Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Bladder cancer risks increase over time for smokers

Date:
November 23, 2009
Source:
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Summary:
Risk of bladder cancer for smokers has increased since the mid-1990s, with a risk progressively increasing to a level five times higher among current smokers in New Hampshire than that among nonsmokers in 2001-2004, according to a new study.

Risk of bladder cancer for smokers has increased since the mid-1990s, with a risk progressively increasing to a level five times higher among current smokers in New Hampshire than that among nonsmokers in 2001-2004, according to a new study published online November 16 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Furthermore, researchers found that among individuals who smoked the same total number of cigarettes over their lifetime, smoking fewer cigarettes per day for more years may be more harmful than smoking more cigarettes per day for fewer years.

Related Articles


It is well known that cigarette smoking causes bladder cancer, but the influence of various parameters of smoking history, including trends in risk over time, is unclear.

Dalsu Baris, M.D., Ph.D., of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, in Bethesda, Md., and her colleagues from NCI, Dartmouth Medical School, and the departments of health for the states of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, examined bladder cancer risk in relation to smoking practices based on data from a large, population-based case-control study conducted in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont from 2001 to 2004. To examine changes in smoking-induced bladder cancer risk over time, the researchers compared odds ratios for New Hampshire residents in this study with those from two, case-control studies conducted in New Hampshire by Margaret Karagas, Ph.D., of Dartmouth Medical School.

Among New Hampshire residents, there was a statistically significant, progressive increase in bladder cancer risk among both former and current smokers compared with nonsmokers over each time period. According to the authors, this may be partly attributable to changes over time in the concentration of bladder carcinogens in cigarette smoke, as well as the introduction and increased popularity of low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. Smokers who switch to low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes are thought to increase the depth and frequency of inhalation to satisfy the need for nicotine.

"The observed relationship between smoking and bladder cancer risk was stronger than reported in earlier studies, with statistically significant trends in risk with increasing duration, intensity, and pack-years for both men and women," the authors write. "Additional modeling of the rate of delivery of cigarette smoke supports previous observations, suggesting a greater risk of bladder cancer for total exposure delivered at a lower intensity for longer duration than for an equivalent exposure delivered at a higher intensity for shorter duration."

In an accompanying editorial, Anthony J. Alberg, Ph.D., MPH, of the Hollings Cancer Center and Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, and James R. Hebert, ScD, of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, note that given the substantial body of evidence linking bladder cancer and smoking, the most important aspect of this finding was that the association has substantially increased from 1994 to 2004. The editorialists agree that the data suggest that an increase in the carcinogenic content of cigarettes over time could be partly responsible.

"The findings of Baris et al. are provocative and… offer a testable hypothesis that warrants thorough investigation," the editorialists write. "More precisely, pinpointing the specific role of cigarette additives will be an important element of this research. This study highlights the need for continued vigilance in monitoring the impact of the changing cigarette on disease risk."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Journal of the National Cancer Institute. "Bladder cancer risks increase over time for smokers." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 November 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091116163208.htm>.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (2009, November 23). Bladder cancer risks increase over time for smokers. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091116163208.htm
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. "Bladder cancer risks increase over time for smokers." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091116163208.htm (accessed December 20, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

The Best Tips to Curb Holiday Carbs

The Best Tips to Curb Holiday Carbs

Buzz60 (Dec. 19, 2014) It's hard to resist those delicious but fattening carbs we all crave during the winter months, but there are some ways to stay satisfied without consuming the extra calories. Vanessa Freeman (@VanessaFreeTV) has the details. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sierra Leone Bikers Spread the Message to Fight Ebola

Sierra Leone Bikers Spread the Message to Fight Ebola

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) More than 100 motorcyclists hit the road to spread awareness messages about Ebola. Nearly 7,000 people have now died from the virus, almost all of them in west Africa, according to the World Health Organization. Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) In Yarumal, a village in N. Colombia, Alzheimer's has ravaged a disproportionately large number of families. A genetic "curse" that may pave the way for research on how to treat the disease that claims a new victim every four seconds. Duration: 02:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Protein-Filled Foods to Energize You for the New Year

The Best Protein-Filled Foods to Energize You for the New Year

Buzz60 (Dec. 19, 2014) The new year is coming and nothing will energize you more for 2015 than protein-filled foods. Fitness and nutrition expert John Basedow (@JohnBasedow) gives his favorite high protein foods that will help you build muscle, lose fat and have endless energy. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins