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Mother-child Attachment, Children's Temperament Play A Role In 'Terrible 2' Conflicts

Date:
March 26, 2008
Source:
Society for Research in Child Development
Summary:
Attachment security was found to be related to the quality, but not frequency of conflict between mothers and their 2-year-olds. Observations with 60 mothers and their children at 30 months and 36 months were used to examine whether their conflict contained compromise, justification or aggravation. Those in secure relationships were seen to have constructive conflict. The researchers also found that highly active children who had trouble controlling their behavior had more conflict with mothers.

Stories about the "terrible twos" abound in parenting lore. New research finds that the way mothers and their 2-year-olds relate to each other affects the quality but not the frequency of conflicts when children are two, and that children's temperament also plays a role.

Researchers at Lehigh University and the University of California-Davis recruited 60 mothers and their children through birth announcements in local newspapers, then observed them in two sessions: one 50-minute lab visit when the children were 30 months old, and one 90-minute home visit when the children were 36 months. During each observation, the researchers looked at all episodes of conflict, and examined whether they contained compromise, justification, or aggravation (i.e., simple insistence without explanation or threats) by both mothers and children. They also examined whether the conflicts were resolved. Mothers provided information about the children's temperament and attachment security, or the degree of trust that children have in their mothers' responsiveness and availability.

The study found that mother-child conflict during both observations was frequent (about 20 times an hour), and there was a lot of variation in the frequency of conflict (from as many as 55 times an hour to as few as 5 times an hour) and in the quality of conflict between mothers and children.

Furthermore, children's temperament was related to the frequency and quality of conflict, that is, children who were highly active and who had problems controlling their behavior had more conflict with mothers than less active children and children who did not have trouble controlling their behavior. In addition, highly active children and children who frequently and intensely experienced negative emotions had less constructive conflict with their mothers, involving less resolution, more aggravation, and less justification, than children who did not have these qualities.

Attachment security was not related to the frequency of conflict between mothers and their children, but to the quality, the study found. Mothers and children who had secure relationships had constructive conflict involving high levels of resolution, compromise, and justification. In sum, both the quality of children's relationships with their mothers and children's personality types were found to shape the nature of conflict between mothers and their children at age two.

"Children with difficult temperaments tend to have more frequent and less constructive conflict with mothers," according to Deborah Laible, associate professor of psychology at Lehigh University and the lead author of the study. "High-quality relationships between mothers and children were associated with more constructive conflict between mothers and children. In secure relationships, both mothers and children seem committed to maintaining relational harmony by resolving conflict, compromising, and justifying their side of an argument."

Summarized from Child Development, Vol. 79, Issue 2, The Quality and Frequency of Mother-Toddler Conflict: Links with Attachment and Temperament by Laible, D, and Panfile, T (Lehigh University), and Makariev, D (University of California-Davis).

The research was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Society for Research in Child Development. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Society for Research in Child Development. "Mother-child Attachment, Children's Temperament Play A Role In 'Terrible 2' Conflicts." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 March 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080325083309.htm>.
Society for Research in Child Development. (2008, March 26). Mother-child Attachment, Children's Temperament Play A Role In 'Terrible 2' Conflicts. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080325083309.htm
Society for Research in Child Development. "Mother-child Attachment, Children's Temperament Play A Role In 'Terrible 2' Conflicts." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080325083309.htm (accessed October 1, 2014).

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