Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Pivotal immune cell in Type 1 diabetes in humans identified

Date:
January 15, 2012
Source:
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
Summary:
Researchers have demonstrataed -- for the first time in human tissues -- the specific immune system T cells which trigger the destruction of Type 1 diabetes in the pancreas. The finding is an important advance that verifies in humans several important disease characteristics shown in mouse studies and provides a key focal point for interrupting the disease process.

Researchers at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology have proven -- for the first time in human tissues -- the specific immune system T cells which trigger the destruction of type 1 diabetes in the pancreas. The finding is an important advance that verifies in humans several important disease characteristics shown in mouse studies and provides a key focal point for interrupting the disease process.

"This study marks the first time that the presence of beta cell-reactive T cells has been directly proven in pancreas tissues from type 1 diabetes patients," explained Ken Coppieters, Ph.D., first author on the study published online January 2nd in the in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. "Previously, it was only known in plastic dishes or mouse models. What is unique about this study is the use of human tissue."

Human pancreatic tissue for the studies was provided through a collaborative type 1 diabetes research consortium funded by JDRF, a leading charitable supporter of type 1 diabetes research. The JDRF's Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) provides rare and difficult to obtain pancreatic tissues to carefully selected research organizations worldwide. Participating institutions are chosen based on their history and quality of type 1 diabetes research.

"Mice represent an excellent model for disease, but eventually it is important to confirm in human tissues the things that you learn in mice," said Matthias von Herrath, M.D., a well-known type 1 diabetes researcher, who led the scientific team. "The use of this tissue from the nPOD consortium was critical to our ability to prove which T cells are most important in destroying beta cells in humans, which leads to type 1 diabetes, and where these cells are located in the pancreas."

The study was published in a paper entitled, "Demonstration of islet-autoreactive CD8 T cells in insulitic lesions from recent onset and long-term type 1 diabetes patients." Dr. von Herrath was senior author.

Previously, the research community had assumed, based on lab and mouse studies, that T cells -- the body's soldier-like attack cells -- recognize and react against certain molecular structures on the beta cells and then kill the beta cells. The La Jolla Institute study confirmed this occurrence and showed the T cells location in the islets of the pancreas, which house the beta cells. The team is also is the first to identify the specific T cells -- CD8 -- as being key in the destruction of beta cells. This destruction eventually leads to the beta cell's inability to produce insulin, the hallmark of type 1 diabetes.

Dr. Coppieters, formerly of the La Jolla Institute and now at Ghent University, Belgium, said the study serves to clarify an important step in the type 1 diabetes process in humans. "It points to the CD8 T cells as being one of the most important cells that we should focus on to stop type 1 diabetes progression, once it is already underway."

In addition, the research team identified the places on the beta cells that trigger the T cell attack. T cells come in several different types and, in type 1 diabetes, react against a variety of substances produced within the body.

"Knowing which pieces of the molecules the T cells react against is a crucial prerequisite to design therapies that attempt to restore balance within the immune system," said Dr. Coppieters.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Coppieters et al. Demonstration of islet-autoreactive CD8 T cells in insulitic lesions from recent onset and long-term type 1 diabetes patients. Journal of Experimental Medicine, January 2, 2012

Cite This Page:

La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. "Pivotal immune cell in Type 1 diabetes in humans identified." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 January 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120112095851.htm>.
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. (2012, January 15). Pivotal immune cell in Type 1 diabetes in humans identified. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120112095851.htm
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. "Pivotal immune cell in Type 1 diabetes in humans identified." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120112095851.htm (accessed April 24, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Big Pharma Braces for M&A Wave

Big Pharma Braces for M&A Wave

Reuters - Business Video Online (Apr. 22, 2014) Big pharma on the move as Novartis boss, Joe Jimenez, tells Reuters about plans to transform his company via an asset exchange with GSK, and Astra Zeneca shares surge on speculation that Pfizer is looking for a takeover. Joanna Partridge reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Study Says Most Crime Not Linked To Mental Illness

Study Says Most Crime Not Linked To Mental Illness

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) A new study finds most crimes committed by people with mental illness are not caused by symptoms of their illness or disorder. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Hagel Gets Preview of New High-Tech Projects

Hagel Gets Preview of New High-Tech Projects

AP (Apr. 22, 2014) Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel is given hands-on demonstrations Tuesday of some of the newest research from DARPA _ the military's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program. (April 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Smaller Plates And Cutlery Could Make You Feel Fuller

How Smaller Plates And Cutlery Could Make You Feel Fuller

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) NBC's "Today" conducted an experiment to see if changing the size of plates and utensils affects the amount individuals eat. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins