Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Novel Imaging Technique Shows Abnormal Brain Anatomy In Children With ADHD

Date:
December 8, 2004
Source:
Radiological Society Of North America
Summary:
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display anatomical brain abnormalities beyond chemical imbalance, according to research presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Stimulant medications prescribed to balance brain chemistry appear to normalize some of these brain irregularities, a second study reported.

CHICAGO - Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display anatomical brain abnormalities beyond chemical imbalance, according to research presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Stimulant medications prescribed to balance brain chemistry appear to normalize some of these brain irregularities, a second study reported.

Related Articles


"We found abnormality of the fiber pathways in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia, brain stem and cerebellum," said lead author of both studies, Manzar Ashtari, PhD., associate professor of radiology and psychiatry at North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System in New Hyde Park, N.Y.

"These areas are involved in the processes that regulate attention, impulsive behavior, motor activity, and inhibition-the key symptoms in ADHD children," Dr. Ashtari said. "They are also known to be part of a bigger circuit in the brain that establishes communication between the frontal lobe and cerebellum."

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), ADHD affects 3 to 5 percent of children in the United States. Children with ADHD have difficulty controlling their behavior or focusing their attention.

Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare 18 children with diagnosed ADHD with 15 control children to evaluate the brain's white-matter fiber development, Dr. Ashtari's team found differences in the brain fiber pathways that transmit and receive information among brain areas.

"Typically ADHD is described as a chemical imbalance, but our research has shown that there may also be subtle anatomical differences in areas of the brain that are important in this disorder," said co-principal investigator Sanjiv Kumra, M.D., a psychiatrist at the Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, N.Y.

In the second study, the researchers found that children who had received stimulant treatment for ADHD had fewer white matter abnormalities than children who did not receive medication.

Patients consisted of two groups, each comprised of 10 children with ADHD. The first group had not taken medication or had been minimally exposed to medications. The second group was exposed to stimulants for an average of 2.5 years. Each of these groups was compared with 10 age- and gender-matched controls. The medicated ADHD children exhibited a normalization effect in fiber pathways of several brain areas.

"The findings from this small, cross-sectional study indicate that the therapeutic effect of stimulants may involve a brain normalization process," Dr. Kumra said.

Most people diagnosed with ADHD in childhood continue to have problems in adolescence and adulthood. "Despite progress in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, this disorder and its treatment have remained controversial," said co-author of the stimulant study, Andrew Adesman, M.D. "This study is yet further proof that children with ADHD differ at a neurobiological level as compared to children without the disorder." Dr. Adesman is chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Schneider Children's Hospital in New Hyde Park, N.Y.

Dr. Ashtari said further studies with larger patient groups must be conducted before offering parents advice for diagnosis or treatment.

Co-authors are Babak Ardekani, Ph.D., Shree Bhaskar, M.D., Tana Clarke, B.S., and Joseph Rhinewine, M.A. (DTI study only). The research was sponsored by an NIMH grant.

RSNA is an association of more than 37,000 radiologists, radiation oncologists and related scientists committed to promoting excellence in radiology through education and by fostering research, with the ultimate goal of improving patient care. The Society is based in Oak Brook, Ill.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Radiological Society Of North America. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Radiological Society Of North America. "Novel Imaging Technique Shows Abnormal Brain Anatomy In Children With ADHD." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 December 2004. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041129103049.htm>.
Radiological Society Of North America. (2004, December 8). Novel Imaging Technique Shows Abnormal Brain Anatomy In Children With ADHD. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041129103049.htm
Radiological Society Of North America. "Novel Imaging Technique Shows Abnormal Brain Anatomy In Children With ADHD." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041129103049.htm (accessed December 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, December 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Scientists in Amsterdam say couples transfer tens of millions of microbes when they kiss, encouraging healthy exposure to bacteria. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Cambridge scientists have unravelled the genetic code of a rare tapeworm that lived inside a patient's brain for at least four year. Researchers hope it will present new opportunities to diagnose and treat this invasive parasite. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) A touch-free phone developed in Israel enables the mobility-impaired to operate smart phones with just a movement of the head. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) Polish scientists isolate bacteria from earthworm intestines which they say may be used in antibiotics and cancer treatments. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins