Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Type 1 diabetes in adults: Antibody affinity is decisive

Date:
March 11, 2014
Source:
Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health
Summary:
Patients with LADA -- a form of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in adulthood -- can be distinguished from patients with non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes by means of the antibody reaction affinity to the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Scientists have reported that high-affinity GAD antibodies are found in patients who produce only a little of their own insulin and who will require insulin therapy after only a relatively short time.

Patients with LADA -- a form of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in adulthood -- can be distinguished from patients with non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes by means of the antibody reaction affinity to the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum München have reported in the journal Diabetes Care that high-affinity GAD antibodies are found in patients who produce only a little of their own insulin and who will require insulin therapy after only a relatively short time.

Related Articles


LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) is a form of type 1 diabetes in adulthood. Like the childhood form, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed by the body's own immune system. The progression of the illness is relatively slowly, however, with clinical manifestations not appearing until after the age of 30 and the patients not yet requiring insulin therapy to control blood sugar levels at the beginning of the disease. It is therefore often difficult to differentiate between LADA and type 2 diabetes.

Scientists from the Institute of Diabetes Research at the Helmholtz Zentrum München, partners in the Deutsches Zentrum für Diabetesforschung (DZD -- German Center for Diabetes Research), have now examined the extent to which the GAD antibody affinity, as a measure of the maturity of the immune response, improves the classification of diabetes in adulthood. They also wanted to determine if vaccination with GAD influences the antibody affinity.

High antibody affinity identifies type 1 diabetes

Together with national and international colleagues, the team headed by PD Dr. Peter Achenbach, Stephanie Krause and Prof. Dr. Anette-Gabriele Ziegler examined the GAD antibody affinity in 46 LADA patients who participated in a GAD vaccination study. The study participants were injected under the skin with different doses of GAD or a placebo preparation in order to induce immune system tolerance to the beta cells. Interestingly, the GAD antibody affinity differed considerably even before the treatment, so that it was possible to distinguish between patients with high and low affinity. The patients with high GAD antibody affinity displayed low insulin production, in keeping with advanced autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. This patient group frequently needed insulin therapy after just a relatively short time. Patients with low affinity, on the other hand, displayed a considerably higher level of insulin production, which remained constant over a time frame of 30 months. The GAD antibody affinity was not influenced by the vaccination with GAD.

"Our findings show that the GAD antibody affinity is a valuable new diagnostic marker in LADA patients. As with childhood type 1 diabetes, we can forecast the progression of the disease and adapt the therapeutic measures accordingly," lead investigator Achenbach explains. "The antibody affinity should now also be taken into consideration in clinical studies involving LADA patients."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. S. Krause, U. Landherr, C.-D. Agardh, S. Hausmann, K. Link, J. M. Hansen, K. F. Lynch, M. Powell, J. Furmaniak, B. Rees-Smith, E. Bonifacio, A. G. Ziegler, A. Lernmark, P. Achenbach. GAD Autoantibody Affinity in Adult Patients With Latent Autoimmune Diabetes, the Study Participants of a GAD65 Vaccination Trial. Diabetes Care, 2014; DOI: 10.2337/dc13-1719

Cite This Page:

Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health. "Type 1 diabetes in adults: Antibody affinity is decisive." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140311104923.htm>.
Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health. (2014, March 11). Type 1 diabetes in adults: Antibody affinity is decisive. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140311104923.htm
Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health. "Type 1 diabetes in adults: Antibody affinity is decisive." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140311104923.htm (accessed March 28, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, March 28, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

These Popular Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

These Popular Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

Newsy (Mar. 27, 2015) — A popular class of antibiotic can leave patients in severe pain and even result in permanent nerve damage. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
House Ready to Pass Medicare Doc Bill

House Ready to Pass Medicare Doc Bill

AP (Mar. 26, 2015) — In rare bipartisan harmony, congressional leaders pushed a $214 billion bill permanently blocking physician Medicare cuts toward House passage Thursday, moving lawmakers closer to resolving a problem that has plagued them for years. (March 26) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
What's Different About This Latest Ebola Vaccine

What's Different About This Latest Ebola Vaccine

Newsy (Mar. 26, 2015) — A whole virus Ebola vaccine has been shown to protect monkeys exposed to the virus. Here&apos;s what&apos;s different about this vaccine. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
HIV Outbreak Prompts Public Health Emergency In Indiana

HIV Outbreak Prompts Public Health Emergency In Indiana

Newsy (Mar. 26, 2015) — Indiana Gov. Mike Pence says he will bring additional state resources to help stop the epidemic. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins