Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Microchip technology rapidly identifies compounds for regrowing nerves in live animals

Date:
October 13, 2010
Source:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Summary:
Engineers have now used a new microchip technology to rapidly test potential drugs on tiny worms called C. elegans, which are often used in studies of the nervous system. Using the new technology, scientists rapidly performed laser surgery, delivered drugs and imaged the resulting neuron regrowth in thousands of live animals.

MIT engineers have developed a way to rapidly perform surgery on single nerve cells in the worm C. elegans. The white lines represent axons — long extensions of nerve cells that carry messages to other cells.
Credit: Craig Millman and Yanik Lab

Scientists have long sought the ability to regenerate nerve cells, or neurons, which could offer a new way to treat spinal-cord damage as well as neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. Many chemicals can regenerate neurons grown in Petri dishes in the lab, but it's difficult and time-consuming to identify those chemicals that work in live animals, which is critical for developing drugs for humans.

Engineers at MIT have now used a new microchip technology to rapidly test potential drugs on tiny worms called C. elegans, which are often used in studies of the nervous system. Using the new technology, associate professor Mehmet Fatih Yanik and his colleagues rapidly performed laser surgery, delivered drugs and imaged the resulting neuron regrowth in thousands of live animals.

"Our technology helps researchers rapidly identify promising chemicals that can then be tested in mammals and perhaps even in humans," says Yanik. Using this technique, the researchers have already identified one promising class of neuronal regenerators.

The paper will appear in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of Oct. 11.

C. elegans is a useful model organism for neuron regeneration because it is optically transparent, and its entire neural network is known. Yanik and colleagues had previously developed a femtosecond laser nanosurgery technique which allowed them to cut and observe regeneration of individual axons -- long extensions of neurons that send signals to neighboring cells. Their femtosecond laser nanosurgery technique uses tightly-focused infrared laser pulses that are shorter than billionth of a second. This allows the laser to penetrate deep into the animals without damaging the tissues on its way, until the laser beam hits its very final target i.e. the axon.

In the PNAS study, the researchers used their microchip technology to rapidly cut the axons of single neurons that sense touch. Moving single worms from their incubation well to an imaging microchip, immobilizing them and performing laser surgery takes only about 20 seconds, which allows thousands of surgeries to be performed in a short period of time.

After laser surgery, each worm is returned to its incubation well and treated with a different chemical compound. C. elegans neurons can partially regrow without help, which allowed Yanik's team to look for drugs that can either enhance or inhibit this regrowth. After two or three days, the researchers imaged each worm to see if the drugs had any effect.

The MIT team found that a compound called staurosporine, which inhibits certain enzymes known as PKC kinases, had the strongest inhibitory effect. In a follow-up study, they tested some compounds that activate these kinases, and found that one of them stimulated regeneration of neurons significantly. Some of Yanik's students are now testing those compounds on neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells.

This microchip technology can also be used to screen compounds for their effects on other diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and ALS, says Yanik.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. C. Samara, C. B. Rohde, C. L. Gilleland, S. Norton, S. J. Haggarty, M. F. Yanik. Large-scale in vivo femtosecond laser neurosurgery screen reveals small-molecule enhancer of regeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2010; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1005372107

Cite This Page:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Microchip technology rapidly identifies compounds for regrowing nerves in live animals." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 October 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101011173253.htm>.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2010, October 13). Microchip technology rapidly identifies compounds for regrowing nerves in live animals. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101011173253.htm
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Microchip technology rapidly identifies compounds for regrowing nerves in live animals." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101011173253.htm (accessed April 25, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, April 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Deadly Fungus Killing Bats, Spreading in US

Deadly Fungus Killing Bats, Spreading in US

AP (Apr. 24, 2014) A disease that has killed more than six million cave-dwelling bats in the United States is on the move and wildlife biologists are worried. White Nose Syndrome, discovered in New York in 2006, has now spread to 25 states. (April 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Companies Ramp Up Wellness to Lower Health Costs

Companies Ramp Up Wellness to Lower Health Costs

AP (Apr. 24, 2014) That little voice telling you to exercise, get in shape and get healthy is probably coming from your boss. More companies are beefing up wellness programs to try and cut down their health care costs. (April 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Blood From World's Oldest Woman Suggests Life Limit

Blood From World's Oldest Woman Suggests Life Limit

Newsy (Apr. 24, 2014) Scientists say for the extremely elderly, their stem cells might reach a state of exhaustion. This could limit one's life span. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
FDA Wants To Ban Sales Of E-Cigarettes To Minors

FDA Wants To Ban Sales Of E-Cigarettes To Minors

Newsy (Apr. 24, 2014) The Food and Drug Administration wants to crack down on the use of e-cigarettes, banning the sale of the product to minors. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins