those of their neighbors and making adjustments to those answers in hopes of earning a better grade.

Not surprisingly, the students are getting more answers right. But what may be startling is that professors are encouraging the whole thing.

The students aren't cheating, they are learning from each other in a meaningful way, according to Tin Tin Su, an associate professor in the molecular, cellular and developmental biology department. Su is one of a group of CU-Boulder researchers that also includes Michelle Smith, William Wood, Wendy Adams, Carl Wieman (also of the University of British Columbia), Jennifer Knight and Nancy Guild, who authored a paper in the Jan. 2 issue of the journal Science showing how peer discussion during "clicker" questions helps students learn in a way that simple lecturing does not.

Clickers are simple audience response devices, similar to a TV remote control, that allow students to record their answers to thought-provoking, multiple-choice questions in class. After students answer a question individually, the instructor often asks them to discuss the question and then vote again before revealing the answer. After discussion, they usually do better on the question - but why?

"I was skeptical about whether in-class discussion really led to students' learning," said Su. "The clickers are a good way to get instant feedback, but do the students really learn from discussion or are they just changing their answers because of peer pressure?" Since no study had ever been done to determine which of these possibilities was true, Su and a number of other researchers decided to find out.

"We came up with a method for testing whether the students are actually learning or just being influenced by other students who they think know the right answer," said Michelle Smith, a science teaching fellow with CU's Science Education Initiative and a research associate in MCD biology.

The researchers used pairs of similar clicker questions in lectures during the semester and evaluated student responses. Each time, the students answered the first question of the pair individually, then talked to their neighbors about their answers.

Then they were asked to answer a second, similar question individually. About 50 percent got the question right on the first try. After talking to neighbors, the number jumped to 68 percent. And when they individually answered a follow-up question about the same concept, the number jumped again to over 70 percent, much better than the 50 percent of individual correct answers on the first question.

"There was no influence from the instructor during the clicker question series," said Smith. "We were just giving students the opportunity to talk to each other."

Su said the improvement on the first question after discussion didn't surprise her. She said it's possible the students were not learning but just copying answers. But by adding the element of a follow-up question, the truth became clear.

"The important point is that none of the students were told what the right answer was," said Su. "Even when students in a discussion group all got the initial answer wrong, after talking to each other they were able to figure out the correct response, to learn. That was unexpected, and I think that's dramatic."

Instructors at CU-Boulder began using a simple colored card system for student voting -- a precursor to clickers -- during lectures in 1996. Mike Dubson, senior instructor and associate chair in the physics department, got the first wave of clickers in 2000 when a system known as H-ITT became cheap enough for students to afford. At the height of their popularity, H-ITT clickers were used by about 6,000 CU-Boulder students in astronomy, atmospheric sciences, geology, engineering and MCD biology, according to Dubson.

But Dubson said the H-ITT clickers had their drawbacks. They required a lot of maintenance, infrastructure and training of instructors and students. By spring of 2006 the problems were solved by the introduction of the current generation of iClickers, a cheaper, simpler design than the H-ITT clicker that requires no wiring. The iClicker has only one small base receiver that attaches to an instructor's laptop.

Dubson said the most important advance in clicker usage at CU-Boulder came in the spring of 2007 when the university's Information Technology Services began supporting the iClicker and maintaining a clicker registration site. "The centralized clicker registration system really lowered the barrier for a lot of students and made the logistics of using clickers in your classroom easier," said Dubson.

The iClicker costs $40 and requires a one-time registration. The best part, said Dubson, is that a freshman can use his or her clicker for the entire four years at CU-Boulder.

"A physics major is going to use the iClicker in 15 courses in their career," said Dubson. "That's not much of a financial burden."

Today 17,000 CU-Boulder students own a clicker and 135 classes require them, according to Dubson. Clickers also are used by professors in the social sciences and humanities.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University of Colorado at Boulder. "Peer Discussion Improves Student Performance With 'Clickers'." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 January 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090102100234.htm>.
University of Colorado at Boulder. (2009, January 12). Peer Discussion Improves Student Performance With 'Clickers'. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090102100234.htm
University of Colorado at Boulder. "Peer Discussion Improves Student Performance With 'Clickers'." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090102100234.htm (accessed July 26, 2014).

Share This




More Mind & Brain News

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

University Quiz Implies Atheists Are Smarter Than Christians

University Quiz Implies Atheists Are Smarter Than Christians

Newsy (July 25, 2014) An online quiz from a required course at Ohio State is making waves for suggesting atheists are inherently smarter than Christians. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

AFP (July 24, 2014) A so-called drugs rehab 'clinic' is closed down in Pakistan after police find scores of ‘patients’ chained up alleging serial abuse. Duration 03:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Can Watching TV Make You Feel Like A Failure?

Can Watching TV Make You Feel Like A Failure?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) A study by German researchers claims watching TV while you're stressed out can make you feel guilty and like a failure. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins