Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Chemical reaction keeps stroke-damaged brain from repairing itself

Date:
February 4, 2013
Source:
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Summary:
Nitric oxide, a gaseous molecule produced in the brain, can damage neurons. When the brain produces too much nitric oxide, it contributes to the severity and progression of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Researchers recently discovered that nitric oxide not only damages neurons, it also shuts down the brain's repair mechanisms.

According to this study, nitric oxide not only damages neurons (shown here in green), the gaseous molecule also blocks the brain’s ability to self-repair.
Credit: Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute

Nitric oxide, a gaseous molecule produced in the brain, can damage neurons. When the brain produces too much nitric oxide, it contributes to the severity and progression of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute recently discovered that nitric oxide not only damages neurons, it also shuts down the brain's repair mechanisms.

Their study was published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of February 4.

"In this study, we've uncovered new clues as to how natural chemical reactions in the brain can contribute to brain damage -- loss of memory and cognitive function -- in a number of diseases," said Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D., director of Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging, and Stem Cell Research Center and a clinical neurologist.

Lipton led the study, along with Sanford-Burnham's Tomohiro Nakamura, Ph.D., who added that these new molecular clues are important because "we might be able to develop a new strategy for treating stroke and other disorders if we can find a way to reverse nitric oxide's effect on a particular enzyme in nerve cells."

Nitric oxide inhibits the neuroprotective ERK1/2 signaling pathway

Learning and memory are in part controlled by NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the brain. These receptors are linked to pores in the nerve cell membrane that regulate the flow of calcium and sodium in and out of the nerve cells. When these NMDA receptors get over-activated, they trigger the production of nitric oxide. In turn, nitric oxide attaches to other proteins via a reaction called S-nitrosylation, which was first discovered by Lipton and colleagues. When those S-nitrosylated proteins are involved in cell survival and lifespan, nitric oxide can cause brain cells to die prematurely -- a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease.

In their latest study, Lipton, Nakamura and colleagues used cultured neurons as well as a living mouse model of stroke to explore nitric oxide's relationship with proteins that help repair neuronal damage. They found that nitric oxide reacts with the enzyme SHP-2 to inhibit a protective cascade of molecular events known as the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, nitric oxide not only damages neurons, it also blocks the brain's ability to self-repair.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. The original article was written by Heather Buschman. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Zhong-Qing Shi, Carmen R. Sunico, Scott R. McKercher, Jiankun Cui, Gen-Sheng Feng, Tomohiro Nakamura, and Stuart A. Lipton. S-nitrosylated SHP-2 contributes to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in acute ischemic stroke. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1215501110

Cite This Page:

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. "Chemical reaction keeps stroke-damaged brain from repairing itself." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 February 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130204153910.htm>.
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. (2013, February 4). Chemical reaction keeps stroke-damaged brain from repairing itself. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130204153910.htm
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. "Chemical reaction keeps stroke-damaged brain from repairing itself." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130204153910.htm (accessed August 23, 2014).

Share This




More Mind & Brain News

Saturday, August 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Lost Brain Cells To Blame For Sleep Problems Among Seniors

Lost Brain Cells To Blame For Sleep Problems Among Seniors

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) According to a new study, elderly people might have trouble sleeping because of the loss of a certain group of neurons in the brain. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Do More Wedding Guests Make A Happier Marriage?

Do More Wedding Guests Make A Happier Marriage?

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) A new study found couples who had at least 150 guests at their weddings were more likely to report being happy in their marriages. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Charter Schools Alter Post-Katrina Landscape

Charter Schools Alter Post-Katrina Landscape

AP (Aug. 20, 2014) Nine years after Hurricane Katrina, charter schools are the new reality of public education in New Orleans. The state of Louisiana took over most of the city's public schools after the killer storm in 2005. (Aug. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Researcher Testing on-Field Concussion Scanners

Researcher Testing on-Field Concussion Scanners

AP (Aug. 19, 2014) Four Texas high school football programs are trying out an experimental system designed to diagnose concussions on the field. The technology is in response to growing concern over head trauma in America's most watched sport. (Aug. 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins