Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cognition and memory improve dramatically in mice when brain compound levels were decreased

Date:
July 6, 2010
Source:
University of Maryland Medical Center
Summary:
For the first time, scientists have linked a brain compound called kynurenic acid to cognition, possibly opening doors for new ways to enhance memory function and treat catastrophic brain diseases, according to a new study. When researchers decreased the levels of kynurenic acid in the brains of mice, their cognition was shown to improve markedly, according to a new study.

For the first time, scientists have linked a brain compound called kynurenic acid to cognition, possibly opening doors for new ways to enhance memory function and treat catastrophic brain diseases, according to a new study from the University of Maryland School of Medicine. When researchers decreased the levels of kynurenic acid in the brains of mice, their cognition was shown to improve markedly, according to the study, which was published in the July issue of the journal Neuropsychopharmacology. The study is the result of decades of pioneering research in the lab of Robert Schwarcz, Ph.D., a professor of psychiatry, pediatrics and pharmacology and experimental therapeutics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Related Articles


"We believe that interventions aimed specifically at reducing the level of kynurenic acid in the brain are a promising strategy for cognitive improvement in both healthy patients and in those suffering from a variety of brain diseases ranging from schizophrenia to Alzheimer's disease," says Dr. Schwarcz.

Kynurenic acid is a substance with unique biological properties and is produced when the brain metabolizes the amino acid L-tryptophan. The compound is related to another breakdown product of tryptophan known as quinolinic acid. In 1983, Dr. Schwarz published a paper in the journal Science identifying the critical role excessive quinolinic acid plays in the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease. He has since designed a therapeutic strategy targeting quinolinic acid for the treatment of Huntington's disease. Dr. Schwarcz also is involved in a company called VistaGen, which pursues the development of neuroprotective drugs based on this concept.

In the study published this month, Dr. Schwarcz and his colleagues at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center -- a clinical and basic science research center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine -- examined mice that had been genetically engineered to have more than 70 percent lower kynurenic acid levels than ordinary mice. These mice were found to perform significantly better than their normal peers on several widely used tests that specifically measure function in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a critical area of the brain for memory and spatial navigation. The mice were clearly superior in their ability to explore and recognize objects, to remember unpleasant experiences and to navigate a maze. The engineered animals also showed increased hippocampal plasticity, meaning they had a greatly improved ability to convert electrical stimuli into long-lasting memories.

"These results are very exciting, because they open up an entirely new way of thinking about the formation and retrieval of memories," says Dr. Schwarcz. "Kynurenic acid has been known for more than 150 years, but only now do we recognize it as a major player in one of the fundamental functions of the brain. Our most recent work, still unpublished, shows that new chemicals that specifically influence the production of kynurenic acid in the brain predictably affect cognition. We are now in the process of developing such compounds for cognitive enhancement in humans."

"I feel confident Dr. Schwarcz's determined pursuit of answers for the desperate patients suffering from devastating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, will pay off," says E. Albert Reece, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A., vice president for medical affairs, University of Maryland, and John Z. and Akiko K. Bowers Distinguished Professor and dean, University of Maryland School of Medicine. "His work creates hope for these patients and their families, and his findings are making a significant impact on the field of neuroscience and psychiatric medicine."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Maryland Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Michelle C Potter, Greg I Elmer, Richard Bergeron, Edson X Albuquerque, Paolo Guidetti, Hui-Qiu Wu, Robert Schwarcz. Reduction of Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Formation Enhances Extracellular Glutamate, Hippocampal Plasticity, and Cognitive Behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2010; DOI: 10.1038/npp.2010.39

Cite This Page:

University of Maryland Medical Center. "Cognition and memory improve dramatically in mice when brain compound levels were decreased." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 July 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100630132848.htm>.
University of Maryland Medical Center. (2010, July 6). Cognition and memory improve dramatically in mice when brain compound levels were decreased. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100630132848.htm
University of Maryland Medical Center. "Cognition and memory improve dramatically in mice when brain compound levels were decreased." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100630132848.htm (accessed October 25, 2014).

Share This



More Mind & Brain News

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Academic Scandal Shocks UNC

Academic Scandal Shocks UNC

AP (Oct. 23, 2014) A scandal involving bogus classes and inflated grades at the University of North Carolina was bigger than previously reported, a new investigation found. (Oct. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Working Mother Getaway: Beaches Turks & Caicos

Working Mother Getaway: Beaches Turks & Caicos

Working Mother (Oct. 22, 2014) Feast your eyes on this gorgeous family-friendly resort. Video provided by Working Mother
Powered by NewsLook.com
What Your Favorite Color Says About You

What Your Favorite Color Says About You

Buzz60 (Oct. 22, 2014) We all have one color we love to wear, and believe it or not, your color preference may reveal some of your character traits. In celebration of National Color Day, Krystin Goodwin (@kyrstingoodwin) highlights what your favorite colors may say about you. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

Newsy (Oct. 21, 2014) A medical team has for the first time given a man the ability to walk again after transplanting cells from his brain onto his severed spinal cord. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins