Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Magnetic Fields Play Larger Role In Star Formation Than Previously Thought

Date:
September 11, 2009
Source:
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Summary:
The simple picture of star formation calls for giant clouds of gas and dust to collapse inward due to gravity, growing denser and hotter until igniting nuclear fusion. In reality, forces other than gravity also influence the birth of stars. New research shows that cosmic magnetic fields play a more important role in star formation than previously thought.

The simple picture of star formation calls for giant clouds of gas and dust to collapse inward due to gravity, growing denser and hotter until igniting nuclear fusion. In reality, forces other than gravity also influence the birth of stars. New research shows that cosmic magnetic fields play a more important role in star formation than previously thought.

A molecular cloud is a cloud of gas that acts as a stellar nursery. When a molecular cloud collapses, only a small fraction of the cloud's material forms stars. Scientists aren't sure why.

Gravity favors star formation by drawing material together, therefore some additional force must hinder the process. Magnetic fields and turbulence are the two leading candidates. (A magnetic field is produced by moving electrical charges. Stars and most planets, including Earth, exhibit magnetic fields.) Magnetic fields channel flowing gas, making it hard to drawn the gas from all directions, while turbulence stirs the gas and induces an outward pressure that counteracts gravity.

"The relative importance of magnetic fields versus turbulence is a matter of much debate," said astronomer Hua-bai Li of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Our findings serve as the first observational constraint on this issue."

Li and his team studied 25 dense patches, or cloud cores, each one about a light-year in size. The cores, which act as seeds from which stars form, were located within molecular clouds as much as 6,500 light-years from Earth. (A light-year is the distance light travels in a year, or 6 trillion miles.)

The researchers studied polarized light, which has electric and magnetic components that are aligned in specific directions. (Some sunglasses work by blocking light with specific polarization.) From the polarization, they measured the magnetic fields within each cloud core and compared them to the fields in the surrounding, tenuous nebula.

The magnetic fields tended to line up in the same direction, even though the relative size scales (1 light-year cores versus 1000 light-year nebulas) and densities were different by orders of magnitude. Since turbulence would tend to churn the nebula and mix up magnetic field directions, their findings show that magnetic fields dominate turbulence in influencing star birth.

"Our result shows that molecular cloud cores located near each other are connected not only by gravity but also by magnetic fields," said Li. "This shows that computer simulations modeling star formation must take strong magnetic fields into account."

In the broader picture, this discovery aids our understanding of how stars form and, therefore, how the universe has come to look the way it is today.

The paper detailing these findings has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Hua-bai Li, C. Darren Dowell, Alyssa Goodman, Roger Hildebrand, Giles Novak. Title: Anchoring Magnetic Field in Turbulent Molecular Clouds. The Astrophysical Journal, 2009; (accepted for publication) [link]

Cite This Page:

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Magnetic Fields Play Larger Role In Star Formation Than Previously Thought." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 September 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090909122146.htm>.
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. (2009, September 11). Magnetic Fields Play Larger Role In Star Formation Than Previously Thought. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 18, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090909122146.htm
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Magnetic Fields Play Larger Role In Star Formation Than Previously Thought." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090909122146.htm (accessed September 18, 2014).

Share This



More Space & Time News

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

Boeing, SpaceX to Send Astronauts to Space Station

AFP (Sep. 17, 2014) — NASA selected Boeing and SpaceX on Tuesday to build America's next spacecraft to carry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) by 2017, opening the way to a new chapter in human spaceflight. Duration: 01:13 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
East Coast Treated To Rare Meteor Sighting

East Coast Treated To Rare Meteor Sighting

Newsy (Sep. 16, 2014) — Numerous residents along the East Coast reported seeing a bright meteor flash through the sky Sunday night. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Space Race Pits Bezos Vs Musk

Space Race Pits Bezos Vs Musk

Reuters - Business Video Online (Sep. 16, 2014) — Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos' startup will team up with Boeing and Lockheed to develop rocket engines as Elon Musk races to have his rockets certified. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
NASA Picks Boeing and SpaceX to Ferry Astronauts

NASA Picks Boeing and SpaceX to Ferry Astronauts

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) — NASA is a giant step closer to launching Americans again from U.S. soil. It has announced it has picked Boeing and SpaceX to transport astronauts to the International Space Station in the next few years. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins