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New cancer treatment? Universal donor immune cells

Date:
July 26, 2011
Source:
Weizmann Institute of Science
Summary:
A ready pool of donor immune cells fitted with cancer-seeking receptors could provide an alternative to costly personalized treatments.

One of the latest attempts to boost the body's defenses against cancer is called adoptive cell transfer, in which patients receive a therapeutic injection of their own immune cells. This therapy, currently tested in early clinical trials for melanoma and neuroblastoma, has its limitations: Removing immune cells from a patient and growing them outside the body for future re-injection is extremely expensive and not always technically feasible.

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Weizmann Institute scientists have now tested in mice a new form of adoptive cell transfer, which overcomes these limitations while enhancing the tumor-fighting ability of the transferred cells. The research, reported recently in Blood, was performed in the lab of Prof. Zelig Eshhar of the Institute's Immunology Department, by graduate student Assaf Marcus and lab technician Tova Waks.

The new approach should be more readily applicable than existing adoptive cell transfer treatments because it relies on a donor pool of immune T cells that can be prepared in advance, rather than on the patient's own cells. Moreover, using a method pioneered by Prof. Eshhar more than two decades ago, these T cells are outfitted with receptors that specifically seek out and identify the tumor, thereby promoting its destruction.

In the study, the scientists first suppressed the immune system of mice with a relatively mild dose of radiation. They then administered a controlled dose of the modified donor T cells. The mild suppression temporarily prevented the donor T cells from being rejected by the recipient, but it didn't prevent the cells themselves from attacking the recipient's body, particularly the tumor. This approach was precisely what rendered the therapy so effective: The delay in the rejection of the donor T cells gave these cells sufficient opportunity to destroy the tumor.

If this method works in humans as well as it did in mice, it could lead to an affordable cell transfer therapy for a wide variety of cancers. Such therapy would rely on an off-the-shelf pool of donor T cells equipped with receptors for zeroing in on different types of cancerous cells.

Prof. Zelig Eshhar's research is supported by the M.D. Moross Institute for Cancer Research; the Kirk Center for Childhood Cancer and Immunological Disorders; the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust 50; and the estate of Raymond Lapon.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Weizmann Institute of Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. A. Marcus, T. Waks, Z. Eshhar. Redirected tumor-specific allogeneic T cells for universal treatment of cancer. Blood, 2011; DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-02-334284

Cite This Page:

Weizmann Institute of Science. "New cancer treatment? Universal donor immune cells." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 July 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110725091728.htm>.
Weizmann Institute of Science. (2011, July 26). New cancer treatment? Universal donor immune cells. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110725091728.htm
Weizmann Institute of Science. "New cancer treatment? Universal donor immune cells." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110725091728.htm (accessed January 25, 2015).

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