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New molecular mechanism discovered that guides visual nerves towards brain

Date:
January 9, 2010
Source:
Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal
Summary:
Scientists have discovered a new molecular mechanism that permits the guidance of visual nerves towards the brain.
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The laboratory of Dr. Frédéric Charron, a researcher at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), has discovered a new molecular mechanism that permits the guidance of visual nerves towards the brain. Their findings have been published in the current issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. The research was conducted in collaboration with Dr. Tomomi Shimogori from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute, in Japan. Pierre Fabre, a doctoral student in Dr. Charron's research unit, is the article's first author.

To correctly establish nervous circuits, attractive and repulsive molecules are required to guide growing axons to their appropriate targets. One such molecule is Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). "Using genetic evidence and in utero manipulations in mice, we were able to demonstrate that the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) molecular pathway is required for the guidance of retinal axons within the optic chiasm," specified Pierre Fabre. This guidance, which acts through repulsion, relies on the Boc receptor, which becomes therefore a prime target for the development of therapies that could stimulate axonal growth after injury or in neurodegenerative disorders.

Moreover, the authors have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the visual system. The optic chiasm is the crossroad of optic nerves stemming from both eyes and allows the brain to integrate binocular visual information, a crucial process for establishing 3D vision. "By showing that Boc and Shh play an important role in this neurobiological development process, we have identified a new molecular pathway required in the formation of the visual system," added Dr. Charron.

"CIHR is proud to support research such as Dr. Charron's, which will improve our understanding of visual development," says Dr. Anthony Phillips, Scientific Director of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction. "The discovery of the new molecular mechanism will pave the way for research into neurodegenerative disorders and, eventually, treatment."

This work was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Peter Lougheed Medical Research Foundation, the Fonds de recherche en santé du Québec (FRSQ) and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI). Pierre Fabre was also awarded scholarships from the Université de Montréal and the IRCM.


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The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Fabre et al. Segregation of Ipsilateral Retinal Ganglion Cell Axons at the Optic Chiasm Requires the Shh Receptor Boc. Journal of Neuroscience, 2010; 30 (1): 266 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3778-09.2010

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Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal. "New molecular mechanism discovered that guides visual nerves towards brain." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 January 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100107114436.htm>.
Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal. (2010, January 9). New molecular mechanism discovered that guides visual nerves towards brain. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 3, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100107114436.htm
Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal. "New molecular mechanism discovered that guides visual nerves towards brain." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100107114436.htm (accessed July 3, 2015).

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