Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cell's Split Personality Is A Major Discovery Into Neurological Diseases

Date:
May 8, 2009
Source:
McGill University
Summary:
Researchers have discovered that cells which normally support nerve cell (neuron) survival also play an active and major role in the death of neurons in the eye. The findings may lead to more streamlined therapies for a variety of acute and chronic neurological disorders, including glaucoma and retinal artery occlusion.

Researchers at the Universitι de Montreal (UdeM) and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI), McGill University have discovered that cells which normally support nerve cell (neuron) survival also play an active and major role in the death of neurons in the eye.

The findings, published the week of May 7 in The Journal of Neuroscience, may lead to more streamlined therapies for a variety of acute and chronic neurological disorders, including glaucoma and retinal artery occlusion.

In many neurodegenerative diseases, a main factor that kills neurons is excessive levels of glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in many regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Diseases that occur as a result of high glutamate levels include hypoxic–ischemic brain injury (stroke), trauma, seizures, various forms of dementia and neurodegeneration. For years, the main explanation for the toxic effects of glutamate is that it overexcites neuronal cells via activation of glutamate receptors and thereby kills them.

"The most interesting aspect of our study and the reason we are so excited is that the pathway leading to glutamate-induced nerve cell death involves another vital player – namely, glial cells," says Dr. Adriana Di Polo, neuroscientist at the UdeM. "Through careful experimentation we now know that glutamate activates signaling pathways in glial cells that then lead to neuronal death."

Glial cells are the most abundant cell type in the nervous system and are traditionally thought of as 'partner' cells to nerve cells providing support, nutrients and an optimal environment. However, this study indicates that glial cells also have a more sinister side that allows them to induce or exacerbate neuronal death in pathological conditions.

"Neuronal cell death induced by glutamate is a key step in a large number of injury and disease settings and this study is important because it provides a road-map for the cellular and molecular events that allow this to occur" says Dr. Philip Barker, neuroscientist at the MNI, "The fact that specific signaling events in glial cells are important for inducing neuronal cell death is surprising and suggests new therapeutic targets for conditions that involve excitotoxicity."

The findings of the MNI and UdeM study represent a paradigm shift from the main model of excitotoxicity that has been in place for many years. Until now, the central idea has been that glutamate, which is released upon injury, binds to and activates the glutamate receptors on neurons triggering massive calcium entry and cell death. However, clinical trials targeting glutamate receptors have been disappointing suggesting that these receptors play only a minor role in triggering neuronal death.

The study, supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, focused on nerve cells in the retina which convey information from the retina to the brain along the optic nerve, and are the primary link between the retina and the brain. The death of these retinal neurons from excess glutamate causes vision loss in various neurodegenerative disorders including optic neuropathies.

By disrupting signaling events in surrounding glial cells, the researchers were able to protect the majority of these neurons, confirming that glial cell events play a key role in death triggered by glutamate. This new understanding of the excitotoxic cascade of nerve cell death provides clear targets for successful therapeutic intervention of a wide-range of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by McGill University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

McGill University. "Cell's Split Personality Is A Major Discovery Into Neurological Diseases." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 May 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090507113410.htm>.
McGill University. (2009, May 8). Cell's Split Personality Is A Major Discovery Into Neurological Diseases. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090507113410.htm
McGill University. "Cell's Split Personality Is A Major Discovery Into Neurological Diseases." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090507113410.htm (accessed July 31, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

House Republicans Vote to Sue Obama Over Healthcare Law

House Republicans Vote to Sue Obama Over Healthcare Law

Reuters - US Online Video (July 31, 2014) — The Republican-led House of Representatives votes to sue President Obama, accusing him of overstepping his executive authority in making changes to the Affordable Care Act. Mana Rabiee reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite Health Questions, E-Cigs Are Beneficial: Study

Despite Health Questions, E-Cigs Are Beneficial: Study

Newsy (July 31, 2014) — Citing 81 previous studies, new research out of London suggests the benefits of smoking e-cigarettes instead of regular ones outweighs the risks. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

AP (July 31, 2014) — Sarasota County, Florida health officials have issued a warning against eating raw oysters and exposing open wounds to coastal and inland waters after a dangerous bacteria killed one person and made another sick. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 30, 2014) — Obamacare-related costs were said to be behind the profit plunge at Wellpoint and Humana, but Wellpoint sees the new exchanges boosting its earnings for the full year. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins