Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Check And Balance For Neuron Activity Provides Insight Into Schizophrenia, Seizures

Date:
May 24, 2007
Source:
Medical College of Georgia
Summary:
Two genes important for human development and implicated in cancer and schizophrenia also help keep a healthy balance between excitation and inhibition of brain cells, researchers say.

Dr. Lin Mei (from left), chief of developmental neurobiology, with postdoctoral fellows Drs. Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland and Xiao-Ming Li.
Credit: Medical College of Georgia

Two genes important for human development and implicated in cancer and schizophrenia also help keep a healthy balance between excitation and inhibition of brain cells, researchers say.

Neuregulin-1 and its receptor, ErbB4, promote inhibition at the site of inhibitory synapses in the brain by increasing release of GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, Medical College of Georgia researchers led by Dr. Lin Mei report in the May 24 issue of Neuron.

In 2000, a research team led by Dr. Mei showed that neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 also are at excitatory synapses, communication points between neurons where the neurotransmitter glutamate excites cells to action. Here, neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 suppress excitation.

"Right beside the place where the excitatory synapse can be activated, there is also something that can suppress it," says Dr. Mei, chief of developmental neurobiology at MCG. "Now we have identified another novel target of neuregulin-1 which is the inhibitory synapse."

Together the findings reveal a check and balance for brain cell activity managed by neuregulin-1 in the brain's prefrontal cortex, where complex reasoning and decisions about appropriate social behavior occur, he says.

They also provide new treatment targets for psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and neurological disorders such as epilepsy, researchers say.

The genes are both associated with schizophrenia, a disease that affects about 1 percent of the population, but the exact role of malfunctioning neuregulin-1 signaling was unclear.

"(Dr. Mei's) findings help explain how a gene that is potentially causative in disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder relate to a neurotransmitter that is critical for explaining the cognitive deficits associated with the illness," says Dr. Daniel R. Weinberger, director of the Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Md.

"What we have found is neuregulin-1 can regulate GABA release from these neurons and if the GABA is released here that may play a role in controlling the output of this neuron," Dr. Mei says, pointing to an illustration of pyramid-shaped neurons that looks like a high-tech switchboard with information coming in from all angles.

Pyramidal neurons get information from nearby interneurons, integrate it, then decide what message to move forward. "This pyramidal neuron receives inhibitory input and excitatory input, and neuregulin-1 can regulate both," says Dr. Mei.

They nicely balance input in most people, enabling folks to balance their checking accounts and suppress the urge to run naked down the street.

In 2006, University of Pennsylvania researchers reported in Nature Medicine an altered signaling pathway for neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 genes in the brains of schizophrenics. Dr. Mei's findings show that these factors associated with a schizophrenic brain have at least two places to act.

"There is a ton of evidence that when inhibitory synapses, such as GABA, go wrong, the symptoms of mice and rats look similar to those of schizophrenia in people," he says.

Mounting evidence suggests that problems with the excitatory and inhibitory synapses regulated by neuregulin-1 result in other problems as well: Excess excitation results in mind-rattling seizures and excess inhibition in depression, as examples.

"If this neuron is too excited, people may get manic or have seizures," says Dr. Mei. "Patients with schizophrenia, for example, show symptoms that implicate alterations in inhibitory neurotransmission in addition to excitatory neurotransmission."

Dr. Mei co-authored a companion paper in Neuron with scientists at Cold Spring Harbor in New York that provides yet another link between neuregulin-1, its receptor ErbB4 and schizophrenia. It shows ErbB4 plays a key role in the maturation and plasticity of excitatory synapses and that normal synapse development is impaired by genetic defects in neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 signaling. The result is impaired function of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate.

Now he wants to study disease processes in a neuregulin-1/ErbB4 knockout mouse and learn more about how neuregulin-1 mediates GABA release. Another key unknown is what regulates neuregulin-1.

Co-authors on Dr. Mei's paper include scientists at Southern Medical University in China, Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C., Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., in Danvers, Mass., and the University of Basel in Switzerland.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Medical College of Georgia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Medical College of Georgia. "Check And Balance For Neuron Activity Provides Insight Into Schizophrenia, Seizures." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 May 2007. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070523124354.htm>.
Medical College of Georgia. (2007, May 24). Check And Balance For Neuron Activity Provides Insight Into Schizophrenia, Seizures. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070523124354.htm
Medical College of Georgia. "Check And Balance For Neuron Activity Provides Insight Into Schizophrenia, Seizures." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070523124354.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

Share This




More Mind & Brain News

Monday, July 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Losing Sleep Leaves You Vulnerable To 'False Memories'

Losing Sleep Leaves You Vulnerable To 'False Memories'

Newsy (July 27, 2014) A new study shows sleep deprivation can make it harder for people to remember specific details of an event. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
University Quiz Implies Atheists Are Smarter Than Christians

University Quiz Implies Atheists Are Smarter Than Christians

Newsy (July 25, 2014) An online quiz from a required course at Ohio State is making waves for suggesting atheists are inherently smarter than Christians. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

AFP (July 24, 2014) A so-called drugs rehab 'clinic' is closed down in Pakistan after police find scores of ‘patients’ chained up alleging serial abuse. Duration 03:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins