Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Genomic Chaos And Cellular Evolution Lead To Colorectal Cancer

Date:
December 23, 1999
Source:
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Summary:
Cellular evolution, at a vastly accelerated rate and guided by natural selection, transforms normal cells into malignant cells. Results of new research on colorectal cancer tumors and premalignant polyps published in the December 21 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that cancer arises from a decade or more of cellular changes arising from a profound loss of DNA stability.

BUFFALO, NY - Cellular evolution, at a vastly accelerated rate and guided by natural selection, transforms normal cells into malignant cells. Results of new research on colorectal cancer tumors and premalignant polyps published in the December 21 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that cancer arises from a decade or more of cellular changes arising from a profound loss of DNA stability.

Related Articles


"We have found that in colorectal cancer in the general population (sporadic colorectal cancer), malignancy is not the end result of a few mutations, but rather the consequence of exceptionally unstable cells that have had years to evolve into cancer," said Garth R. Anderson, PhD, Department of Cancer Genetics at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) and senior author of this paper. "We estimate that at least 11,000 individual genomic events have occurred in each tumor cell."

The team of seven geneticists, molecular biologists and surgeons from RPCI and the University of Montreal Hospital Center used a technique called inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR (polymerase chain reaction} to sample a number of diverse regions of the genome simultaneously. They compared tumor DNA to normal tissue DNA from 58 consecutive sporadic colorectal cancer and 12 premalignant polyp patients. By determining the number of events that had occurred within the sampled segments of the genome, and defining what fraction of the entire genome was being sampled, the investigators were able to compute the approximate total number of genomic events that had occurred in each tumor.

"A comparison of products amplified from tumor DNA and normal tissue DNA from the same patient reveals a unique pattern of bands. Most products are identical, although in cases where tumor-specific rearrangements occurred, new products are seen and other products disappear," said Daniel Stoler, PhD, Department of Experimental Pathology, RPCI.

The authors point out that the results of this research have relevance at both clinical and therapeutic levels, beyond providing a clearer picture of what cancer fundamentally is. "Being able to quantitate the degree of genomic instability in early-stage tumors should provide insights as to prognosis; particularly in breast and prostate cancers, which are widely detected in early-stage disease, but where only a fraction progress," notes Dr. Anderson. "More attractive therapeutic approaches, in view of our findings, appear to include cancer prevention in the form of stabilizing the genome before progression to cancer can be completed. Once cancer exists, the numerous events and evolved nature of the disease cause each tumor to contain a diverse population of cells, which are unlikely to respond to therapy in an uniform manner. Thus, for patients with cancer, targeting genomically stable non-tumor cells essential for the tumor's survival, such as disrupting the blood supply, offers great promise. Of course, early detection and surgical removal of the entire tumor remains the best treatment of all.

Roswell Park Cancer Institute, founded in 1898, is the nation's first and one of its largest cancer research, treatment and education centers and is the only National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center in Western New York.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Roswell Park Cancer Institute. "Genomic Chaos And Cellular Evolution Lead To Colorectal Cancer." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 December 1999. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/12/991223010912.htm>.
Roswell Park Cancer Institute. (1999, December 23). Genomic Chaos And Cellular Evolution Lead To Colorectal Cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/12/991223010912.htm
Roswell Park Cancer Institute. "Genomic Chaos And Cellular Evolution Lead To Colorectal Cancer." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/12/991223010912.htm (accessed December 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, December 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Scientists in Amsterdam say couples transfer tens of millions of microbes when they kiss, encouraging healthy exposure to bacteria. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Cambridge scientists have unravelled the genetic code of a rare tapeworm that lived inside a patient's brain for at least four year. Researchers hope it will present new opportunities to diagnose and treat this invasive parasite. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) A touch-free phone developed in Israel enables the mobility-impaired to operate smart phones with just a movement of the head. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) Polish scientists isolate bacteria from earthworm intestines which they say may be used in antibiotics and cancer treatments. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins