Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

MRI Identifies Cause Of Salt Damage In Cultural Heritage

Date:
November 26, 2004
Source:
Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research
Summary:
Dutch researcher Lourens Rijniers has discovered why William of Orange's grave, the monument on the Dam in Amsterdam and the Alhambra in Granada are all badly affected by salt damage. Salt can cause a lot of damage in materials with small pores, such as concrete and mortar. This is because the pressure which builds up during the formation of salt crystals causes cracks to develop in the surrounding material. Rijniers proved this with MRI scans of wet porous materials.

Ph.D. student Lourens Rijniers investigated the cause of salt damage, such as the damage which can be seen on the lower part of this statue.
Credit: Photo courtesy of Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research

Dutch researcher Lourens Rijniers has discovered why William of Orange's grave, the monument on the Dam in Amsterdam and the Alhambra in Granada are all badly affected by salt damage. Salt can cause a lot of damage in materials with small pores, such as concrete and mortar. This is because the pressure which builds up during the formation of salt crystals causes cracks to develop in the surrounding material. Rijniers proved this with MRI scans of wet porous materials.

Rijniers used nuclear magnetic resonance, known in hospitals as MRI, to study salt crystallisation in model systems. The model system was a simplified porous material with pores of equal size. With this material Rijniers carried out the first experiments to demonstrate that the crystallisation of salts causes the build up of a pressure large enough to damage the material.

The applied physicist estimated which circumstances could cause damage. Salt damage varies from white spots on masonry and the carbonation of concrete to the erosion of stone and crack formation in statues. For materials with small pores, such as concrete, mortar and limestone, crystallisation was indeed found to result in damage. However, for materials with only large pores, such as brick, this damage mechanism was found to have no effect. It is not yet clear how the damage arises in these materials.

Rijniers wetted the model material with solutions of soda and sodium sulphate and studied the crystallisation process with the help of an MRI scanner. He calculated the pressure in the pores from the amount of salt that dissolved per volume of water. The Ph.D. student used theoretical models to explain how the pressure in the pores arose during the crystallisation process.

Salt crystallisation is an important cause of damage in building materials and stones. Although it is clear that salt from seawater and the environment is responsible for the damage, the mechanism behind this is still not understood. An improved understanding of this mechanism will make it easier to prevent possible damage.

This research was financed by Technology Foundation STW, the Priority Programme Material Research (PPM) and the Center for Building and Systems TU/e-TNO (KCBS).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research. "MRI Identifies Cause Of Salt Damage In Cultural Heritage." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 November 2004. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041123172148.htm>.
Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research. (2004, November 26). MRI Identifies Cause Of Salt Damage In Cultural Heritage. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041123172148.htm
Netherlands Organization For Scientific Research. "MRI Identifies Cause Of Salt Damage In Cultural Heritage." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041123172148.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Government Approves East Coast Oil Exploration

Government Approves East Coast Oil Exploration

AP (July 18, 2014) The Obama administration approved the use of sonic cannons to discover deposits under the ocean floor by shooting sound waves 100 times louder than a jet engine through waters shared by endangered whales and turtles. (July 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sunken German U-Boat Clearly Visible For First Time

Sunken German U-Boat Clearly Visible For First Time

Newsy (July 18, 2014) The wreckage of the German submarine U-166 has become clearly visible for the first time since it was discovered in 2001. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: U.S. Must Have "smartest Airports, Best Power Grid"

Obama: U.S. Must Have "smartest Airports, Best Power Grid"

Reuters - US Online Video (July 17, 2014) President Barak Obama stopped by at a lunch counter in Delaware before making remarks about boosting the nation's infrastructure. Mana Rabiee reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Crude Oil Prices Bounce Back After Falling Below $100 a Barrel

Crude Oil Prices Bounce Back After Falling Below $100 a Barrel

TheStreet (July 16, 2014) Oil Futures are bouncing back after tumbling below $100 a barrel for the first time since May yesterday. Jeff Grossman is the president of BRG Brokerage and trades at the NYMEX. Grossman tells TheStreet the Middle East is always a concern for oil traders. Oil prices were pushed down in recent weeks on Libya increasing its production. Supply disruptions in Iraq fading also contributed to prices falling. News from China's economic front showing a growth for the second quarter also calmed fears on its slowdown. Jeff Grossman talks to TheStreet's Susannah Lee on this and more on the Energy Department's Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins