Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Researchers identify innate channel that protects against pain

Date:
January 21, 2014
Source:
University of Bristol
Summary:
Scientists have identified a channel present in many pain detecting sensory neurons that acts as a "brake," limiting spontaneous pain. It is hoped that the new research will ultimately contribute to new pain relief treatments.

Scientists have identified a channel present in many pain detecting sensory neurons that acts as a 'brake', limiting spontaneous pain. It is hoped that the new research, published today [22 January] in the Journal of Neuroscience, will ultimately contribute to new pain relief treatments.

Spontaneous pain is ongoing pathological pain that occurs constantly (slow burning pain) or intermittently (sharp shooting pain) without any obvious immediate cause or trigger. The slow burning pain is the cause of much suffering and debilitation. Because the mechanisms underlying this type of slow burning pain are poorly understood, it remains very difficult to treat effectively.

Spontaneous pain of peripheral origin is pathological, and is associated with many types of disease, inflammation or damage of tissues, organs or nerves (neuropathic pain). Examples of neuropathic pain are nerve injury/crush, post-operative pain, and painful diabetic neuropathy.

Previous research has shown that this spontaneous burning pain is caused by continuous activity in small sensory nerve fibers, known as C-fiber nociceptors (pain neurons). Greater activity translates into greater pain, but what causes or limits this activity remained poorly understood.

Now, new research from the University of Bristol, has identified a particular ion channel present exclusively in these C-fiber nociceptors This ion channel, known as TREK2, is present in the membranes of these neurons, and the researchers showed that it provides a natural innate protection against this pain.

Ion channels are specialised proteins that are selectively permeable to particular ions. They form pores through the neuronal membrane. Leak potassium channels are unusual, in that they are open most of the time allowing positive potassium ions (K+) to leak out of the cell. This K+ leakage is the main cause of the negative membrane potentials in all neurons. TREK2 is one of these leak potassium channels. Importantly, the C-nociceptors that express TREK2 have much more negative membrane potentials than those that do not.

Researchers showed that when TREK2 was removed from the proximity of the cell membrane, the potential in those neurons became less negative. In addition, when the neuron was prevented from synthesizing the TREK2, the membrane potential also became less negative.

They also found that spontaneous pain associated with skin inflammation, was increased by reducing the levels of synthesis of TREK2 in these C-fiber neurons.

They concluded that in these C-fiber nociceptors the TREK2 keeps membrane potentials more negative, stabilizing their membrane potential, reducing firing and thus limiting the amount of spontaneous burning pain.

Professor Sally Lawson, from the School of Physiology and Pharmacology at Bristol University, explained: "It became evident that TREK2 kept the C-fiber nociceptor membrane at a more negative potential. Despite the difficulties inherent in the study of spontaneous pain, and the lack of any drugs that can selectively block or activate TREK2, we demonstrated that TREK2 in C-fiber nociceptors is important for stabilizing their membrane potential and decreasing the likelihood of firing. It became apparent that TREK2 was thus likely to act as a natural innate protection against pain. Our data supported this, indicating that in chronic pain states, TREK2 is acting as a brake on the level of spontaneous pain."

Dr Cristian Acosta, the first author on the paper and now working at the Institute of Histology and Embriology of Mendoza in Argentina, said "Given the role of TREK2 in protecting against spontaneous pain, it is important to advance our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling its expression and trafficking in these C-fiber nociceptors. We hope that this research will enable development of methods of enhancing the actions of TREK2 that could potentially some years hence provide relief for sufferers of ongoing spontaneous burning pain."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Bristol. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. C. Acosta, L. Djouhri, R. Watkins, C. Berry, K. Bromage, S. N. Lawson. TREK2 Expressed Selectively in IB4-Binding C-Fiber Nociceptors Hyperpolarizes Their Membrane Potentials and Limits Spontaneous Pain. Journal of Neuroscience, 2014; 34 (4): 1494 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4528-13.2014

Cite This Page:

University of Bristol. "Researchers identify innate channel that protects against pain." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 January 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140121183416.htm>.
University of Bristol. (2014, January 21). Researchers identify innate channel that protects against pain. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 27, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140121183416.htm
University of Bristol. "Researchers identify innate channel that protects against pain." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140121183416.htm (accessed August 27, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Predicting Heart Transplant Rejection With a Blood Test

Predicting Heart Transplant Rejection With a Blood Test

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) Now a new approach to rejection of donor organs could change the way doctors predict transplant rejection…without expensive, invasive procedures. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Better Braces That Vibrate

Better Braces That Vibrate

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) The length of time you have to keep your braces on could be cut in half thanks to a new device that speeds up the process. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Smartphone App Tracks Your Heart Rate

Smartphone App Tracks Your Heart Rate

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) A new app that can track your heart rate 24/7 is available for download in your app store and its convenience could save your life. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Stroke in Young Adults

Stroke in Young Adults

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) A stroke can happen at any time and affect anyone regardless of age. This mother chose to give her son independence and continue to live a normal life after he had a stroke at 18 years old. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins