Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Maternal Smoking May Alter Arousal Process Of Infants, Increasing Their Risk For SIDS

Date:
April 7, 2009
Source:
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Summary:
A new study shows that maternal smoking is associated with an impaired infant arousal process that may increase the risk for sudden infant death syndrome. The authors suggest that maternal smoking has replaced stomach sleeping as the greatest modifiable risk factor for SIDS.

A study in the April 1 issue of the journal SLEEP shows that maternal smoking is associated with an impaired infant arousal process that may increase the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The authors suggest that maternal smoking has replaced stomach sleeping as the greatest modifiable risk factor for SIDS.

Results show that the progression from sub-cortical activation to cortical arousal was depressed in smoke-exposed infants, who had lower proportions of full cortical arousals from sleep and higher proportions of sub-cortical activations than infants born to non-smoking mothers. The study also indicates that there is a dose-dependent relationship between cortical activation proportions and levels of infant urinary cotinine, a nicotine metabolite. Cortical arousals were lowest in babies with higher levels of smoke exposure.

According to senior investigator Rosemary Horne, PhD, scientific director of the Ritchie Centre for Baby Health Research at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, decreased cortical arousals from sleep have been observed in victims of SIDS prior to death.

"Our study suggests that maternal smoking can impair the arousal pathways of seemingly normal infants, which may explain their increased risk for SIDS," said Horne.

According to the authors, SIDS is the third-leading cause of infant mortality in the U.S. Although the exact cause is unknown, research suggests that an impairment of the arousal process from sleep in response to a life-threatening situation is involved. Autopsies of SIDS victims have revealed brainstem abnormalities in key areas that are required for arousal and cardiorespiratory control.

The study involved 12 healthy, full-term infants born to mothers who smoked an average of 15 cigarettes per day. Their arousal responses during daytime sleep were monitored and compared with that of 13 healthy infants who were born to nonsmoking mothers.

Daytime polysomnography was performed on each child on three occasions: at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months and 5 to 6 months of age. Arousals were induced without compromising the infants' natural sleep cycles by delivering a pulsatile air-jet for five seconds through a hand-held cannula at the infants' nostrils.

The air pressure was increased incrementally until arousal criteria were met. Sub-cortical arousals were defined by body movements, heart rate increases and respiratory changes. Full cortical arousals involved a sub-cortical arousal that was accompanied by an abrupt change in electroencephalogram frequency.

According to the authors, 15 percent to 25 percent of pregnant women in Western countries smoke throughout pregnancy.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Richardson HL; Walker AM; Horne RSC. Maternal Smoking Impairs Arousal Patterns in Sleeping Infants. SLEEP, 2009; 32 (4): 515-521 [link]

Cite This Page:

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. "Maternal Smoking May Alter Arousal Process Of Infants, Increasing Their Risk For SIDS." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 April 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090401101729.htm>.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2009, April 7). Maternal Smoking May Alter Arousal Process Of Infants, Increasing Their Risk For SIDS. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 3, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090401101729.htm
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. "Maternal Smoking May Alter Arousal Process Of Infants, Increasing Their Risk For SIDS." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090401101729.htm (accessed September 3, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Snack Attack: Study Says Action Movies Make You Snack More

Snack Attack: Study Says Action Movies Make You Snack More

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) You're more likely to gain weight while watching action flicks than you are watching other types of programming, says a new study published in JAMA. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) The U.N. says the problem is two-fold — quarantine zones and travel restrictions are limiting the movement of both people and food. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctors Fear They're Losing Battle Against Ebola

Doctors Fear They're Losing Battle Against Ebola

AP (Sep. 2, 2014) As a third American missionary is confirmed to have contracted Ebola in Liberia, doctors on the ground in West Africa fear they're losing the battle against the outbreak. (Sept. 2) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Tech Giants Bet on 3D Headsets for Gaming, Healthcare

Tech Giants Bet on 3D Headsets for Gaming, Healthcare

AFP (Sep. 2, 2014) When Facebook acquired the virtual reality hardware developer Oculus VR in March for $2 billion, CEO Mark Zuckerberg hailed the firm's technology as "a new communication platform." Duration: 02:24 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins