Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Social Comparisons In Early Childhood

Date:
October 30, 2008
Source:
Association for Psychological Science
Summary:
Previous research has shown that preschoolers maintain positive self-evaluations and high levels of performance even when they see that their peers have out-performed them. However, new research suggests that preschoolers are very sensitive to gender information. These findings reveal that when preschoolers see that they have performed more poorly than a peer of the other gender -- even just one time -- there are lasting negative consequences on behavior and self-concept.

It has been shown (and probably experienced by all of us) that performing worse than our peers on a particular task results in negative self-esteem and poorer subsequent performance on the same task. How people respond when their peers perform better than they do has been studied in a variety of age groups and it turns out that preschoolers have thicker skin than adults do!

Previous research has shown that preschoolers (4-5 year old children) maintain positive self-evaluations and high levels of performance even when they see that their peers have out-performed them. This is thought to occur because young children believe that achievement differences between themselves and their peers are adaptable; in other words, they think that if they try harder, they will be able to do as well as their peers in the future.

A new study by University of Michigan psychologists Marjorie Rhodes and Daniel Brickman questions these previously held conclusions about preschoolers’ behavior, by demonstrating that young children do indeed respond negatively when they perform more poorly than a peer—if that peer is of the other gender (e.g., if a girl learns that a boy has performed better than her, or vice versa). The participants (4- and 5-year-olds) were asked to complete a timed circle-tracing task (i.e. they were told to fill in circles as quickly as possible) and then were told that either a same-gender, other-gender or gender-unidentified peer performed better on the task than they did (i.e. completed more shapes).

After receiving this information, the researchers made sure that the study participants understood the comparison, and then asked them to evaluate how well they performed on the task. The children were then asked to complete the circle tracing task a second time—this time, they were told that they did better than the peer had done—and then were asked to assess their performance again.

The results were intriguing. It turns out that preschoolers are very sensitive to gender information- children’s behavior critically depended on the gender of the peer. Children who were told about a same-gender or gender-unidentified peer improved their performance across the two trials of the tracing task (i.e. they completed the task more quickly the second time). They also increased their self-evaluations after the second trial. In contrast, the majority of children who were told about an other-gender peer performed more poorly on the second trial (i.e. they completed the task more slowly). Also, even though all children were led to believe that they performed better than the peer on the second trial, children who had been told about other-gender peers did not increase their self-evaluations.

These results indicate that when preschoolers see that they have performed more poorly than a peer of the other gender—even just one time—there are lasting negative consequences on behavior and self-concept. The authors conclude that “these findings have implications for the origins of social comparisons, category-based reasoning, and the development of gender stereotypes and achievement motivation.”


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Association for Psychological Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Preschoolers' Responses to Social Comparisons Involving Relative Failure. Psychological Science, October 2008

Cite This Page:

Association for Psychological Science. "Social Comparisons In Early Childhood." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 October 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081030123949.htm>.
Association for Psychological Science. (2008, October 30). Social Comparisons In Early Childhood. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081030123949.htm
Association for Psychological Science. "Social Comparisons In Early Childhood." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081030123949.htm (accessed April 16, 2014).

Share This



More Mind & Brain News

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Cognitive Function: Is It All Downhill From Age 24?

Cognitive Function: Is It All Downhill From Age 24?

Newsy (Apr. 15, 2014) A new study out of Canada says cognitive motor performance begins deteriorating around age 24. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
App Fights Jet Lag With The Power Of Math

App Fights Jet Lag With The Power Of Math

Newsy (Apr. 13, 2014) Researchers at the University of Michigan have designed an app to fight jet lag by adjusting your body's light intake. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Treatment Gaps Endangering Cops, Mentally Ill

Treatment Gaps Endangering Cops, Mentally Ill

AP (Apr. 10, 2014) As states slash funding for mental health services, police officers are interacting more than ever with people suffering from schizophrenia and other serious disorders of the mind. The consequences can be deadly. (April 10) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Teen Drinking Rates Linked To Alcohol Mentions In Pop Music

Teen Drinking Rates Linked To Alcohol Mentions In Pop Music

Newsy (Apr. 9, 2014) A University of Pittsburgh study found pop music that mentions alcohol is linked to higher drinking rates among teens. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins