Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Novel Pathway Regulates Timing Of Brain Cell Development

Date:
October 6, 2006
Source:
Children's Hospital Boston
Summary:
Brain formation involves the carefully timed production of different types of nerve cells -- making too much of one type and too little of another at a given time could lead to brain malformations. In the Oct. 6 issue of Cell, researchers at Children's Hospital Boston report a mechanism that influences this timing, with possible implications for Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, autism and other diseases.

Brain formation involves the carefully timed production of different types of nerve cells by neural stem cells: neurons are produced first, then astrocytes. Making too much of one kind of cell and too little of another at a given time could lead to brain malformations. In the October 6 issue of Cell, researchers in the Neurobiology Program at Children's Hospital Boston report discovering a new molecular pathway that influences the timing of nerve-cell production.

Related Articles


The pathway--which acts through a novel and unexpected mechanism--inhibits production of astrocytes during the early stages of brain development, thereby favoring the production of neurons. (Astrocytes provide structural and functional support to neurons, but can also regulate their differentiation.) Children's neurobiologist Gabriel Corfas, PhD, senior investigator on the study, says the discovery could have implications for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and autism.

One key component of the pathway is a protein called erbB4 that straddles the outer membrane of the neural stem cell. Corfas's team showed that mice lacking erbB4 produced astrocytes earlier in embryonic development than normal. ErbB4 is activated by another protein called neuregulin 1 (NRG1), and then is cut in two by a third critical protein called presenilin, the researchers showed. The half of erbB4 that resides inside the cell--a protein called E4ICD--then joins with other proteins in the cell and travels to the cell nucleus. "Once in the nucleus, E4ICD represses genes that trigger astrocyte production, and thereby inhibits astrocyte formation," explains S. Pablo Sardi, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at Children's and the study's first author.

Previous studies have found presenilin activity to be altered in Alzheimer's disease, and that erbB4 is abundant around the plaques found in Alzheimer's patients' brains. Taken together, the evidence suggests that presenilin's role in Alzheimer's may have to do, in part, with its effects on erbB4 activity--an effect that was previously unrecognized. ErbB4 signaling also regulates neuronal function and survival, processes that have been implicated in Alzheimer's pathology, the researchers note.

"Our findings raise the intriguing possibility that defects in presenilin-mediated erbB4 signaling could be implicated in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease," Corfas says. "Further studies of erbB4 nuclear signaling could provide important insights into the causes of neurodegeneration."

In addition, the genes for both NRG1 and erbB4 have been linked to schizophrenia. Corfas speculates that premature formation of astrocytes resulting from altered functioning of these genes causes subtle malformations in the brain's circuitry. "Changes in the timing in which different neural cells are produced could lead to alterations in brain wiring," he says. "This would lead to alterations in cognitive function such as those seen in schizophrenia--which is now considered to be a developmental disorder--and potentially in other diseases such as autism."

Corfas's work was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, and an NIH Developmental Disability Research Center Grant.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Children's Hospital Boston. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Children's Hospital Boston. "Novel Pathway Regulates Timing Of Brain Cell Development." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 October 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061006080501.htm>.
Children's Hospital Boston. (2006, October 6). Novel Pathway Regulates Timing Of Brain Cell Development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061006080501.htm
Children's Hospital Boston. "Novel Pathway Regulates Timing Of Brain Cell Development." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061006080501.htm (accessed March 2, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Mind & Brain News

Monday, March 2, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

This Nasal Treatment Could Help Ease Migraine Pain

This Nasal Treatment Could Help Ease Migraine Pain

Newsy (Mar. 2, 2015) Researchers gave lidocaine to 112 patients, and about 88 percent of the subjects said they needed less migraine-relief medicine the next day. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Facebook Use Can Lead To Depression

How Facebook Use Can Lead To Depression

Newsy (Mar. 1, 2015) Margaret Duffy of the University of Missouri talks about her study on the social network and the envy and depression that Facebook use can cause. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Foods to Battle Stress

The Best Foods to Battle Stress

Buzz60 (Feb. 26, 2015) If you&apos;re dealing with anxiety, there are a few foods that can help. Krystin Goodwin (@krystingoodwin) has the best foods to tame stress. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sleeping Too Much Or Too Little Might Increase Stroke Risk

Sleeping Too Much Or Too Little Might Increase Stroke Risk

Newsy (Feb. 26, 2015) People who sleep more than eight hours per night are 45 percent more likely to have a stroke, according to a University of Cambridge study. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins