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Size of hippocampus may indicate early dementia

Date:
November 16, 2010
Source:
University of Gothenburg
Summary:
The size of the part of the brain known as the hippocampus may be linked to future dementia, reveals new research from Sweden.
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The size of the part of the brain known as the hippocampus may be linked to future dementia, reveals a thesis from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Mild cognitive impairment, or MCI, is a condition where the cognitive functions are impaired -- though not as severely as in dementia -- and is a precursor to several types of dementia.

"One of the challenges for the healthcare is identifying which MCI patients have an underlying dementia disorder, which is why we need new tools to detect the early signs of dementia," says Carl Eckerström, a researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy's Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, and doctor at Sahlgrenska University Hospital's memory clinic.

Atrophy of the hippocampus is common in Alzheimer's disease. The thesis shows that the hippocampus may also be affected in small vessel disease (SIVD) which, along with Alzheimer's, are the two most common types of dementia. SIVD is characterised by damage to the brain's white matter and is considered to be the most important type of vascular dementia in the elderly.

Researchers measured the extent of changes to white matter in 122 MCI patients, and compared this with the size of their hippocampus. The patients were divided into two categories -- one group who subsequently developed dementia after two years, and a second group whose clinical status remained unchanged after two years. There was also a group of healthy controls. The results showed that there may be a link between damage to the white matter and a reduction in the size of the hippocampus, which means that damage to the white matter could play a part in a process that leads to hippocampal atrophy.

"I believe that measuring the hippocampus could be a useful clinical instrument for investigating whether a person is in the early stages of dementia, as our findings suggest that the size of the hippocampus is linked to a deterioration in cognitive function and dementia," says Eckerström.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Gothenburg. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Eckerström, C.; Andreasson, U.; Olsson, E.; Rolstad, S.; Blennow, K.; Zetterberg, H.; Malmgren, H.; Edman, Å.; Wallin, A. Combination of Hippocampal Volume and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Improves Predictive Value in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 2010; 29 (4): 294-300 DOI: 10.1159/000289814

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University of Gothenburg. "Size of hippocampus may indicate early dementia." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 November 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101116072756.htm>.
University of Gothenburg. (2010, November 16). Size of hippocampus may indicate early dementia. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 31, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101116072756.htm
University of Gothenburg. "Size of hippocampus may indicate early dementia." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101116072756.htm (accessed August 31, 2015).

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