Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Study Examines Role Of EGFR Gene Mutations In Lung Cancer Development

Date:
March 21, 2005
Source:
Journal Of The National Cancer Institute
Summary:
A new study has found that mutations in either of two genes are involved in the development of lung cancer. One of them is the first known mutation to occur specifically in never smokers, according to a new study in the March 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

A new study has found that mutations in either of two genes are involved in the development of lung cancer. One of them is the first known mutation to occur specifically in never smokers, according to a new study in the March 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Related Articles


Studies have found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is mutated in many non–small-cell lung cancers and that these mutations are associated with increased sensitivity to gefitinib (Iressa) or erlotinib (Tarceva), tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors that target EGFR. Recent studies have found that EGFR gene mutations are more common among females, patients from Japan, never smokers, and patients with adenocarcinomas, which are the same groups that have the highest response rates to TK inhibitors. However, little is known about how EGFR gene mutations affect lung cancer development.

To examine the role of EGFR gene mutations in the development of lung cancer, Adi F. Gazdar, M.D., of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, and colleagues searched for these mutations in primary lung tumors from patients in Japan, Taiwan, the United States, and Australia. They also examined these mutations in DNA from nonmalignant lung tissue from many of the lung cancer patients and from other epithelial cancer tissues.

In lung cancer patients, mutations in the TK domain of the EGFR gene were more common in never smokers than in smokers (51% versus 10%), adenocarcinomas versus other types of lung cancer (40% versus 3%), in patients of East Asian ancestry than in other ethnicities (30% versus 8%), and in females versus males (42% versus 14%). Mutation status was not associated with age at diagnosis, clinical stage, the presence of certain histologic features, or overall survival, and they were not found in any normal tissue or tissue from other cancer types. EGFR TK domain mutations are the first known mutation to occur in never smokers. In addition, the researchers found mutations in the KRAS gene--an EGFR signaling pathway gene--in 8% of lung cancers but not in any that had an EGFR gene mutation.

These findings "support the hypothesis that at least two distinct molecular pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinomas, one involving EGFR TK domain mutations and the other involving KRAS gene mutations," the authors write. These results also "suggest that exposure to carcinogens in environmental tobacco smoke may not be the major pathogenic factor involved in the origin of lung cancers in never smokers but that an as-yet-unidentified carcinogen(s) plays an important role."

In an editorial, William R. Sellers, M.D., and Matthew Meyerson, M.D., Ph.D., of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, and the Broad Institute of Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., discuss how these latest findings fit in with previous research on EGFR gene mutations and lung cancer. "The discovery of EGFR gene mutations in lung cancer points out the need for a comprehensive and global view of the genomes of human cancers," they write. "While we work toward such 'global global' views of cancer, it will be important to conduct clinical trials with broad representation across different ethnic groups. … Although ethnic variation in the incidence of somatic mutations complicates the task of defining the cancer genome, these differences provide unique opportunities to discover the predisposition factors linked to the development of cancer."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Journal Of The National Cancer Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Journal Of The National Cancer Institute. "Study Examines Role Of EGFR Gene Mutations In Lung Cancer Development." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 March 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050309102313.htm>.
Journal Of The National Cancer Institute. (2005, March 21). Study Examines Role Of EGFR Gene Mutations In Lung Cancer Development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050309102313.htm
Journal Of The National Cancer Institute. "Study Examines Role Of EGFR Gene Mutations In Lung Cancer Development." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050309102313.htm (accessed December 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, December 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Scientists in Amsterdam say couples transfer tens of millions of microbes when they kiss, encouraging healthy exposure to bacteria. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Cambridge scientists have unravelled the genetic code of a rare tapeworm that lived inside a patient's brain for at least four year. Researchers hope it will present new opportunities to diagnose and treat this invasive parasite. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) A touch-free phone developed in Israel enables the mobility-impaired to operate smart phones with just a movement of the head. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) Polish scientists isolate bacteria from earthworm intestines which they say may be used in antibiotics and cancer treatments. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins